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Adding variety to imaginative writing

Recording of the lesson used in week 24 of the GCSE English language course teaching learners why and how they need to add

English Language (9-1) Creative Writing Examples! - The Student Room

Tips on creative writing gcse

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Art Essay: a Complete Guide to Creating a Masterpiece of Your Essay. Here you'll find the information on what an art essay is, its types and on how to on creative gcse write it effectively. If you need an art analysis essay to the war be well-structured and accurately written contact us, please. An art essay is a type of essay focusing on tips gcse the analysis of a given piece of art. Art is generally referred to such genres as painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, and the war began essay survival other types of human activity. Tips Gcse? The art essay, therefore, can be written on any of the above-described subcategories. Culminating Project Research? In this article, we will review some basic principles of tips on creative gcse, analyzing the most common kinds of art. Before reading further, you may look through our art essay topics list containing 70 most popular topics about arts: An art analysis essay can be of two major types: comparative and formal. Comparative art essays are aimed at comparing two or more pieces of art with the writing good essays college aim of identifying the similarities and differences between them. On Creative Writing? In turn, formal art essays, serve the project research purpose of analyzing an tips on creative writing art form, identifying its most salient features.

Comparative analysis of an art form is based on the formal analysis. When you are doing a comparative analysis of a piece or pieces of art, you should first analyze it according to began essay survival the canons of the formal approach, and tips on creative writing gcse then they are compared and contrasted against each other. There are two possible strategies to pursue in culminating project research, this case. The first strategy is called lumping, where you can analyze all details of exhibit A and then of exhibit B. Tips Writing Gcse? The second strategy is write a professional business plan often referred to as splitting when all details of exhibit A and exhibit B are analyzed in parallel. The formal analysis of an art piece simply means that the form is the main object of scrutiny. Such aspects as color, line, space, and mass are analyzed in writing, the first place. In most cases, there is how to write plan certain symbolism behind each fragment of the piece of tips on creative gcse, art, so they need to began essay be analyzed carefully too. When analyzing a piece of art from a formal standpoint, be sure to address such questions as: The name of the artist.

The period when this piece of art was created. The historic context behind the analyzed piece of art. On Creative Gcse? Background of the artist. What is the physical condition of the work? Is it typical for the period? What movement does it belong to? Depending on the piece of art you are looking at, you may utilize different approaches in good college, writing your art essay. For example, if you are going to write about a piece of architecture, then you should mention aspects like materials, size, shape, function. If you are looking at writing a painting, you are mostly interested in colors, forms, line, the essays on ragtime doctorow depicted object, symbolism, hues, and light. If you still have questions about writing an art essay or need one to be written, feel free to contact us or place an order. The Art of Effective Problem Solving.

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An Essay on Understanding the Mind. Several conjectures by A. S. Iberall on life and mind are used as a backdrop to sketch a theory of mental activity that respects both the contents of thought and the dynamics of thinking. The dynamics, in this case, refers fundamentally to animated, meaningfully coupled self-organizing processes (coordination dynamics) and exhibit multistability, switching, and, because of symmetry breaking, metastability. The interplay of 2 simultaneously acting forces underlies the metastable mind: the tendency for tips on creative writing the coordinating elements to is satan in paradise lost essays, couple together (integration) and tips writing the tendency for the elements to express their individual autonomy (segregation). Metrics for metastability are introduced that enable these cooperative and writing college competitive tendencies to be quantified. Whereas bistability is the basis for polarized, either/or thinking, the metastable r#x000e9;gime#x02014;which contains neither stable nor unstable states, no states at all, in fact#x02014;gives rise to a far more fluid, complementary mode of operation in which it is possible for apparent contraries to coexist in the mind at the same time. By way of reminiscence, and writing apropos the topic of this contribution, the photograph in Figure 1 was taken at writing essays college, a symposium on Nonlinearities in Brain Function, organized by Eugene Yates and Arnold Mandell, held at the Kroc Ranch in Santa Ynez, California, from March 1 through March 5, 1982.

As remarked upon previously (Kelso, 1995, p. 50), this was an event way ahead of its time, organized by visionaries and supported by enlightened philanthropy. A quarter of a century ago there were no Centers or Institutes for tips on creative writing Complex Systems and the like yet, and no one was talking about #x0201c;brain dynamics,#x0201d; a field of research that very much stirs the is satan a hero air of contemporary neuroscience. The organizers of on creative writing gcse, this remarkable meeting, Yates and Mandell, sensed the potential and essays by el doctorow the power of transdisciplinary science and were doing something about it. The man we honor in on creative writing these lectures was living testament to that. Arthur Iberall (#x0201c;Ibby#x0201d;) was the centerpiece of the Kroc symposium, holding court every evening, laying out his homeokinetics manifesto in a unique and irrepressible way. Only once can I remember him being told to shut up. Write A Professional Plan! Ibby was both generalist and on creative writing specialist, theorist and experimenter, scientist and engineer, physicist and biologist, swimmer and poet-and much, much more.

Was it Georges Braque who said, #x0201c;Le conformisme commence #x000e0; la definition#x0201d;? Iberall was no conformist so there is no point in trying to classify him. The usual categories fail and words are not the arnold thing. Nevertheless, he was a great man and friend, the likes of which one is not likely to meet, as they say where I grew up, in a month of Sundays. For students with an on creative writing gcse, interest in the history of science and especially #x0201c;the sciences of complexity#x0201d; who also want to get a sense of the man and the range of his intellect in one swift glimpse, consider Iberall's (1994) short article in Physics Today , where he chastises a Nobel laureate for, shall we say, pontificating with blinders on.

For those in the know, the reply is revealing enough. What did Iberall have to say about how to write a professional plan, nature, life, and mind? Quite a lot, as it turns out, initially with Warren McCulloch (see Kelso, 1995, pp. 114#x02013;115). On the occasion of his 80th birthday, he and his colleague of tips gcse, 60 years, Harry Soodak, provided a primer that contains his principles of homeokinetics along with a number of conjectures about their application to matters of essays college, nature, life, mind, brain and humankind (Iberall #x00026; Soodak, 1998). Among those pertinent to tips on creative, the present concerns (words italicized to tomorrow essay, convey effect) are: (1) the notion of a homeokinetic oscillator , a unit of some generality that underlies nature's self-organization of forms and functions, even complex ones; (2) said unit consists of an energy storing nonlinear element and is conceived of as bistable; (3) the energy to snap the element in a direction from one #x02018;stable#x02019; position to another is very small (the quotation marks around #x02018;stable#x02019; are theirs); (4) the human is conceived as a nonlinear marginally stable storage device who can #x02018;self-urge#x02019; (Ibby's words) onboard sources in any number of directions (Ibby loved telling the tips on creative gcse story of a young boy's bar mitzvah; when asked by his father what he was today, he replied, #x0201c;Today I am a fountain pen#x0201d; ). The idea is that people snap into in paradise essays, a direction by . . . #x0201c;always taking a binary decision mind set , e.g., to trade or to rob, to persuade or to rape, to buy or to sell, to be or not to be, to kill or not to kill, to eat or not to eat, to scratch or not to scratch a body itch#x0201d; (p. 29); (5) complexity develops from interacting or synergetic engine processes; (6) by virtue of very weak interactions #x0201c;whose complex character we do not quite understand yet,#x0201d; a kind of mutual entrainment is possible, which may leave a memory after the interaction is over on creative writing, (for a recent example of social memory following entrainment, see Oullier, DeGuzman, Jantzen, Lagarde, #x00026; Kelso, 2008); (7) a direction of common agreement often emerges, a higher order chemistry or command-control system typical of any complex system; (8) the laws and is satan a hero in paradise essays rules for command-control (a term that Ibby liked despite its linguistic similarity to discredited #x02018;commands to muscles#x02019; schemes for motor control; see, e.g., Turvey, Fitch #x00026; Tuller, 1982) lie in a homeokinetic spectrum in the person's body, brain, and mind; this ushered in and grounded the field of biospectroscopy (see Yates, this issue, and for an application Goodman #x00026; Kelso, 1983); (9) the tips writing gcse human mind operates, as does nature, by write a #x0201c;peculiar fumbling mode#x0201d; identified as #x0201c;reverie,#x0201d; suggesting that thought has its own typical space and time scale ; and (10) consonant with 3 and 4, command-control is tips writing catalytic, chemically based linguistic signals causing low energy switching among action modes . It is a tribute to Iberall's powers of divination that empirical traces of doctorow, many of his proposals continue to permeate the literature and tips on creative writing gcse will be touched upon as we proceed. The foregoing list is presented here principally as a backdrop for where this article is headed, which is to began essay survival, sketch a theory of on creative gcse, thoughts and thinking that attempts to: (1) accommodate both the content of thoughts and criticism the dynamics of on creative writing gcse, thinking and (2) narrow the gap between the language and science of molecules and cellular machinery (genetics, neuroscience) and essays arnold the language and science of mind and behavior (cognitive science, neurology, psychiatry). How the on creative writing molecular biological level relates to mind, brain, and behavioral function is far from transparent. As Kandel (2006) has recently concluded, a conceptual shift is needed from studying elementary processes such as single proteins, genes, and culminating research paper cells to studying complex systems of nerve cells, the functioning of whole organisms, and tips the interactions of organisms. #x0201c;Biology,#x0201d; says Kandel (2006), #x0201c;will have to focus more on human beings as the how to write a professional business plan model system of choice#x0201d; (p.

423). He kids not. Ultimately (and there is no point in beating about the bush) we need a language and science of on creative writing, experience, of criticism, everything we human beings take for granted#x02014;as Virginia Wolf would say, #x0201c;an ordinary mind on an ordinary day#x0201d;#x02014;that connects to a language and science of body#x0223c;brain activity. The central thesis of this article can be stated bluntly: Minds, brains, and writing bodies, yours and mine, immersed as they are in their own worlds, both outside and inside, share a common underlying dynamics. They are cut fundamentally, as Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (2004) says, from the same dynamic cloth. Essays Criticism Arnold! The dynamics here refers to tips on creative gcse, equations of motion for how to plan key coordination variables or order parameters that characterize patterns of behavior on multiple levels of description: patterns of on creative gcse, brain activity, patterns of cognition and emotion, patterns of human interaction, patterns of the mind. The dynamics are not of essays on ragtime by el, a system described by states parameterized or forced by on creative writing gcse environmental signals, though they may be conceived as such (cf.

Rosen, 1991). The dynamics refer to both environment and animal in a way that ordinary physics does not (Kelso, 1994a). Culminating! The dynamics deal with coordination, not (or not only) with matter and tips motion: coordination dynamics . Coordination dynamics deals specifically with informationally coupled, self-organizing systems, where information is meaningful and specific to coordination tasks and functions: functional information (for the origins of the notion of information as form, see references and discussion in Kugler, Kelso, #x00026; Turvey, 1980, 1982). Coordination dynamics stresses, in the words of the late James Gibson (1979/1986), himself a genius, that the tomorrow essay survival organism and the environment are complementary . Indeed, as we shall see, coordination dynamics shows how many apparently contradictory aspects such as whole versus part, integration versus segregation, individual versus collective, cooperation versus competition, stability versus instability, and so on, are complementary. In doing so, coordination dynamics opens up a path to reconciling contradictions, dualisms, binary oppositions, and the like in all walks of tips writing gcse, life, illuminating thereby the complementary nature (Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006; see also Kelso, 2005). 1. TOWARD A COMPLEMENTARY SCIENCE OF BODY, BRAIN, MIND, AND BEHAVIOR. It is worth noting that up until the time of Bohr, Heisenberg, and write business Pauli, physics debated over whether light, sound, and atomic scale processes were more basically particle-like or wave-like in character.

Philosophy spoke of thesis and antithesis, of dialectic tension, of on creative gcse, self and not self, of the qualitative and the quantitative, the objective and the subjective, as if they were either/or divisions. This tendency to dichotomize, to divide the world into opposing categories (the binary decision mind-set , see 3 earlier) appears to be a #x02018;built in#x02019; property of human beings, perhaps arising very early in development and independent of how to write plan, cultural background (Spelke, 2006). For Bohr, Pauli, and gcse Heisenberg, three of the chief architects of quantum mechanics, it became abundantly clear that sharp dichotomies and contrarieties must be replaced with far more subtle and sophisticated complementarities, for all of nature, human nature (and human brains) included. Probably Pauli (1994) expressed it best: To us the only acceptable point of view appears to be one that recognizes both sides of essays arnold, reality#x02014;the quantitative and the qualitative, the physical and the psychical#x02014;as compatible with each other.

