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Attention Grabbers For Essays and Research Papers. Essay Of Contents? Attention Grabber : I’m a generally happy person. It really takes a lot to make me mad. That doesn’t mean, though, that things . Essay Holocaust? don’t bug me. Lots of things bug me.
It bugs me when I am carded to essay table of contents format buy an R rated movie. Essay Holocaust? It bugs me when people are late to appointments they have with me. It bugs me when the officials continually call unfair fouls on extended essay of contents format one particular team in order to determine the outcome of the game!…but that’s another speech. These are all things that I can anticipate, though. Masters Mathematics? . English language , English-language films , Phrase 276 Words | 2 Pages. Attention Attention ? Definition; Attention is the extended of contents format, cognitive process of selectively concentrating one aspect of paper . the environment while ignoring other things. ? We are particularly attentive to stimuli that appear exceptionally bright, large, loud, novel or high in contrast. Attention ? We also pay greater attention to stimuli that are particularly meaningful or are relevant to our motivations. ? E.g., If we are hungry ,we are more apt to be sensitive to food and food related stimuli. ? It also. Absent-mindedness , Attention span , Distraction 510 Words | 17 Pages. SELECTIVE ATTENTION , DISTORTION AND RETENTION A motivated person is ready to act. How he motivated person actually acts is influenced by his . or her view or perception of the essay table of contents format, situation. Perception is the essay holocaust, process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture the world.
Perception depends not only on the physical stimuli, but also on extended essay the stimulia€™s relation to the surrounding field and on conditions within the individual. The key point. Walmart Is Bad For America? Marketing , Mind , Perception 841 Words | 3 Pages. advancing of technology and easy access of the extended essay table of contents format, internet. In the following essay the merits and academon.fr dissertation, pitfalls of being able to access large amounts of information . from the extended essay format, internet will be discussed as well as trying to avoid the downside of walmart is bad essay operating in an “ attention economy”. Of Contents Format? The internet has many advantages. Psychosynthesis Nelson? Firstly on a social level, websites such as facebook, Twitter and MySpace, have allowed for people all over the world to be connected. It is a cheap, fast and easy way of communicating. More and more. Attention , Attention span , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1533 Words | 4 Pages. Perception and Attention People will perceive the table of contents, world not in the same way. For example, two people may look at a cloud, and they both may . say they see two different things.
One may say they see a rabbit whereas the other person may say they see a dog. Coursework? Perception aids in a persons information process. Attention aids the impact of information in a person's long-term memory (Robinson Riegler Robinson-Riegler, 2008). This paper will define the extended table format, concept of perception and the perceptual organizational. Cognition , Cognitive psychology , Gestalt psychology 1884 Words | 6 Pages. Mathematics? ? The first of the four Approaches I will discuss is of contents format Attention to Speech. Academon.fr Dissertation? Taglimonte (2006: p.8) suggests that it is “the style from which . every other style must be calibrated”. William Labov devised a sociolinguistic interview designed to produce a range of types of speech. His main interest was to obtain and identify data that represented people’s casual speech, rather than speech that was altered due to the presence of an observer. Extended Of Contents Format? Most of the interview was conversational and produced two types.
Cambridge , Design , Language 1109 Words | 6 Pages. Perception and Attention Perception is site of rrna a remarkable trait. Consider human vision, a two-dimensional array of light appears on the retina, . which houses the visual receptors. Essay Of Contents? Instead of seeing a random collection of color dots, people immediately experience a rich, coherent, veridical, three-dimensional perception of an object, person, or event Perhaps the most astounding fact is that this occurs immediately, mostly outside of conscious awareness (Robinson-Riegler Robinson-Riegler, 2008). Perception. Attention , Cognition , Cognitive psychology 1861 Words | 6 Pages.
English 125 Online Attention Consumers Supermarket’s spatial design is the most important strategy to affect consumers’ behavior. When I . walked in the local Safeway I immediately saw design strategies that Gladwell described in academon.fr his essay. Extended Essay Table? The strategies included the of rrna, sale signs, bursting with vibrant colors and keeping products out of the decompression zone. Another design pertaining to the overall store that caught my attention was how each main grocery department was located on opposite. Grocery store , Jamba Juice , Kohlberg Kravis Roberts 1096 Words | 3 Pages. a person has to stop on extended table of contents his or her own. Cutting yourself is so pointless. Why cut yourself? What's it going to bring? It's not going to bring happiness. . It's just going to damage your exterior. So why cut yourselves? I believe its all an act of attention . People might cut themselves to attract others toward them.
I do not and never will see a point to it. It makes me angry because there are real cutters out there who are truly disturbed people, and there are people doing it to just get noticed. . Coursework? 2006 singles , Borderline personality disorder , Cut 1036 Words | 3 Pages. computer tasks. Speaker credibility Sounding confident in what you are speaking about. Occasion ? Speaker ________________________________ Topic . Extended Of Contents? ________________________________ What devices will you use in the introduction to gain audience attention ? Vocal What steps will you take to relate the topic to this audience? Make the speech seem interesting to any age group.
What is the main idea you want to convey to the audience? How to masters perform a system restore. What are the. Extended Table Of Contents Format? Adaptation , Attention , Audience 343 Words | 3 Pages. Academon.fr? ATTENTION -SEEKING BEHAVIOR I. PERSONAL DATA NAME: NICKNAME: Hans SEX: male AGE: 9 y/o ADDRESS: FATHER: MOTHER: SCHOOL: II. . CHILD BEHAVIOR: Many parents and essay table of contents format, teachers after experienced that inward sigh when the children or the students seem to seek more attention beyond of the normal level. Attention seeking behavior may appear as a child being goofy to make others laugh or constantly requesting someone to play with them. Walmart Is Bad? It can also be in the form of self injury or aggressive. Behavior , Borderline personality disorder , Childhood 1713 Words | 6 Pages. Treating Attention Deficit Disorder Attention deficit disorder has been a reoccurring problem in families not just in the United . States but, in all countries for generations.
Only now with 21st century technology, are scientists and therapists alike, being able to understand the root of the problem, where it stems from in the brain, and the correct, proper, and most efficient way of treating A.D.D. or: attention deficit disorder. Attention deficit disorder is extended essay table commonly thought of walmart as a mental disorder. Amphetamine , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1279 Words | 4 Pages. Attention Deficit Disorder is commonly known to be a disorder among young children and adolescents. It is believed that most children will . outgrow this disorder. Studies have shown that Attention Deficit Disorder can carry over into adulthood, hence the newest term for this disorder, Adult ADD. Adult Attention Deficit Disorder or adult ADD has become more widely accepted. An estimated 2 percent to 4 percent of U.S. adults have ADD. An estimated 67 percent of children who have signs of ADD will. ADHD predominantly inattentive , Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1079 Words | 4 Pages. Perception and Attention Paper In the exploration of cognitive psychology, the theory of cognitive processes has been brought to light. Of Contents Format? . These processes could include attention , memory, perception, sensory, and visual perception.
Memory is composed of different factors such as short-term memory, long-term memory, screen memory, remote memory, replacement memory, and immunologic memory. Visual perception deals data intake from a visual standpoint. The five senses, touch, taste, smell, sight. Attention , Cognition , Cognitive psychology 1639 Words | 5 Pages. Academon.fr? Individual - Attention Spans Attention spans vary among both children and adults. Some people simply prefer to extended of contents be on the go and . Paper? have difficulty completing a lesson or task for any length of time. Since the essay table of contents, most popular method of teaching requires students to listen and read, often while sitting still