It would be most satisfactory of all if physics and psyche could be seen as complementary aspects of the on creative same reality. (p. 260) The remarkable developments of quantum mechanics demonstrating the essential complementarity of both light and matter should have ushered in not just a novel epistemology but a generalized complementary science. However, they did not. Thinking in terms of contraries and the either/or seems to come much more easily to the human mind. Write Plan! As in traditional logic, the mind is in one state or another but not both at the same time. Much harder to grasp is the tips on creative gcse notion that contraries are complementary: Contraria sunt complementa , as Bohr's famous coat of arms says. That mind-set might change, however, if complementary aspects and is satan a hero lost essays their dynamics were found not just at tips on creative writing gcse, the remote level of the subatomic processes dealt with by quantum mechanics but also at the level of on ragtime by el, human beings, human brains, and human behavior. In particular, over the last 25 years or so, due to the efforts of people working in and across many fields, a multilevel, interdisciplinary science of coordination has emerged called coordination dynamics . A broad range of coordinative phenomena have been studied and explained using the tips on creative writing gcse concepts, methods, and tools of coordination dynamics (Fuchs #x00026; Jirsa, 2008; Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2004; Kelso, 1995; Tschacher #x00026; Dauwalder, 2003, for essays by el reviews). Because coordination dynamics deals in the currency of meaningful information, it's to coordination dynamics where we might look for insights into understanding mind. COORDINATION DYNAMICS: MULTISTABILITY, PHASE TRANSITIONS, AND METASTABILITY.

New empirical and tips theoretical developments in the science of essays on ragtime doctorow, coordination suggest that the reason the on creative gcse mind fragments the writing world into dichotomies (and more important, how opposing tendencies may be reconciled) is deeply connected to the way the human brain works, in particular its multi- and metastable dynamics (Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Fingelkurts #x00026; Fingelkurts, 2004; Friston, 1997; Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2004; Kelso, 1995; Oullier #x00026; Kelso, 2006; Tschacher #x00026; Dauwalder, 2003; Velazquez, 2005, for reviews). Etymologically, #x0201c;metastability#x0201d; comes from the Latin meta (beyond) and stabilis (able to stand). In coordination dynamics, metastability corresponds to a regime near a saddle-node or tangent bifurcation in which stable coordination states no longer exist (e.g., inphase synchronization where the relative phase between oscillating components lingers at zero), but attraction remains to where those fixed points used to be (#x0201c;remnants of attractor repellors#x0201d;; see Figure 2 ). This gives rise to a dynamical flow consisting of both phase trapping and phase scattering. On Creative Writing Gcse! Metastability is thus the simultaneous realization of two competing tendencies: the tendency of the components to couple together and the tendency for the components to express their intrinsic independent behavior. Tomorrow When Began Essay! According to tips writing, a recent review (Fingelkurts #x00026; Fingelkurts, 2004), Metastability is an entirely new conception of brain functioning where the is satan a hero essays individual parts of the brain exhibit tendencies to on creative gcse, function autonomously at the same time as they exhibit tendencies for coordinated activity. (Kelso, 1991, 1992, 1995; Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; see also Bressler, 2003) A number of neuroscientists have embraced metastability as playing a role in various cognitive functions, including consciousness (e.g., Edelman, 2004; Edelman #x00026; Tononi, 2000; Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Friston, 1997; Koch, 2005; Sporns, 2004; Varela, Lachaux, Rodriguez, #x00026; Martinerie, 2001; see Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007, for review). Metastability's significance lies not in by el doctorow the word itself but in tips on creative writing what it means for understanding informationally coupled, self-organizing dynamical systems like the brain and its complementary relation to mind. In coordination dynamics, metastability is is satan not a concept or an idea but a result of the broken symmetry of a system of (nonlinearly) coupled (nonlinear) oscillators.

The latter design is tips on creative writing gcse motivated by empirical evidence that the structural units of the brain that support sensory, motor, and on ragtime by el doctorow cognitive processes express themselves as oscillations with well-defined spectral properties. Tips On Creative Writing Gcse! At least 12 different rhythms from the infraslow (less than 1 Hz) to the ultrafast (more than 100 Hz) have been identified, all connected to is satan essays, various behavioral and cognitive functions (e.g., Chen, Ding, #x00026; Kelso, 2003a). Indeed, brain oscillations are considered one of the most important phenotypes for studying the tips gcse genetics of complex (non-Mendelian) disorders (Begleiter #x00026; Porjesz, 2006). The mechanisms that give rise to rhythms and synchrony exist on different levels of organization: single neurons oscillate due to research paper, voltage-gated ion channels depolarizing and hyperpolarizing the tips on creative gcse membrane; network oscillations, for example, in hippocampus and essays criticism arnold neocortex, strongly depend on on creative writing gcse the activity of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons in the central nervous system (so-called inhibition-based rhythms; see, e.g., Whittington, Traub, Kopell, Ermentrout, #x00026; Buhl, 2000); neuronal groups or assemblies form as transient coalitions of discharging neurons with mutual interaction. Neuronal communication occurs by means of synapses and glia. Synaptic connections between areas may be weak but research shows that synchrony among different inputs strengthens them, thereby enhancing communication between neurons (for one of many recent examples, see Womelsdorf et al., 2007). Writing Good! Phase coupling, for example, allows groups of neurons in distant and disparate regions of the gcse brain to is satan, synchronize together (e.g., Canolty et al., 2006).

According to coordination dynamics, nonlinear coupling among oscillatory processes that possess different intrinsic frequencies is tips writing necessary to generate the is satan in paradise lost broad range of behaviors observed, including pattern formation, multistability, phase transitions, switching (sans #x0201c;switches#x0201d;), hysteresis, and tips on creative so forth. Although the mechanisms of coupling multiple oscillations within and when essay between levels of organization are manifold, the principle is clear enough: patterns of behavior arise as an emergent consequence of self-organized interactions among neurons and neuronal populations and this self-organization is a fundamental source of cognitive, affective, behavioral and social function (Ba#x0015f;ar, 2004; Buzs#x000e1;ki, 2006; Kelso, 1995; Oullier et al., 2008; Schmidt #x00026; Richardson, 2008; Van Orden, Holden, #x00026; Turvey, 2005). Metastability was originally discovered when experimental observations of sensorimotor coordination (Kelso, DelColle, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1990) made it necessary to extend the elementary HKB coordination law (Haken, Kelso, #x00026; Bunz, 1985; Sch#x000f6;ner, Haken, #x00026; Kelso, 1986) to handle the interaction of oscillatory components with different intrinsic properties 2 (Kelso et al., 1990; Kelso, 1995, chap. 4). Tips Writing! This breaks the symmetry of the original HKB equation, which describes changes of the order parameter relative phase over time ( #x003d5; . ): where #x003d5; is the relative phase between two interacting components, a and criticism arnold b are parameters p setting the strength of attracting regions in on creative gcse the system's dynamical landscape, Q #x003be; t is a (delta-correlated) noise term of strength Q , and #x003b4;#x003c9; is a symmetry breaking term expressing the fact that each coordinating element possesses its own intrinsic behavior (Kelso et al., 1990; see Park #x00026; Turvey, 2008, for further discussion). The introduction of the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; in Eq. 1 changes the entire coordination dynamics (layout of the fixed points, bifurcation structure) of the original HKB system. This is important to realize because it is the subtle interplay between the essays criticism arnold coupling ( k = b/a ) and the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; in Equation 1 that gives rise to metastability 3 (see Kelso, 2002, for further discussion). where X 1 and gcse X 2 are the individual components, the dots are their time derivatives and #x003b1; and tomorrow when began essay survival #x003b2; are coupling parameters (Haken, Kelso #x00026; Bunz, 1985). A nontrivial aspect of HKB is that it derives patterns of coordination from the individual components and their nonlinear interaction (see Kelso, 2007b for steps and rationale). Equation 1 is weird.

Even though it is an order parameter equation of motion that is designed to describe collective behavior (in words, phi dot is a function of phi), it includes also a parameter that arises as a result of differences among the individual components . Tips On Creative Gcse! Eq. Tomorrow Essay! 1 is thus a strange mixture of the whole and the parts, the global and the local, the cooperative and the competitive, the collective and the individual. Were the components identical, #x003b4;#x003c9; would be zero and gcse we would not see component differences affecting the behavior of the whole. Eq. 1 would simply reflect the in paradise behavior of the collective untarnished by component properties, a purely emergent interaction#x02014;the HKB equation. It is the fact that both the components and their (nonlinear) interaction appear at the same level of description that gives rise to the array of coexisting tendencies characteristic of metastability.

Eq. 1 is on creative gcse a basic representation of a synergy : a low dimensional dynamic of a metastable organization in which the project research tendency of the parts to act together coexists with a tendency of the parts to do their own thing (Kelso, 1995, chap. 4; for more on synergies, see Kelso, 2007a, 2000b, in tips writing gcse press). It is metastability that endows the synergy with robustness and flexibility, enabling the same parts to participate in how to multiple functions. If the tips on creative synergy is lost a unit of life, then it is metastability that brings it alive. The flow of the coordination dynamics across a range of #x003b4;#x003c9; values is shown in Figure 2 for a fixed value of the coupling parameter, k = b/a = 1, where a = 1 and gcse b = 1). Stable fixed points (attractors) are presented as filled circles and unstable fixed points (repellors) as open circles. Note these fixed points refer to the coordination variable or order parameter and are not known in essays criticism arnold advance but have to be experimentally identified (see Kelso, 2000, for gcse a full discussion).

Here, fortuitously for a hero in paradise lost essays the brain, fixed points of the coordination variable #x003c6; represent the on creative gcse phase and frequency relationship between oscillatory processes. The surface shown in Figure 2 defines three regions under the influence of the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; . In the first region, present in the lower part of the surface, the system is how to a professional business plan multistable: two stable attracting fixed points (filled circles) represent possible alternative states. Which one the system settles in depends on initial conditions and the size of the basin of attraction. In an tips writing, intermediate region, following the line labeled 2 from left to right, the a hero in paradise essays weakest attractor near antiphase (right side) disappears after it collides with its associated repellor somewhere near #x003b4;#x003c9; = 1.3, but the strongest attractor (left side) is still present as well as its repellor partner. Finally, in the third region, in tips on creative writing the upper part of the surface, the dynamics become metastable. Following the line labeled 3 from left to right, no fixed points exist anymore: this part of the essays arnold surface no longer intersects the gcse isoplane #x003d5; . = 0 where the when the war began survival fixed points are located. Strictly speaking, coordination states qua frequency- and phase-synchrony no longer exist in the metastable regime of the coordination dynamics. What does individual and coordination behavior look like in the metastable regime and how might their relationship be quantified? A unique flow now exists in which the dynamics may be characterized by places where the tips on creative writing trajectory of the coordination variable relative phase converges and pauses around the a hero in paradise lost horizontal and places where the trajectory drifts or diverges from the horizontal. Let us define the former as a dwell time and the latter as an escape time . In Figure 3c we show two locations for the dwell times: one that lingers a long time before escaping (e.g., Figure 3c , annotation 1), slightly above the more stable inphase pattern near 0 rad (modulo 2 #x003c0; ), and tips on creative writing gcse the other that lingers only briefly (e.g., Figure 3c , annotation 2), slightly above #x003c0; (modulo 2 #x003c0; ). These inflections recur over and over again as long as the system self-organizes in the metastable regime, that is, as long as it does not undergo a phase transition to a locked or unlocked state.

Despite the complete absence of phase-locked attractors, the coordinating elements in the metastable regime do not behave totally independently. Rather, their interdependence takes the form of dwellings (phase gathering) near the remnants of the culminating project paper fixed points (cf. Figure 2 ) and may be nicely expressed by concentrations in the histogram of the relative phase (see Kelso, 1995, chap. Tips On Creative Gcse! 4). METRICS FOR METASTABILITY: A START.

In the following some potential measures of metastable coordination dynamics are introduced. Notice that all the usual measures used previously in by el coordination dynamics to measure and tips writing quantify stability and loss of stability such as local and global relaxation times, switching times, fluctuations, and is satan a hero in paradise so on, no longer apply in tips gcse the metastable regime (see Kelso, Sch#x000f6;ner, Scholz, #x00026; Haken, 1987; Sch#x000f6;ner #x00026; Kelso, 1988, for reviews of theory and experiments establishing the utility of project research, these quantities). Writing! The reason of course is that in criticism arnold the metastable regime, all fixed point states have vanished leaving only traces of tips writing gcse, coordination, #x0201c;ghosts#x0201d; or #x0201c;remnants#x0201d; of where the fixed points once were. Once the fixed points go, so also all the methods and techniques of linear stability analysis. Is Satan A Hero Lost Essays! 4 This means we have to be creative about finding new ways to capture metastable coordination. A dwell time may be defined by how long a collective or coordinative tendency persists in a system or data set; an tips writing gcse, escape time is how long the coordinating elements express their individual autonomy in a system or data set. 5 Consider first the pure cases. For reasons of generality that may become apparent later, let's refer to them as complementary aspects ca1 and ca2. An example of a pure case is how to plan illustrated in Figure 3d : there is no coupling and the oscillators are completely independent (ca1). Examples of another pure case are illustrated in Figures 3a and writing gcse 3b . Whether in the mono- or bistable regimes, the oscillators are locked together, coupled in phase- and frequency-locked states (ca2), which constitute asymptotically stable states of the coordination dynamics.

The metastable regime is in-between the two pure cases and is a blend of essays by el doctorow, two tendencies: one for the elements to writing gcse, bind together and the other for the elements to behave independently. Tomorrow Essay Survival! Such coexisting tendencies may be denoted as a complementary pair, ca1#x0223c;ca2. Notice that the transition from a metastable regime to a mono- or multistable regime constitutes the creation of functional information (Kelso, 1994a, 2002; Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006). That is, the system moves from a place where there are no states to a place where the on creative writing coordinated state is well defined and vice versa. Tomorrow When Essay! Notice also that in the metastable regime near the saddle-node bifurcation, information in the classical Shannonian sense (and presumably #x0201c;information processing#x0201d;) is at a maximum. The two pure cases, fully coupled and totally uncoupled, represent a minimum of information. They are what they are forever. For Iberall, the writing creation and essays criticism stability of new forms requires two or more force systems. The physical intuition is of a generalized Reynolds number. If the energy sweeping into a field of atomisms can be absorbed, nothing much happens.

If it cannot, the field becomes unstable and some new inhomogeneous patterning emerges. The generalized Reynolds number is tips dimensionless and essays expresses a competition between a global, convective process and a local diffusive transport or propagative process. The resulting form or pattern is a collective, cooperative effect. Note again how the complementary pairs competition#x0223c;cooperation and local#x0223c;global come into tips on creative writing gcse, play. Formally, the generalized Reynolds number (Re) can be written as follows: with unity (Re critical = 1) reflecting the critical value at which the transition to new forms occurs. With apologies for belaboring the fact, criticality conditions have to be worked out in each case (for an interesting example, see Warren, 1984). Along the same lines of reasoning, a k number may be defined as follows: The dimensionless k number appears to project research paper, provide a measure of the quality of on creative gcse, metastability . The mathematical expression is trivial: In words, as the escape time (e) approaches zero, the dwell time (d) relative to (e) gets larger and larger. This means that there is a stronger and stronger tendency for the individual elements to bind together than to tomorrow began essay, stay apart. Likewise,

In words, as the escape time (e) gets larger and larger, the dwell time (d) relative to (e) gets smaller and smaller. Writing Gcse! This means that the individual elements tend to express their autonomy more and more, approaching total independence. In analogy to is satan a hero lost, the generalized Reynolds number, a critical k number expresses when the tendency to tips on creative writing gcse, coordinate overcomes the culminating project paper tendency to on creative writing, stay apart, and a hero lost essays vice-versa. The k number might be expected to scale with the tips on creative writing gcse distance from the asymptotically stable locked state. But how? This will again depend on the details of the system. Essays Criticism! Were this process analogous to so-called Type-1 intermittency, the distribution of dwell times should scale as the distance #x02212;1/2 from the critical surface where the parameterized function (Eq. 1) lifts off the origin. Experimentally, this would require pinpointing the bifurcation point and tips manipulating control parameters very precisely. 6 More generally, comparing k numbers, the ratio of dwell and escape times, across a range of levels of observation of the same and how to write different systems may even reveal scale-free properties (for examples, see Billock, DeGuzman, #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Chen, Ding, #x00026; Kelso, 1997, 2003b; Eguiluz, Chialvo, Cecchi, Baliki, #x00026; Apkarian, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2005).

METASTABLE COORDINATION DYNAMICS OF THE BRAIN. This brief introduction to measures of tips writing gcse, metastability once again highlights the a hero complementary nature. Only together, as a complementary pair, do apparently contrasting phenomena, such as individual #x0223c; collective, integration #x0223c; segregation, local #x0223c; global, cooperation#x0223c;competition, attraction#x0223c;repulsion, convergence#x0223c;divergence, dwell#x0223c;escape, and so on, exhaust the knowledge necessary for tips writing gcse understanding. We are reminded once again of Von Holst's (1939/1973) classic analysis of coordination: Both the #x0201c;magnet effect#x0201d; and the #x0201c;maintenance tendency#x0201d; are needed for a complete description of coordination in all its forms (see also Turvey #x00026; Schmidt, 1994). The metastable regime of the coordination law (Eq. 1) shows how this is so: both tendencies arise as the result of the dynamic interplay between nonlinear coupling and how to write business individual intrinsic dynamics. How might the brain make use of metastability? For a fuller discussion of this question, including #x0201c;The Freeman-Kelso Dialogue,#x0201d; the reader is referred to Kelso #x00026; Tognoli (2007).

As the Fingelkurtses (2004) remark, metastability is an entirely new conception of brain organization, not merely a blend of the old. Individualist tendencies for the diverse regions of the brain to express their independence coexist with coordinative tendencies to tips writing, couple and cooperate as a whole. As we have seen, in the metastable brain local segregative and global integrative processes coexist as a complementary pair, not as conflicting theories. Metastability, by lost essays reducing the strong hierarchical coupling between the parts of a complex system while allowing them to retain their individuality, leads to a looser, more secure, more flexible form of functioning that promotes the creation of information. Too much autonomy of the component parts means no chance of their coordinating and communicating together. On the tips writing gcse other hand, too much interdependence and the system gets stuck; global flexibility is lost. In comparison with theories of large-scale neural organization through linear phase-coupling (e.g., Eckhorn et al., 1988; Gray, K#x000f6;nig, Engel, #x00026; Singer, 1989; Varela et al., 2001) the ability of when the war essay survival, metastable dynamics to coordinate or compute without attractors opens a large set of possibilities. 7 The classical view of phase-locked coordination prescribes that each recruited element loses its intrinsic behavior and obeys the dictates of the assembly. When such situations arise, from the on creative functional point of view, individual areas cease to is satan a hero, exert an influence for the duration of the synchronized state, and the pertinent spatial level of description becomes the tips writing synchronous assembly itself. However, it appears that phylogenesis also promoted specialized activity of how to write a professional plan, local populations of neurons (e.g., Chklovskii, Schikorski, #x00026; Stevens, 2002; Ebbesson, 1984). In theories of tips on creative, large-scale integration through phase synchronization, the on ragtime expression of local activity can exist only when the area is not enslaved into an assembly, whereas in the metastable regime, the tendency for individual activity is continually preserved (see also Friston, 1997).

As exemplified explicitly in the elementary coordination law (Eq. Tips Gcse! 1), a delicate balance between integration (coordination between individual areas) and segregation (expression of culminating project research paper, individual behavior) is achieved in the metastable regime. Studies of writing, interareal connectivity both at the anatomical and functional level (Friston, 1997; Tononi, Sporns, #x00026; Edelman, 1998) support the notion that the region between complete integration and complete segregation is the most favorable for doctorow cognition: measures of complexity reach a maximum when there is a balance between segregative and integrative forces. Note, however, that such measures are based upon writing gcse stationarity assumptions whereas metastability in coordination dynamics is a #x0201c;stationary transient.#x0201d; Although the holding and releasing of the relative phase over time appears to be of a transient nature, it is actually quite stationary. What are the implications of on ragtime by el doctorow, metastable coordination dynamics for understanding the mind? Like nature and nurture, the contents of the mind and the dynamics of the mind are inextricably connected. Tips Gcse! Thoughts are not static: like the flow of a river, they emerge and disappear as patterns in a constantly shifting dynamic system (Kelso, 1995). When Survival! Pretty though this metaphor is, science demands we go beyond it to seek description and tips on creative explanation.

As in other, more mature fields it is crucial to have a theory or at least a conceptual framework of what one is trying to understand. The aim of the present approach is not a detailed model of neurons or neuronal connectivity that will underlie all forms of culminating paper, thought and thinking. Nor is this the forum to tips on creative writing gcse, present a comprehensive account of the supporting neurophysiological and behavioral evidence. Rather, in the spirit of the tomorrow when the war survival person we honor here, the purpose is to stimulate insight into how mind, brain, and behavior might be connected in tips on creative gcse a unified way. Figure 4 is intended to convey the doctorow gist of the story. On the gcse left side of the middle panel, two areas of the project brain (for the tips on creative sake of simplicity) are shown to be active. This acknowledges a simple fact#x02014;or at least a dominant assumption in contemporary neuroscience: The contents of thoughts depend on essays criticism arnold the neural structures activated. Reciprocally, the neural structures activated influence#x02014;directly or indirectly#x02014;the contents of thoughts. If one is writing gcse imagining producing a pattern of essays on ragtime doctorow, sensorimotor coordination, such as syncopating to on creative gcse, a rhythmic stimulus, fMRI studies show that the how to same neural structures are active as would normally be engaged in on creative writing gcse the act of syncopation itself (Oullier, Jantzen, Steinberg, #x00026; Kelso, 2005).

If one is expecting a reward as a result of an economic transaction, the so-called reward centers in when the war began essay the subcortical nuclei of the limbic system (e.g., nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area) and associated pathways are activated (e.g., Knutson, Adams, Fong, #x00026; Hommer, 2001). If one perceives a new face or recognizes an old one, structures in the fusiform gyrus and the inferotemporal visual cortex appear to be activated, and so forth (e.g., Haxby et al., 1996). Thoughts crop up from within, contemporaneous with the activation of neural structures associated with memory and emotion such as the tips writing gcse hippocampus and amygdala, and is satan they can be triggered from without by a familiar sound, touch, sight, or smell. Occasionally insightful thoughts arise too. Though much remains to be learned about what exactly constitutes the contents of thought#x02014;which are inherently context-dependent#x02014;thoughts appear to have neural correlates. 8 However, identifying thought-specific structures and circuitry using brain mapping, important though it may be, is hardly sufficient to tell us how thinking works. Unlike real estate, thoughts, consciousness, and mind are not only about location. Writing Gcse! The overuse and on ragtime by el abuse of the terminology of #x0201c;states#x0201d;#x02014;mental states, psychological states, physiological states, emotional states, and so on#x02014;muffles any sense of dynamics. Active, dynamic processes like #x0201c;perceiving,#x0201d; #x0201c;attending,#x0201d; #x0201c;remembering,#x0201d; and #x0201c;deciding#x0201d; that are associated with the tips on creative word thinking are not restricted to particular brain locations but rather emerge as patterns of interaction among widely distributed neural ensembles and in general between human beings and their worlds. One of the great riddles of contemporary neuroscience is how the multiple, diverse, and specialized areas of the brain are coordinated to give rise to how to business, thinking and coherent goal-directed behavior. A key primitive of the present theory is that neuronal assemblies in different parts of the brain oscillate at different frequencies.

Such oscillatory activity is a prime example of self-organization in the brain. But oscillation, though necessary, is not sufficient. It is the tips on creative fact that oscillations are coupled or bound together into how to a professional business, a coherent network when people attend to a stimulus, perceive, remember, decide, and act (e.g., Ba#x0015f;ar, 2004; Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Buzs#x000e1;ki, 2006; Kelso, 1995; Singer, 2005; Varela et al., 2001, for tips writing gcse reviews). This is a dynamic, self-assembling process, parts of the brain engaging and disengaging in time, as in a proverbial country square dance in a hero essays rural Connecticut. In the simplest case shown in the left column of Figure 4 , oscillations in different brain regions can lock #x0201c;inphase,#x0201d; brain activities rising and falling together, or #x0201c;antiphase,#x0201d; one oscillatory brain activity reaching its peak as another hits its trough and vice versa. Inphase and antiphase are just two out of many possible multistable, phase synchronized states that can exist between multiple, different, specialized brain areas depending on their respective intrinsic properties and functional connectivity.

More broadly, as Iberall intuited, the organism and its environment are embedded in a nested frame of rhythms ranging from writing gcse, rest activity and sleep cycles to circadian and seasonal rhythms that both modify and are modified by behavior, development, and criticism arnold aging. Coming back to the brain, different aspects of a moving scene, separate remembered parts of a significant experience, even different ideas that arise in a conversation may be bound together into coherent forms by synaptic coupling of (oscillatory) neural populations. The key proposal, conveyed in the top panel of Figure 4 , is that thoughts (figuratively shown as balloons) are #x0201c;coded#x0201d; as relative phases between oscillating brain areas. Relative phase is a natural quantity for coordinating different things and is a long established order parameter in coordination dynamics. 9 Phase is also the tips means by when the war began which excitatory and inhibitory neurons communicate with each other in so-called central pattern generators (e.g., Grillner, 1985).

If nature operates with ancient themes, as Ibby often reminded us, it is reasonable to propose that the writing gcse same pattern generating principles typical of spinal circuitry are exploited at writing good, the level of cortical circuitry also (Kelso, 1995, chap. 8; Ikegaya et al., 2004). Tips On Creative Writing Gcse! In coordination dynamics, phase relationships carry meaningful information with multiple attractors (the fixed points shown in left top part of Figure 4 ) setting alternatives for complementary aspects to enter the mind. The top left part of project, Figure 4 conveys the essential bistable nature of physical and social reality. Two states are possible for identical parameter values: which state one enters depends on initial and boundary conditions. Baldly put, bistability is the basis of polarization and the either/or.

Note that this does not necessarily imply any judgment of good or bad. Polarization, for on creative writing example, may be seen as the driving tension behind scientific progress in the sense of Thomas Kuhn (1962), and bistability may be exploited for project research solving ill-defined problems where the consideration of multiple interpretations of data is an advantage. Bistable, and in general multistable coordination dynamics confers many advantages on living things, in writing gcse particular multifunctionality (see, e.g., Kelso, 1991). Why is it that some thoughts seem to persist longer than others? Coordination dynamics suggests that the persistence of how to write business, a thought depends on the stability of the brain's relative phase dynamics.

Some thoughts persist longer than others because the phase relations underlying them are more stable. Tips! In Figure 4 (top left), the essays criticism arnold negative slope through the tips ordinate near inphase (#x0201c;thought 1#x0201d;) is greater, hence more stable, than its antiphase counterpart (#x0201c;thought 2#x0201d;). This proposition is supported by experiments and specific neurally based modeling, which shows that different patterns of good essays college, spatiotemporal brain activity are differentially stable (Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Jirsa, Fuchs, #x00026; Kelso, 1998; Kelso et al., 1992; Meyer-Lindenberg, Ziemann, Hajak, Cohen, #x00026; Berman, 2002). For example, applying transient perturbations to Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) and lateral premotor cortex using Transcranial Magnetic stimulation induces transitions from antiphase to inphase coordination but not vice versa (Meyer-Lindenberg, et al., 2002). Even more tellingly, recent fMRI work shows that increases in BOLD amplitude in a network of brain areas that includes pre-SMA, premotor cortex, cerebellum, and insula increases linearly as pattern stability decreases (Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Jantzen, Steinberg, #x00026; Kelso, under review). 10 Such evidence suggests that disruption of a distributed network of brain areas#x02014;in contrast to a discrete switch in a particular locus#x02014;results in the destabilization and eventual dismantling of tips gcse, a less stable coordination pattern in favor of tomorrow when the war began survival, a more stable one. So what makes thoughts switch? When it comes to tips on creative, the nervous system, it is always tempting to ask, as does Abbott (2006), #x0201c;Where are the switches in this thing?#x0201d; (see also Martin, 2006).

But merely because there is switching does not necessarily mean there are switches (Kelso, 1984). The middle column of Figure 4 offers a different mechanism: dynamic instability. Multistability and spontaneous switching in is satan a hero lost perception as in the alternating vase or faces in ambiguous Rubin figures, Necker cubes, the continuous wagon wheel illusion, and so forth, continue to be a subject of much fascination in cognitive psychology and neuroscience (e.g., Billock #x00026; Tsou, 2007; Van Rullen et al., 2004; for review, see Kelso, 1995, chap. On Creative! 7 and articles in Kruse #x00026; Stadler, 1995). The picture shown in Figure 4 (middle column) is based on considerable experimental evidence demonstrating that switching in both brain and behavior is a self-organized process that takes the form of a nonequilibrium phase transition (e.g., Daffertshofer, Peper, #x00026; Beek, 2000; Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Fuchs, Deecke, #x00026; Kelso, 2000; Fuchs, Kelso, #x00026; Haken, 1992; Fuchs, Mayville, et al., 2000; Kelso, 1984; Kelso et al., 1990; Kelso, Scholz, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1986; Kelso et al., 1992; Mayville, Bressler, Fuchs, #x00026; Kelso, 1999; Wallenstein, Kelso, #x00026; Bressler, 1995). Project Research! Fluctuations play a key role, testing the stability of states and enabling the system to discover new states.

In coordination dynamics, once the system settles into an attractor, a certain amount of noise or a perturbation is required to switch it to another attractor. Or, if internal or external conditions change when the system is near instability, a bifurcation or phase transition may occur, causing the system to switch from being multistable to monostable or vice versa (see Ditzinger #x00026; Haken, 1989, 1990, for excellent examples of such modeling). Thinking in this view involves the active destabilization of one stable thought pattern into another. A different view emerges from the tips on creative flow of the relative phase dynamics in the metastable regime ( Figure 4 , right). Instead of culminating project research, thoughts corresponding to rigid, phase synchronized states that must be destabilized if switching is to occur, metastability consists of a more subtle dwell and escape dynamic in which a thought is never quite stable and merely expresses a joint tendency for on creative neural areas to synchronize together and to oscillate independently. Fluid thinking, in this view, is when the brain's oscillations are neither completely synchronized nor desynchronized (see also Fig. 3c ). In the metastable regime, successive visits to a professional, the remnants of the fixed points are intrinsic to the time course of the system and do not require any external source of input. Switching occurs, of course, but continuously and without the need for additive noise or changes in parameters. From the perspective of coordination dynamics, the time the system dwells in each remnant depends on a subtle blend of the tips on creative gcse asymmetry of the rhythmic elements (longer dwelling for smaller asymmetry) and tomorrow the war began essay survival the strength of the coupling (longer dwelling for larger values of a and b in tips writing gcse Eq. 1). The metastable regime offers scientific grounds for Iberall's intuition of #x0201c;reverie#x0201d;: thoughts come and go fluidly as the criticism arnold oscillatory units of the brain express both an interactive integrative dynamic and an individualistic segregative dynamic.

Metastable coordination dynamics also rationalizes William James's (1890) beautiful metaphor of the gcse stream of consciousness as the flight of a bird whose life journey consists of #x0201c;perchings#x0201d; (viewed here as phase gathering, integrative tendencies) and #x0201c;flights#x0201d; (phase scattering, segregative tendencies). Both tendencies appear to write business, be crucial: the former to summon and create thoughts, the latter to release individual brain areas to participate in on creative gcse other acts of cognition, emotion, and action. In some traditions, it is not the contents of essays by el doctorow, thoughts that matter but their #x0201c;stickiness.#x0201d; In the metastable regime of the tips writing coordination dynamics, the #x0201c;stickiness#x0201d; of thoughts depends on how close the neural system is to the fixed points of the writing good essays college relative phase dynamics. Sticky thoughts have long dwell times and a high probability density of near perfect phase synchrony between the writing brain's oscillations. Essays! Passing thoughts, as the name suggests, have short dwell times and writing gcse low probability density. Essays On Ragtime Doctorow! Stickiness means that the tips on creative writing gcse coupling interaction between neural populations is stronger than the write business tendency of these populations to express their individual autonomy and/or to disengage from one neural coalition to writing, participate in project paper others. Very sticky thoughts correspond to phase trapping between the tips writing gcse brain's oscillations and may be pathological. When Began Survival! Well-known manifestations of too much synchronization in the brain are diseases like Parkinson's disease and on creative writing epilepsy. On the other hand, it appears that certain diseases such as schizophrenia appear to be characterized by culminating project a reduction in tips gcse oscillatory brain activity and a relative absence of long range phase synchrony (Uhlhaas #x00026; Singer, 2006). Like order and chaos, it seems the boundary between health and disease is a fine one.

A few further remarks may be in order. One, hinted at is satan in paradise, earlier, is that environmental, intentional, attentional, emotional, learning, and memory processes are all capable of both stabilizing and destabilizing the coordination dynamics. A recently proposed dynamical mechanism is parametric (de)stabilization by functional information (e.g., Fink et al., 2000; Jirsa et al., 2000; Kelso et al., 2001; see also Kay #x00026; Warren, 2001). Writing Gcse! The neural mechanisms of parametric stabilization by is satan lost intention are beginning to writing, be uncovered (Jantzen, Bertollo, deLuca, Comani, #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Kelso, Scholz, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1988; Scholz #x00026; Kelso, 1990). A full accounting of this work, though highly relevant, would take us too far afield. We remark that to the extent these influences may be said to control the good essays mind, this is the mind controlling itself. Second, certain views on meditation view the mind (pardon the pun)#x02014;with its beliefs, biases, and prejudices based on past experience and memory#x02014;as an obstacle to being truly aware, to seeing what is . Awareness is where the on creative gcse mind stops wandering and thinking is the pause between two thoughts, where the brain is not trapped in a coherent state. Essays Criticism Arnold! Here we may say that for thought not to interfere, there should be no #x0201c;binding#x0201d; among brain areas; all the parts of the brain should be in a default state poised, as it were, to respond to any input. Metastabilty resolves, nay embraces, any paradox between #x0201c;content full#x0201d; thought and #x0201c;content less#x0201d; awareness: the flow of the dynamics allows both. Third, notice in Figure 4 and throughout this discussion that the linkage between events at different levels, from neural to psychological and experiential, is by virtue of shared pattern or coordination dynamics, not because any single level is any more or less fundamental than any other. On Creative Writing Gcse! Thus, psychological terms like #x0201c;stickiness#x0201d; or #x0201c;unhooking#x0201d; or #x0201c;trapping#x0201d; or even #x0201c;task difficulty#x0201d; have explicit meaning in terms of meta- and multistable coordination dynamics.

This amounts to transcendence if not translation. Thought is matter and thinking is matter in motion#x02014;coordinated motion. Good Essays! Thought arises as a low-dimensional, coherent pattern in an extremely high-dimensional system called the human being coupled to its world. Tips Gcse! The slightest fluctuation can trigger a thought. Context matters. The coordination dynamics of thinking is essentially nonlinear and contains multistability and switching#x02014;which may be debilitating when it leads to polarization. Coordination dynamics differs from other theories of good essays, self-organization, including Iberall's homeokinetics, because it deals primarily in the currency of writing, functional information : the good college two #x0201c;forces#x0201d; that drive coordination dynamics deal fundamentally with meaningful information exchange in on creative writing gcse living things. One force is the strength of coupling between the elements; this allows information to be distributed to all participating elements and is a key to integrative, collective action. The other is the ability of write a professional business, individual elements to express their autonomy and thereby minimize the on creative writing gcse influence of others. Self-organization in tomorrow essay the metastable regime is the interplay of both. This is the architecture of mind#x02014;metastable mind.

This article is a written version of the tips on creative Arthur S. Iberall Distinguished Lecture on Life and the Sciences of Complexity, Storrs, CT, December 2005. A similar lecture was delivered as the essays doctorow F. J. McGuigan Prize Lecture for Understanding the Human Mind at tips writing gcse, the American Psychological Association convention in Washington, DC, August 2005. The author would like to thank Professors Michael Turvey and Claudia Carello along with many friends and colleagues at The University of Connecticut for their wonderful hospitality during my visit to present this lecture. The title is intended to convey the culminating project problem that all of us share. It is an #x0201c;essay#x0201d; in the sense of the French word essai , a try. Tips! #x0201c;Mind#x0201d; as used here is multifunctional: we pay attention, we see, we hear, we remember, we feel, we act, we experience, and so on. These are activities that rely at least in part on the workings of a physical organ called the brain. Like structure and a hero in paradise lost function, organism and environment, affordance and effectivity, mind and brain are complementary. The author is also in the departments of Psychology, Biological Science, and Biomedical Sciences. The writing of this article was supported by a National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH) Innovations Award (MH 42900), National Institute for on creative Neurological and Communicative (NINDS) Grant NS48220, and the U.S.

Office of Naval Research. The comments of Drs. Emmanuelle Tognoli, Gonzalo DeGuzman, and Maxine Sheets-Johnstone are much appreciated as are the helpful reviews by William Mace and Michael Turvey. Publisher's Disclaimer: Full terms and conditions of essays, use: This article maybe used for research, teaching and tips on creative writing gcse private study purposes. Writing Good Essays! Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to on creative gcse, anyone is expressly forbidden.

The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the a professional business plan use of this material. We note that we are never faced by more than a small number of interacting levels. The overseer always seems to be faced only by king and by peasant.

That is tips writing gcse our key notion. (Iberall #x00026; Soodak, 1978, p. 22) This is the second paper in the series, #x0201c;Life and the Sciences of research paper, Complexity: Essays in Honor of Arthur S. Iberall.#x0201d; 1 The symbol of the complementary nature relating contrarieties, opposites and their kin is the tilde or squiggle (#x0223c;). If you see things like yin and yang, organism and environment, nature and nurture, mind and body, friend and enemy, living and dying, creation and annihilation as mutually related and inextricably connected, you are exercising your squiggle sense. If you see them as contraries, us versus them, nature versus nurture, mind versus body, or if you overemphasize one extreme over the other, you are not using your squiggle sense. Integration#x0223c;segregation, local#x0223c;global, individual#x0223c;collective, part#x0223c;whole, competition#x0223c;cooperation, creation#x0223c;annihilation, convergence#x0223c;divergence, dwell#x0223c;escape, states#x0223c;tendencies, symmetry#x0223c;dynamics, form#x0223c;function and so forth are some of the complementary pairs that constitute the tips gcse base set of complementary pairs of project paper, coordination dynamics.

Note the squiggle is not a bridge: it doesn't stand for glue holding complementary aspects together or mediating between them. It is a way to write and think about tips gcse, complementary aspects in when began essay a way that emphasizes their relational and dynamic character. The squiggle exposes a basic truth: both complementary aspects are required for an exhaustive understanding of on creative gcse, phenomena. 2 Research has established that the oscillators are self-sustaining and essays on ragtime by el contain Rayleigh and tips writing van der Pol terms (e.g. Plan! Beek, et al., 1996; 1997; Haken, et al., 1985; Kay et al., 1987). More than the functional form of the oscillator, per se, the key to emergent coordination is the nonlinear coupling. On Creative Writing Gcse! The simplest, perhaps most fundamental coupling that guarantees multistability, switching and primitive memory (hysteresis) is:

3 Sometimes in the literature Eq. 1 is referred to collectively as the essay survival Haken-Kelso-Bunz equation. Though convenient, this is technically incorrect and fails to recognize both the intellectual contributions to tips writing gcse, its extension and the conceptual consequences thereof. For reasons of symmetry and simplicity, the original HKB equation did not contain the symmetry breaking term, #x003b4;#x003c9; (Kelso, et al., 1990) nor did it treat fluctuations explicitly (Schoner, Haken #x00026; Kelso, 1986) both of which are crucial for capturing the broad range of phenomena observed and testing further predictions. In particular, without #x003b4;#x003c9; there is: a) no fixed point shift, a sign of doctorow, adaptation to changing circumstances, see Fig.

1 ; b) the bifurcation is a saddle node not, as in the original HKB equation a pitchfork. These are different normal forms, see Kelso (1994b); and 3) most important of all, the original HKB equation does not and cannot exhibit metastability which is the key to understanding the complementary relationship between the synergic tendency of the oscillators to couple (integration) and at the same time to express their individual differences (segregation). The oscillators in the original HKB formulation were identical thereby excluding metastability. For these reasons, it seems wise to refer to Eq. Writing Gcse! 1 as the extended HKB equation. 4 We remark, however, how helpful these techniques have been in establishing the presence of self-organization (phase transitions) in culminating project research human brain and behavior, and for testing predicted effects, such as critical slowing down, fluctuation enhancement, switching time distributions, and so forth that are hallmarks of dynamic instability. Note that all these measures require detailed investigation and have to be established in each particular case. Note also that they are valid only before the transition and the associated breakdown of timescales occur (see Kelso, et al., 1987 for details). 5 Of course, in on creative experiments these times need to a professional business, be operationally defined, similar say to the operations used to tips on creative writing, determine the onsets and offsets of other physiological measures such as EEG and EMG (see Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007, for a start). 6 Such experiments are nontrivial. Nevertheless, very clear hints are available in behavioral studies that have systematically detuned, in small steps, a two-frequency system coordinating near 2 W 1 (DeGuzman #x00026; Kelso, 1991; Kelso #x00026; DeGuzman, 1988).

7 In fact, it can be proven that only dynamical systems whose basins of tomorrow essay, attraction are poised on the boundaries of elementary attractors are capable of universal computation (see Velupillai, 2007). 8 For a sobering analysis of tips on creative, some of the pitfalls in the methods and project interpretation of brain imaging data, see van Orden #x00026; Paap (1997) and Uttal (2003). 9 An argument can be made that spatial patterns of tips on creative writing gcse, amplitude in high density EEG recordings of good essays, olfactory cortex also constitute an order parameter (e.g., Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007). Gcse! In coordination dynamics, following theories of self-organization (Haken, 1977; Nicolis #x00026; Prigogine, 1977) coordination variables or order parameters and control parameters may be identified by writing studying dynamic instabilities or phase transitions (Kelso, 1990). The former change qualitatively at tips on creative gcse, transitions and is satan lost the latter#x02013;when systematically varied#x02013;lead the system through transitions. Order parameters and control parameters are thus co-implicative and complementary in the framework of coordination dynamics (Kelso, 1995; Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006).

Recent empirical and theoretical research contacts Freeman's work in that it shows that phase transitions can also arise through the tips amplitudes of essays criticism, oscillation (Assisi, Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2005). Both routes are possible depending on the situation, e.g. amplitude drops across the transition, the relative phase changes abruptly. 10 Stable thoughts, like stable gaits it seems, correspond to gcse, minimum energy configurations among participating neural ensembles. Analogous to write a professional business, gaits, research shows that oxygen utilization (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent effect) increases as the pattern loses stability, suggesting that the demands on on creative writing gcse neural resources to sustain a given pattern stable also increase. Pattern stability, which can be precisely measured in terms of variability appears to be an (as yet unheralded) determiner of brain activity (number and project research paper intensity level of voxels, see Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007, Figs. 3 and #x200B; and4 4 ). Abbott LF.

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BBC Bitesize - Higher English - Creative Writing - Revision 1

Amplifying the Voices of tips on creative writing Women Photographers in the Middle East. A Professional! WASHINGTON, DC — In the dominant narrative about the Middle East, the voices of women are among the most difficult to hear. Here in tips writing the West, their words are often drowned out by our perceptions of their oppression, freedom, and alienation within the assumed monolith of regional culture and on ragtime doctorow governance. There’s a narrative Western observers are more than willing to shoehorn Middle Eastern women into, devoid of tips on creative nuance and complexity, that does just as much to culminating project, silence them as the societal and legal limitations they face. It’s against those opposing but similar walls that the National Museum of Women in the Arts’ exhibit She Who Tells a Story pushes. After runs at Boston’s Museum of on creative Fine Arts and Stanford University’s Cantor Arts Center, the show has come to Washington, DC, a powerful location for an endeavor that amplifies the voices of women living in a part of the world ravaged by US-led war and policy. The exhibit fittingly shares its name with Rawiya (Arabic for “She Who Tells a Story”), the first Middle Eastern female photography collective, founded in 2009. Writing Good Essays College! It seeks to present Arab and Iranian womanhood “far removed from the myths and tales of the ‘Persian’ Queen Scheherazade and tips writing the ‘Arabian’ One Thousand and One Nights, ” as the lost essays, introductory wall text states.

In doing so, She Who Tells a Story offers a masterclass on how to provide a platform for marginalized voices. Installation view, #8216;She Who Tells a Story#8217; at the National Museum of tips on creative gcse Women in the Arts, showing Lalla Essaydi#8217;s #8220;Bullets Revisited #3#8221; (2012) (click to enlarge) Set in several rooms, the exhibit is broken into three themes: “Deconstructing Orientalism,” “Constructing Identities,” and “New Documentary.” Each offers an opportunity to see how contemporary women living in the Middle East respond to ideas about their own identities and the world around them. Wall text provides crucial context, making the many layers of essays criticism arnold meaning clear to lay observers who may not know about legal complexities in Iran or the tips on creative writing gcse, varied forms of veiling across the region. The works on view are remarkably powerful, at write business, times uncomfortable. In Moroccan artist Lalla Assia Essaydi’s “Bullets Revisited #3” (2012), a woman adorned in tips gcse gold jewelry lounges on a bed in tomorrow began a traditionally Orientalist pose, before an intricately patterned backdrop. On closer examination, it becomes clear that the backdrop, bed, and gcse jewelry are all made of bullet casings, and the woman’s languid gaze becomes one of confrontation. The work calls up restrictions on and violence against women, but also the need for outsiders to look more closely in order to see the complicated reality of a place often painted in simple, stark strokes. Write A Professional! Shadi Ghadirian, wntitled, from the series #8216;Qajar#8217; (1998), gelatin silver print, 15 3/4 x 11 7/8 in, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Museum purchase with the on creative writing gcse, Horace W. Goldsmith Fund for Photography and Abbott Lawrence Fund (© Shadi Ghadirian, photo © 2015 Museum of how to a professional business plan Fine Arts, Boston) Boushra Almutawakel, untitled, from the series #8216;The Hijab#8217; (2001), chromogenic print, 47 1/4 x 39 3/8 in (image courtesy the writing gcse, artist and the Howard Greenberg Gallery) (click to good college, enlarge) On an adjoining wall, Iran’s Shadi Ghadirian injects humor into the show with her Qajar series (1998).

Ghadirian combined imagery from the Qajar dynasty at the turn of the 20th century with contemporary props to communicate tension between modernity and traditionalism in post-revolutionary Iran. Each black-and-white photograph in the series features a woman in traditional Qajar dress and a classic pose, but holding an anachronistic item: a banned newspaper, sunglasses, a boom box. The pictures capture the contrary realities women face in a changing Iran. Opposite Qajar , Yemeni artist Boushra Almutawakel’s Mother, Daughter and Doll series (2010) brings the viewer face to face with multiple forms of veiling. Showing the artist, her daughter, and on creative writing a doll in each iteration, the series challenges the idea that veiling is a monolithic practice that’s done one way and means one thing to is satan a hero in paradise lost essays, all women in all contexts. Rula Halawani, #8220;Untitled VI#8221; from the tips on creative writing, series #8216;Negative Incursions#8217; (2002), chromogenic print, 35 1/2 x 48 7/8 in (© and courtesy the artist and culminating research the Ayyam Gallery) In addition to the navigation of societal and cultural expectations, the show captures war through the writing gcse, woman artist#8217;s lens. Among the most powerful works on this topic is Palestinian former photojournalist Rula Halawani’s series Negative Incursions . During Israel’s 2002 military incursion into the West Bank, Halawani captured images of combat, destruction, and pain.

But she left the images as negatives, creating a haunting and obscuring effect. Her proximity to her subjects, which include bombed-out houses and Israeli tanks, also speaks to the myth of the demure Arab woman; she is as close as one can possibly get to tomorrow the war began essay, the occupation here, unafraid to stare down danger in on creative writing gcse order to capture its reality. Elsewhere in the exhibit, artists explore Iranian restrictions on women singing, the changing nature of a hero in paradise life for women in Gaza and Egypt, and the relationship between the tips on creative gcse, hijab and American identity. Individually, the works offer an engaging window onto the clash between private and public; hung side by side, they juxtapose subjects like fashion and armed conflict in essays arnold a way that emphasizes the connection between the personal and the political. Clothing choice becomes an act of confrontation on one wall, while war interrupts the rites of passage that define a young woman#8217;s life on on creative writing another.

At every turn, She Who Tells a Story emphasizes the importance of even the most mundane minutia of womanhood, while grounding the larger, more easily abstracted questions of international conflict in the realities of lived experience. Rania Matar, #8220;Stephanie, Beirut, Lebanon#8221; from the series #8216;A Girl and Her Room#8217; (2010), pigment print, 36 x 50 in (image courtesy the when began essay survival, artist and Carroll and Sons, Boston; © Rania Matar) She Who Tells a Story continues at the National Museum of Women in the Arts (1250 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC) through July 31. I am nonreligious and I don#8217;t practice Yom Kippur#8217;s rituals, but I appreciate its teachings.

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flickr for on creative gcse, thesis Flickr ist eine der gro?ten Foto-Communities der Welt und gehort seit 2005 zum Unternehmen Yahoo!. Tomorrow When The War Survival! [1] Flickr ermoglicht das Hochladen, Bearbeiten, Verschlagworten und Verwalten von Bildern und kurzen Videobeitragen, die 90 Sekunden nicht uberschreiten durfen. Writing! Des Weiteren konnen Flickr-Mitglieder Bilder teilen und kommentieren, Kontakte knupfen und Nachrichten verschicken. Paper! [2] Das Netzwerk umfasst insgesamt 70 Mio. Tips! Personen und Organisationen weltweit. Writing College! [3] Jeder Flickr-Nutzer kann individuell entscheiden, fur wen seine Bilder zuganglich sind und ob und auf welche Art und Weise sie weiter verwendet werden durfen. Flickr-Startseite, Stand: 2012-06-10. Auf Flickr laden immer mehr Bibliotheken und Archive ihre Fotos hoch, die dort z.B. Writing! nach gemeinfreien Bildern recherchierbar sind. Culminating Paper! Anfangs gestartet als Projekt der Fotoarchivs der Library of on creative, Congress, finden sich mittlerweile zahlreiche Institutionen, die gemeinfreie Werke zur Verfugung stellen:

Flickr-Account der Stadtbucherei Nordenham: Fotos der Bibliothekskampagne Treffpunkt Bibliothek 2009 auf Flickr: Bibliotheken konnen mit Flickr ein umfangreiches Bildangebot bereitstellen, das mit Beschreibungen, Notizen und Tags versehen werden kann und somit einen Mehrwert, im Gegensatz z.B. Culminating Research! zu Bildern auf einer Bibliotheks-Website, bietet. On Creative Writing Gcse! Flickr eroffnet mehrere Moglichkeiten fur die Offentlichkeitsarbeit von Bibliotheken, die im Folgenden dargestellt werden. Vorstellung der Bibliothek : Mit Hilfe von Flickr kann z.B. When Essay! eine virtuelle Tour durch die Bibliothek gestaltet werden. Writing Gcse! Dazu wird ein Album erstellt, in tomorrow the war essay dem verschiedene Fotos vom Bibliotheksgebaude hochgeladen werden. Gcse! Durch das Betrachten des Fotostreams konnen die Nutzer die Bibliothek virtuell erkunden. Essays College! Zusatzlich kann die Notizfunktion von Flickr genutzt werden, um Details auf den Bildern zu markieren. Tips Gcse! Die Vorstellung der eigenen Einrichtung anhand von Bildern spiegelt das Bibliotheksangebot und die Bibliotheksatmosphare wider und dient gleichzeitig als Orientierungshilfe fur die Nutzer.

Vorstellung der Mitarbeiter : Neben der Vorstellung der Raumlichkeiten, kann Flickr dazu genutzt werden, einen Einblick hinter die Kulissen der Bibliothek zu geben. Lost Essays! Dafur konnen Fotos der Mitarbeiter aus dem Bibliotheksalltag verwendet werden. On Creative Writing! Nutzern wird es dadurch moglich, einen Einblick in criticism die Arbeit der Mitarbeiter zu erhalten. Geschichte der Bibliothek : Flickr wird von Bibliotheken nicht nur dazu eingesetzt, aktuelles Fotomaterial einzustellen. Gcse! Auch historische Aufnahmen der Bibliothek konnten fur die Nutzer von Interesse sein. Essay Survival! Interessant sind beispielsweise Bilder, die einen Umbau, Umzug oder andere Veranderungen in on creative gcse der Geschichte der Einrichtung dokumentieren. Vorstellung von Angeboten : Flickr eignet sich dazu, Nutzer auf einzelne Bibliotheksangebote aufmerksam zu machen.

Statt Neuerwerbungslisten oder Lesetipps auf der Website oder dem Blog zu veroffentlichen, kann beispielsweise ein Foto des Bucherregals mit den entsprechenden Titeln auf Flickr hochgeladen werden. Tomorrow The War Essay! Die Flickr-Notizfunktion ermoglicht es dann, einzelne Titel zu markieren und zu beschriften oder Links zur Titelaufnahmen im Online-Katalog einzufugen. Werbematerial : Flickr kann dazu genutzt werden, Poster von geplanten Veranstaltungen zu veroffentlichen oder selbst Poster oder Flyer, die auf Bibliotheksangebote hinweisen, zu erstellen. On Creative! Dazu konnen verschiedene Anwendungen von Flickr genutzt werden, die sich im sogenannten „App garden“ finden lassen und haufig von den Flickr-Nutzern selbst entwickelt werden. Ein Beispiel ist „fd's Flickr Toys“. How To Plan! Das Tool ermoglicht es unter anderem, Flickr-Bilder online zu bearbeiten und auf diese Weise einfach und schnell Werbematerial, wie Flyer oder Poster, fur die Einrichtung zu gestalten. Tips On Creative Writing! Daruber hinaus konnen Bilder der Bibliothek zu einem Kalender zusammengestellt werden. Essays On Ragtime! Ein Beispiel dafur, wie ein solcher Kalender aussehen kann, zeigt die Enoch Pratt Library auf ihrer Flickr-Prasenz.

Ausschnitt des Kalenders der Enoch Pratt Library in tips Baltimore, Stand:2012-06-17. Fotos von Veranstaltungen : Flickr bietet eine ideale Plattform, um Bilder von Bibliotheksveranstaltungen zu sammeln und zu archivieren. Essays! Beispielsweise konnen Fotos von Ausstellungen, Lesungen, Konferenzen, Konzerten oder Projekten zur Leseforderung auf die Plattform geladen werden, sofern die Personlichkeitsrechte geklart wurden. Prasentation digitaler Fotosammlungen : Bibliotheken, die ein digitales Angebot ihrer historischen Fotosammlungen auf ihrer Homepage bereit stellen, konnen Flickr als erganzende Prasentationsplattform fur diese Angebote nutzen. Tips On Creative Writing! Uber Flickr kann die Wahrnehmung des digitalen Angebots der Bibliothek gesteigert werden, da auch Nutzer, denen die Bibliothek nicht bekannt ist, Fotos zu einem bestimmten Thema, uber die Eingabe von Tags in writing good der Flickr-Suche, finden. Tips On Creative Writing! Beispielsweise stellt die Library of culminating research, Congress ein umfangreiches Angebot ihrer digitalen Fotos auf Flickr bereit. Zur Registrierung bei Flickr gelangt man uber den Button „Registrieren“ auf der Flickr-Startseite ( Die Anmeldung erfolgt entweder mit einem vorhandenen Google+ oder Facebook-Account oder uber eine kostenlose Registrierung eines Yahoo!-Accounts. Eingabemaske zum Erstellen eines Yahoo!-Accounts, Stand: 2012-06-10. Fur die Erstellung des Flickr-Kontos ist die Eingabe eines Flickr-Benutzernamens erforderlich. Gcse! Es wird empfohlen, einen Namen zu wahlen, der von der Einrichtung bereits innerhalb von anderen Social Media Plattformen verwendet wird, um den Wiedererkennungswert fur Besucher zu erhohen.

Eingabemaske zum Erstellen eines Flickr-Kontos, Stand: 2012-06-10. Nach der Erstellung des Accounts kann das Profil personalisiert werden. Writing Good Essays! Dazu zahlt das Einstellen eines Profilbildes, des sogenannten „Buddy-Icons“. Tips On Creative Gcse! Dafur kann beispielsweise das Logo der Bibliothek verwendet werden. Des Weiteren kann eine individuelle Flickr URL festgelegt werden, uber die sich alle Fotos der Einrichtung auffinden lassen.

Diese URL kann nachtraglich nicht mehr bearbeitet werden. Is Satan Lost! Eine beispielhafte URL konnte folgenderma?en aussehen: Zudem sollte das Profil durch Eingabe einer Kurzbeschreibung der Bibliothek individualisiert werden. Tips On Creative Writing Gcse! [4] Diese Profil-Angaben konnen nachtraglich noch bearbeitet werden. Eingabemaske zur Personalisierung des Flickr-Profils, Stand: 2012-06-10. Die einfachste Funktion zum Einstellen von Bildern befindet sich unter dem Reiter „Hochladen“ auf der Flickr-Startseite oder Essay! Die Bilder werden dabei direkt im Browserfenster per on creative writing, „Drag and tomorrow when essay survival Drop“ auf die Oberflache von Flickr gezogen oder einzeln ausgewahlt und hochgeladen. Daruber hinaus bietet Flickr die Moglichkeit, Bilder uber den sogenannten Flickr Uploadr hochzuladen. Writing Gcse! Der Flickr Uploadr ist ein Programm, das auf dem Desktop installiert wird und das Hochladen von gro?en Bildmengen ermoglicht und des Weiteren zur Offline-Fotoverwaltung verwendet werden kann. Essays By El Doctorow! Nach dem Einfugen von Bildern in tips on creative gcse den Flickr Uploadr, konnen unter anderem Bildtitel, Bildbeschreibung und Tags hinzugefugt, Alben erstellt sowie die Reihenfolge verandert werden, in when essay der die Fotos nach dem Hochladen im Flickr-Fotostream angezeigt werden sollen. Writing Gcse! [5] Flickr kann als kostenfreier Basis-Account oder kostenpflichtiger Pro-Account genutzt werden.

Bei der Nutzung des kostenlosen Accounts konnen einzelne Fotos mit einer Dateigro?e bis zu 30 MB und insgesamt bis zu 300 MB pro is satan lost, Monat hochgeladen werden. On Creative Gcse! Auf der Flickr-Seite werden jeweils die letzten 200 Bilder angezeigt. Writing! Des Weiteren ist es moglich, maximal zwei Videos pro tips on creative gcse, Monat mit jeweils einer Dateigro?e bis zu 150 MB hochzuladen. How To Business Plan! Der Pro-Account bietet einen erweiterten Funktionsumfang und weniger Einschrankungen hinsichtlich der Bildanzahl und Bildgro?e. Writing! [6] Um Inhalte bei Flickr hochzuladen, ist es notwendig, die erforderlichen Urheberrechte an began essay survival den Bildern zu besitzen. Seite zum Upload von Fotos bei Flickr, Stand: 2012-06-10. Nach dem Upload von Bildern sollten Titel, Beschreibung sowie relevante und eindeutige Tags vergeben werden, um die Auffindbarkeit der einzelnen Bilder sicherzustellen. On Creative Writing Gcse! Sofern vorhanden, konnen Bilder zu einzelnen Alben oder Gruppen hinzugefugt werden. How To Write Business Plan! Des Weiteren mussen fur jedes Bild Eigentumereinstellungen vorgenommen werden. Writing Gcse! Dazu gehoren die Angaben uber die Art der Lizenzierung sowie die Einstellungen zur Privatsphare und der Inhaltsfilter, die im Folgenden naher erlautert werden: Lizenzmodell : Flickr bietet mehrere Lizenzmodelle fur die eingestellten Bilder an.

Die Voreinstellung „Alle Rechte vorbehalten“ bewirkt, dass niemand ohne die Zustimmung des Bildinhabers, die Bilder verandern oder verbreiten darf. Doctorow! Flickr stellt daruber hinaus sechs Formen von Creative Commons-Lizenzen zur Verfugung. On Creative! Creative Commons-Lizenzen sind offene Lizenzmodelle, bei denen gewahlt werden kann, ob und inwiefern die Weiterverwendung des Bildmaterials beschrankt werden soll. Essays Arnold! Beispielsweise kann der Bildinhaber entscheiden, ob andere Nutzer das Bild kommerziell oder nicht-kommerziell verwenden durfen und ob es bearbeitet und verandert werden darf. On Creative Writing Gcse! Die Homepage von Creative Commons ( gibt einen Uberblick uber die sechs verschiedenen Formen der Creative Commons-Lizenzen. Write A Professional Business Plan! [7] Privatsphare : Bei den Einstellungen zur Privatsphare muss definiert werden, wer die hochgeladenen Bilder ansehen darf. Tips Gcse! Die Einstellung, mit der die Bilder fur alle Flickr-Nutzer sichtbar sind, hei?t „Fur jeden sichtbar“ und ist bereits voreingestellt.

Es ist aber auch moglich, die Sichtbarkeit der Bilder nur auf bestimmte Personengruppen zu beschranken. In Paradise Lost! Zudem ist einzustellen, ob die hochgeladenen Bilder uber die Flickr-Suche auffindbar sein sollen oder nicht. Writing! Die Einstellung „Wird bei offentlichen Suchen angezeigt“ ist von Flickr voreingestellt. In Paradise! Um bei der Suche innerhalb von Flickr gefunden zu werden, mussen mindestens funf Bilder hochgeladen sein, bei denen die Einstellung „Wird bei offentlichen Suchen angezeigt“ ausgewahlt wurde. Tips On Creative! Anschlie?end kann es aber einige Tage dauern, bis die Bilder vom Flickr-Team freigeschaltet und uber die Flickr-Suchfunktion gefunden werden konnen. Research! [8] In der Regel konnen alle von Flickr vorgegebenen Voreinstellungen, die die Lizenzierung und Privatsphare der Bilder betreffen, auch fur Bilder der Bibliothek ubernommen werden.

Auf diese Weise wird sichergestellt, dass die Bilder ohne die Zustimmung der Bibliothek nicht weiter verwendet werden durfen, aber fur alle Flickr-Nutzer sichtbar sind und auch uber die Flickr-Suche gefunden werden. Inhaltsfilter : Der Inhaltsfilter beinhaltet die Funktion zur Auswahl einer Sicherheitsstufe und einem Inhaltstyp. On Creative Writing! Es kann zwischen den drei Sicherheitsstufen „Sicher“, “Mittel“ und „Eingeschrankt“ gewahlt werden. Culminating Project! Als „Sicher“ konnen alle Inhalte eingestuft werden, die als unbedenklich und fur die breite Offentlichkeit geeignet sind. Gcse! Diese Kategorie sollte auf alle Bilder der Bibliothek zutreffen. Research Paper! Als „Eingeschrankt“ werden Bilder eingestuft, die beispielswiese aus jugendschutzrechtlichen Grunden nicht fur Kinder geeignet sind. Tips On Creative Gcse! Bei Unsicherheiten zwischen den beiden Kategorien, kann die Sicherheitsstufe „Mittel“ gewahlt werden. When The War! Bilder, fur die die Sicherheitsstufen „Mittel“ und „Eingeschrankt“ vergeben wurden, sind anschlie?end nur eingeschrankt fur Flickr-Nutzer auffindbar. On Creative Gcse! [9] Abschlie?end muss ein Inhaltstyp fur das Bild gewahlt werden.

Je nachdem, ob das eingestellte Bild ein Foto, Screenshot oder eine Illustration darstellt, kann aus den Kategorien „Foto“, „Screenshot“ und „Kunst/Illustration“ gewahlt werden. Optionen zum Bearbeiten der Fotos, Stand: 2012-06-10. Der Community-Aspekt spielt bei Flickr eine wichtige Rolle, da es Ziel der Fotoplattform ist, neben dem Austausch von Bildinhalten, ein Netzwerk zwischen den Nutzern aufzubauen. Culminating Project Research Paper! Fur die Bibliothek interessante Personen und Institutionen konnen zum einen uber die integrierte Suchfunktion gefunden werden, zum anderen konnen verschiedene themenspezifische Gruppen uber die Seite gesucht und zum Knupfen von neuen Kontakten durch Diskussion und Meinungsaustausch genutzt werden. Gcse! [10] Fotostream : Der sogenannte Fotostream ist das personliche Fotoalbum jedes Flickr-Nutzers.

Im Gegensatz zu herkommlichen Fotoalben, in essays criticism denen die einzelnen Bilder in on creative Ordnern verwaltet werden, kann der Fotostream mit einem Foto-Blog verglichen werden, in research dem die Bilder in tips writing gcse umgekehrt chronologischer Reihenfolge dargestellt werden. Project Paper! Jedes Foto stellt dabei einen eigenen Blog-Eintrag dar. Tips Writing! Die Fotos werden von den Nutzern durch Bildtitel, Bildbeschreibungen und Tags erganzt. Essays! Weitere Informationen, wie Aufnahmedatum, Kameratyp und die Haufigkeit, mit der ein Bild angeschaut wurde, erfasst Flickr automatisch in tips on creative gcse der rechten Seitenleiste. Criticism Arnold! [11] Aktionen : Unter dem Reiter „Aktionen“ bietet Flickr verschiedene Moglichkeiten, Fotos zu Alben oder Gruppen hinzuzufugen und zu bearbeiten. Tips On Creative Gcse! Dazu zahlen Funktionen zum Hinzufugen von Tags, Notizen oder Personen zu einem Bild. Favoriten : Jeder Flickr-Nutzer kann interessante Bilder uber einen „Favoriten“-Button - oberhalb eines jeden Bildes - markieren, um sie spater schneller wiederzufinden. In Paradise! Favoriten sind fur alle anderen Nutzer sichtbar. On Creative Writing Gcse! Die Funktion kann mit der eines Lesezeichens verglichen werden.

Bibliotheken konnen diese Funktion z.B. How To Write Business Plan! einsetzen, um die eigenen Profilbesucher auf andere, thematisch ahnliche und interessante Bilder zu verweisen. Teilen : Uber den Button „Mit anderen teilen“ konnen Bilder auf andere Plattformen - beispielsweise Facebook oder Twitter - weitergeleitet werden. On Creative Gcse! Der Verweis auf neu eingestellte Bilder auf anderen Social Media-Plattformen macht Nutzer auf interessante Bilder der Einrichtung aufmerksam und ladt dazu ein, innerhalb der Flickr-Alben der Einrichtung zu stobern. Project Research! Die entsprechenden Buttons, die auf die weiteren Social Media-Plattformen verweisen, befinden sich direkt uber jedem Bild. On Creative Writing Gcse! Mit Hilfe der Funktion ist es des Weiteren moglich, den HTML-Code des Bildes zu beziehen, um dieses in how to business plan die eigene Homepage oder den Weblog einzubinden. Kommentare : Fur jedes Bild ist es moglich, Kommentare zu verfassen. Tips On Creative Gcse! Innerhalb von Gruppen kann die Kommentar-Funktion allerdings zu Diskussionen mit anderen Mitgliedern anregen. Culminating Project Paper! In jedem Fall sollten Bibliotheken Kommentare fur jedes ihrer Bilder zulassen, um offen fur Feedback durch andere Nutzer zu sein.

Alben und Sammlungen : Unter dem Menupunkt „Organisieren“ und dem Unterpunkt „Ihre Alben“, oder der Website, ist es moglich, Flickr-Alben einzurichten, um Bilder zu gruppieren. Gcse! Alben werden bei Flickr als „Sets“ bezeichnet. How To Business Plan! Durch das Anlegen von Alben konnen Bilder nach Themengebieten sortiert werden, wobei Bilder zu mehreren Alben zugeordnet werden konnen. On Creative! Die ubersichtliche Darstellung gewahrleistet eine schnelle Auffindbarkeit der Bilder durch andere Flickr-Nutzer. Essays! Nutzern eines kostenpflichtigen Pro-Accounts bietet Flickr zusatzlich die Moglichkeit, einzelne Alben zu Sammlungen, sogenannten „Collections“ zusammenzufassen. Writing! Dies ist vor allem bei einer gro?en Anzahl von Bildern ratsam. Is Satan In Paradise Essays! Auf diese Weise konnen beispielsweise einzelne Alben mit Bildern von verschiedenen Veranstaltungen, wie Lesungen oder Ausstellungen, zu einer Sammlung „Veranstaltungen“ zusammengefasst werden. Alben der TIB/UB Hannover, Stand: 2012-06-10.

Flickr-Gruppen : Als Gruppen werden Alben bezeichnet, an tips gcse denen sich alle Flickr-Nutzer beteiligen konnen, wenn sie der jeweiligen Gruppe beitreten. Writing! Nach dem Beitritt zu einer Gruppe konnen die aktuellen Uploads der Gruppenmitglieder auf der eigenen Flickr-Startseite verfolgt werden. On Creative Gcse! Es ist moglich, sowohl Bilder hochzuladen als auch an the war began essay survival Diskussionen innerhalb der Gruppen teilzunehmen. On Creative Writing! Jede Gruppe kann eigene Regeln aufstellen, die von den anderen Mitgliedern eingehalten werden mussen. Project Research! Uber kann nach einzelnen Gruppen, die zum Interessensgebiet der Bibliothek passen, gesucht werden. On Creative Gcse! [12] Gruppen sind ein wichtiges Feature von Flickr, denn daruber wird es moglich, ein Netzwerk mit interessanten Kontakten aufzubauen. By El Doctorow! Als Beispiel kann die Gruppe „Bibtag12 HH“ genannt werden, die zum Anlass des Deutschen Bibliothekartags 2012 gegrundet wurde und in writing gcse der Mitglieder Bilder zum Bibliothekartag 2012 miteinander austauschen.

Eine gro?e bibliothekarische Flickr-Gruppe mit uber 4000 Mitgliedern ist „Libraries and a hero lost essays Librarians“. Tips On Creative Writing Gcse! Neben Bibliotheksmitarbeitern konnen Bibliotheksnutzer und Menschen, die sich fur Bibliotheken interessieren, beitreten. Startseite der Flickr-Gruppe „Libraries and essays criticism Librarians“, Stand: 2012-06-16. Um sich einen Uberblick daruber zu verschaffen, wie die Bilder bei den Nutzern ankommen, konnen die einzelnen Bildkommentare sowie die Haufigkeiten, mit der Bilder angesehen bzw. Tips Gcse! von anderen Nutzern als Favoriten markiert wurden, ausgewertet werden. Diese Informationen werden zu jedem der eingestellten Bilder angezeigt.

Bei einer gro?en Menge an write a professional Bildern und um ausfuhrliche Informationen zu den Nutzern in writing Erfahrung zu bringen, kann fur die Auswertung das interne Analyseinstrument von Flickr genutzt werden. Das Tool ist uber den Reiter „Sie“ und den Unterpunkt „Ihre Statistiken“ zuganglich und steht nur den Nutzern des kostenpflichtigen Flickr Pro-Accounts zur Verfugung. Hinweise zum Verwalten des Accounts. Genauso wie Facebook, Twitter und YouTube kann der Flickr-Account mit Hilfe von Anwendungsprogrammen, wie beispielsweise Seesmic Desktop 2 oder Hootsuite, verwaltet werden. Kurzanleitung zur Erstellung eines Flickr-Accounts. Kurzanleitung fur die Erstellung und Nutzung eines Flickr-Accounts fur Bibliotheken: Vor der Erstellung eines Flickr-Accounts sollten Bilder gemacht und die Inhalte der Bilder (Ansichten des Bibliotheksgebaudes, Bilder von Mitarbeitern oder Veranstaltungen etc.) festgelegt werden, die uber Flickr verbreitet werden sollen. Doctorow! Vor der Erstellung eines Flickr-Accounts ist eine Registrierung auf der Flickr-Startseite ( uber den Button „Registrieren“ notwendig. Tips On Creative Writing Gcse! Die Einrichtung kann sich mit einem vorhandenen Facebook- oder Google+ -Account anmelden. Project Research! Andernfalls ist die Erstellung eines Yahoo!-Kontos notwendig. Tips On Creative Gcse! Uber die Eingabe eines gewahlten Flickr-Benutzernamens erfolgt anschlie?end die Erstellung eines neuen Flickr-Kontos. Is Satan A Hero Lost! Zur Personalisierung des eigenen Profils kann ein Profilbild (z.B.

Logo der Einrichtung) hochgeladen und eine Kurzbeschreibung hinzugefugt werden. Tips Writing Gcse! Zusatzlich ist es jedem Flickr-Nutzer moglich, eine individuellen Flickr-URL zu wahlen, uber die die eigenen Flickr-Alben zuganglich sind. A Professional Business! Nach der Bearbeitung der Einstellungen konnen die ersten Bilder erstellt und hochgeladen werden. Tips! Dies erfolgt beispielsweise auf der Seite Essays Criticism! Um die Auffindbarkeit der Bilder sicherzustellen, sollten die Bilder einzeln bearbeitet werden. Tips Writing Gcse! Dazu zahlen die Eingabe eines Bildtitels, der Bildbeschreibung sowie der relevanten und eindeutige Tags. Culminating Project Research Paper! Zusatzlich konnen die vorgegebenen Einstellungen zur Lizenzart sowie die Einstellungen zur Privatsphare und der Inhaltsfilter, bearbeitet werden. On Creative Writing! Die Bilder konnen anschlie?end durch die Zuordnung zu einzelnen Alben sortiert werden. Essays On Ragtime! Nach dem Einstellen der ersten Bilder sollten die Nutzer auf der Homepage der Einrichtung, Ankundigungen in tips on creative anderen sozialen Netzwerken oder uber Informationen in on ragtime doctorow der Bibliothek vor Ort, auf die Flickr-Prasenz aufmerksam gemacht werden. Tips Writing! Beispielsweise konnen - neben dem Verweis auf die Flickr-URL- neu hinzugefugte Alben auf der Facebook-Fanseite bei Twitter geteilt werden. Writing! Zur erfolgreichen Nutzung von Flickr gehort neben dem regelma?igen Einpflegen neuer Bilder auch die Beobachtung der Reaktionen in on creative gcse der Community.

Do’s and good essays Don’ts fur die Nutzung von Flickr fur Bibliotheken. Bilder hochladen, die von Ihnen erstellt wurden und an on creative writing gcse denen Sie die Rechte besitzen, Verwendung von eindeutigen Bildtiteln, Bildbeschreibungen und Tags, um die Auffindbarkeit der Bilder sicherzustellen, Flickr-Gruppen beitreten zum Netzwerkaufbau durch Bilderaustausch und Diskussionen mit anderen Mitgliedern, einzelne Fotos im Blog oder auf der Homepage der Bibliothek einbinden mit dem Hinweis auf die weiteren Bilder im Flickr-Fotostream, Alben erstellen und Bilder sortieren, in writing college regelma?igen Abstanden neue Bilder einpflegen. Bilder einstellen, die nicht von Ihnen stammen, sondern beispielsweise aus dem Internet kopiert wurden, negative Kommentare zu anderen Bildern verfassen, Bilder aufgrund von privatem Interesse kommentieren und favorisieren. Alby, Tom: Web 2.0 : Konzepte, Anwendungen, Technologien. Writing Gcse! 2., aktualisierte Aufl. Writing Good Essays College! – Munchen : Hanser, 2007 Creative Commons: Was ist CC?. Tips Writing! Stand: 26.07.2011. [2] Weinberg 2010, S.298. [4] Weinberg 2010, S.300. [7] Creative Commons 2012. [12] Weinberg 2010, S.305ff.

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DPhil in Comparative Philology and gcse General Linguistics. The DPhil is an advanced research degree for qualified students who are ready to begin thesis work in the field of general linguistics (including phonetics but not applied linguistics), in historical and comparative philology and linguistics, or in culminating project paper, the linguistics of a specific language. The DPhil in General Linguistics and writing Comparative Philology is an advanced research degree, awarded on the basis of a thesis and an oral examination. The thesis will be based on extensive original research and engagement with current scholarship. You are expected to submit your thesis three, or at most four, years from the date of admission. You will be supported by essays, a supervisor or supervisors who will help you develop a programme of research and writing.

You will also benefit from the advice and support of gcse other members of the faculty and can draw on the expertise of scholars and is satan a hero in paradise essays colleagues throughout the faculty and tips writing University. You are encouraged to attend and to culminating project paper contribute to the wide range of research seminars, conferences and workshops organized by the faculty. You will also have access to specialist training courses offered by the Advanced Core Training in Linguistics programme (ACTL), Bodleian Library, Language Centre and IT services. Linguistics at Oxford is an interdisciplinary subject, with most areas of general linguistics as well as Indo-European, Romance and Slavic historical and comparative linguistics being represented by one or several members of staff. Current research falls into seven main areas: linguistic theory (morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics and their interfaces) Indo-European comparative philology (especially Greek, Italic/Latin, Indo-Iranian, Anatolian, Celtic, Slavic and Tocharian) phonetics and phonology (especially phonetics/phonology interface, speech perception, language comprehension) Romance philology (Research Centre on tips on creative, Romance Linguistics, especially diachronic morphology, syntax of Italo-Romance and phonetics of French) neurolinguistics/psycholinguistics sociolinguistics (language variation and is satan a hero in paradise lost essays change, language and gender) ancient grammatical thought in the Greco-Roman tradition. Graduates follow career paths that include academia and higher education, research services, research and on creative writing development, secondary and tomorrow the war began survival further education, industry and the civil service. The University will seek to deliver this course in accordance with the description set out in on creative gcse, this course page. However, there may be situations in which it is desirable or necessary for the University to make changes in course provision, either before or after registration. For further information, please see our page on changes to courses. Entry requirements for entry in 2018-19.

Within equal opportunities principles and legislation, applications will be assessed in the light of an applicant’s ability to essays on ragtime meet the following entry requirements: Proven and on creative writing gcse potential academic excellence. Applicants are normally expected to be predicted or have achieved a first-class or strong upper second-class undergraduate degree with honours (or equivalent international qualifications), as a minimum, in paper, a relevant subject. For applicants with a degree from the USA, the tips, minimum GPA sought is 3.5 out of 4.0. However, entrance is very competitive and most successful applicants have a first-class degree or the equivalent. A master's degree in a relevant subject is also required. Applicants are expected to have a background in linguistics comparable to Oxford's MPhil degree in General Linguistics and Comparative Philology and to be predicted to achieve or to have achieved a very good result or a result close to distinction level in their master's degree. If you hold non-UK qualifications and wish to check how your qualifications match these requirements, you can contact the National Recognition Information Centre for criticism, the United Kingdom (UK NARIC).

Under exceptional circumstances substantial professional experience maybe considered a substitute. Applicants should already have the knowledge and gcse skills necessary to begin work on their chosen topic. This may include knowledge of the writing good college, language to be studied, or for a computational thesis, relevant programming skills. No Graduate Record Examination (GRE) or GMAT scores are sought. Other appropriate indicators will include: You will be required to supply supporting documents with your application, including references and an official transcript. See 'How to apply' for instructions on the documents you will need and how these will be assessed. Interviews are normally held as part of the admissions process. The faculty receives comparatively large numbers of applications for a small number of places. Therefore, only those candidates who have scored highly in the paper-based assessment are invited for interview. Interviews are generally conducted by telephone or Skype, or in person if the candidate finds that convenient.

There will be a minimum of on creative two interviewers. Applicants are not expected to have publications already, but if they happen to the war began essay survival have publications in a relevant area they are encouraged to submit them as their written work. Other qualifications, evidence of tips writing excellence and relevant experience. In the case of mature students/intended career changes professional experience in cognate areas may compensate for shortcomings in the formal academic record. Applicants whose first language is not English are usually required to provide evidence of proficiency in English at the higher level required by the University. 3. The War Began Survival? Availability of supervision, teaching, facilities and places. The following factors will govern whether candidates can be offered places:

The ability of the Faculty of Linguistics, Philology and Phonetics to provide the appropriate supervision, research opportunities, teaching and facilities for your chosen area of work. Writing Gcse? Minimum and maximum limits to the numbers of students who may be admitted to Oxford's research and taught programmes. The provision of supervision, where required, is subject to the following points: The allocation of graduate supervision is the responsibility of the Faculty of Linguistics, Philology and by el Phonetics and it is not always possible to accommodate the preferences of incoming graduate students to work with a particular member of staff. Under exceptional circumstances a supervisor may be found outside the Faculty of Linguistics, Philology and Phonetics. Where possible your academic supervisor will not change for the duration of your course. However, it may be necessary to assign a new academic supervisor during the course of study or before registration for reasons which might include sabbatical leave, maternity leave or change in employment. 4. Disability, health conditions and specific learning difficulties.

Students are selected for tips on creative writing gcse, admission without regard to gender, marital or civil partnership status, disability, race, nationality, ethnic origin, religion or belief, sexual orientation, age or social background. Decisions on admission are based solely on arnold, the individual academic merits of tips on creative each candidate and the application of the entry requirements appropriate to the course. Further information on how these matters are supported during the admissions process is how to write, available in our guidance for applicants with disabilities. All recommendations to admit a student involve the judgment of at least two members of on creative writing gcse academic staff with relevant experience and expertise, and additionally must be approved by the Director of Graduate Studies or Admissions Committee (or equivalent departmental persons or bodies). Admissions panels or committees will always include at least one member of academic staff who has undertaken appropriate training. Whether you have yet secured funding is not taken into consideration in the decision to essays make an initial offer of a place, but please note that the initial offer of a place will not be confirmed until you have completed a Financial Declaration. Teaching and research in linguistic subjects is centred around the Centre for Linguistics and Philology, which occupies part of the former Clarendon Press Institute on Walton Street. Facilities for graduate students include a common room, individual lockers, computer workstations and writing printers and doctorow a photocopier. Most graduate courses in linguistics and philology are held in the building, which as a whole is shared with the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies. The Phonetics Laboratory has excellent provision for research in tips on creative gcse, speech physiology and acoustics, and writing good college outstanding computing facilities. The experimental area consists of a recording studio, an acoustics and speech processing laboratory, a physiological laboratory and a speech perception laboratory.

Hardware for physiological study, available to students and gcse staff, includes electroglottography, labial electromyography, oral/nasal aerometry (measurement of air pressures and flow) and ultrasound tongue imaging. The studios, for recording and for write a professional, running experiments, are equipped with high-quality microphones and digital recording equipment, and computer systems for the presentation of visual and/or auditory stimuli. Currently, the Phonetics Laboratory's main priorities for on creative writing gcse, research are: prosody in child language acquisition, functional phylogenetic reconstruction of speech from the project paper, past, and acoustic-phonetic variation in English and tips on creative Modern Greek. The Language and Brain Laboratory contains 15 rooms including graduate student desk spaces, a meeting room, and culminating several rooms fitted with specialised equipment for running practical experiments to help us understand how the brain processes language. It is an active research laboratory covering all aspects of tips on creative gcse linguistics, including phonology, morphology, syntax and writing college semantics. The experimental area includes a sound-proofed audiology booth for recording speech and running speech production and eye-tracking experiments, and a behavioural testing suite containing individual workstations for gcse, running up to ten participants simultaneously. There are also two state-of-the-art electrically shielded, sound-proofed and climate controlled EEG booths for recording brain waves. All testing rooms have an associated control room to monitor the experiments and computers to analyse the business, results. Oxford's library provision in linguistics is one of the largest in the country. Tips Gcse? Oxford's libraries are superbly provided with material on theoretical linguistics, the structure and history of European languages (including specialist libraries in Romance and Slavic linguistics), ancient Indo-European languages, and non-Indo-European as well as Indo-European languages of Asia.

There are over 1,100 full graduate scholarships available across the University, and research paper these cover your course and college fees and provide a grant for living costs. If you apply by the relevant January deadline and fulfil the eligibility criteria you will be automatically considered. Over two thirds of Oxford scholarships require nothing more than the standard course application. Use the tips writing gcse, Fees, funding and scholarship search to find out a hero in paradise essays, which scholarships you are eligible for tips gcse, and if they require an additional application, full details of which are provided. The Ertegun Scholarship Programme and by el the Arts and tips writing Humanities Research Council (AHRC) each provide a number of awards every year, to project research paper support graduate students across a range of disciplines. To be considered for these studentships you must apply by writing, the relevant January admissions deadline. The fees shown above are the annual tuition and college fees for college, this course for entry in tips on creative, the stated academic year; for courses lasting longer than one year, please be aware that fees will usually increase annually. For details, please see our guidance on likely increases to fees and charges. Tuition and college fees are payable each year for essays doctorow, the duration of tips writing your fee liability (your fee liability is the length of time for which you are required to pay tuition and writing essays college fees). Following the period of fee liability, you may also be required to pay a University continuation charge and a college continuation charge. The University and writing gcse college continuation charges are shown on the Continuation charges page.

For more information about project research, tuition fees, college fees and fee liability, please see the gcse, Fees section of this website. EU applicants should refer to our dedicated webpage for details of the implications of the UK’s plans to leave the European Union. The faculty makes available some funding for language training, where relevant, and for conducting experiments or carrying out fieldwork, where required by on ragtime doctorow, the students research activities. There are no compulsory elements of this course that entail additional costs beyond fees (or, after fee liability ends, continuation charges) and living costs. However, please note that, depending on your choice of research topic and the research required to complete it, you may incur additional expenses, such as travel expenses, research expenses, and field trips. You will need to meet these additional costs, although you may be able to writing apply for small grants from your department and/or college to help you cover some of these expenses. In addition to your tuition and college fees, you will need to ensure that you have adequate funds to support your living costs for the duration of your course. For the 2018-19 academic year, the college, range of likely living costs is between c. On Creative Gcse? ?1,015 and essays by el ?1,555 for each month spent in Oxford. Full information, including a breakdown of likely living costs in Oxford for items such as food, accommodation and study costs, is available on our Living costs page.

The following colleges accept students on the DPhil in Comparative Philology and General Linguistics: You are not required to make contact with an academic member of staff before you apply, but if you already have a potential supervisor in mind then you are invited to state this in tips on creative writing gcse, your application. The faculty assigns a supervisor (or in a hero in paradise, some cases, two supervisors) to each successful applicant. If you suggest a supervisor when you apply, this will be taken into account when a supervisor is assigned, but for various reasons the on creative, assigned supervisor will not always be the one proposed in your application. The set of documents you should send with your application to this course comprises the following: Your transcripts should give detailed information of the individual grades received in your university-level qualifications to date. You should only upload official documents issued by your institution and essays doctorow any transcript not in English should be accompanied by a certified translation. More information about the transcript requirement is available in the Application Guide. A CV/resume is compulsory for all applications. Most applicants choose to submit a document of on creative writing gcse one to two pages highlighting their academic achievements and any relevant professional experience.

The research proposal should be written in English and how to write a professional business plan the overall page count should include any bibliography. It should include information about your background in tips writing gcse, linguistics and a hero in paradise degree of preparation already achieved for the research, as well as an outline of your thesis and of the research you plan to on creative writing gcse conduct. This will be assessed for: your reasons for applying the write business plan, coherence of the proposal the tips, originality of the project evidence of motivation for and understanding of the proposed area of study the ability to writing essays college present a reasoned case in tips writing, English the feasibility of successfully completing the project in the time available for the course (a maximum of four years) commitment to the subject, beyond the requirements of the degree course preliminary knowledge of research techniques capacity for write, sustained and intense work reasoning ability ability to absorb new ideas, often presented abstractly, at a rapid pace. It will be normal for your ideas subsequently to change in some ways as you investigate the tips on creative, evidence and develop your project. You should nevertheless make the how to write business, best effort you can to demonstrate the extent of your research question, sources and method at this moment.

Your statement should focus on the research itself rather than personal achievements, interests and aspirations. Two essays of 2,000 words each. Academic essays or other writing samples from your most recent qualification, written in English, are required. Extracts of the writing gcse, requisite length from longer work are also permissible. The written work should demonstrate your competence in the proposed area of study.

The word count does not need to include any bibliography or brief footnotes. This will be assessed for comprehensive understanding of the when the war, subject area; understanding of problems in the area; ability to construct and defend an argument; powers of analysis; and powers of expression in tips writing, English. References/letters of criticism arnold recommendation: Three overall, generally academic. Whilst you must register three referees, the department may start the assessment of your application if two of the three references are submitted by the course deadline and your application is otherwise complete. Tips? Please note that you may still be required to ensure your third referee supplies a reference for consideration. All references should generally be academic. When The War? However, in the case of tips mature students or intended career changes, a professional reference may be submitted instead of one of the academic references. If you are a current master’s student or have completed a master’s course, one of your referees should be your supervisor or course director from a hero in paradise essays, this course. If you do not provide a reference of the kind, the department will usually ask you to do so before completing the assessment of your application. Your references will support intellectual ability, academic achievement, motivation, and ability to work in a group.

On Monday 2 October, the Graduate Admissions office will not be available to answer telephone queries. Online queries will be answered as normal. Telephone support will resume on Tuesday 3 October. Open for admission in 2018-19. 12 noon UK time (midday) on:

Friday 17 November 2017 Friday 19 January 2018 Friday 9 March 2018. Later applications may be considered if places are available.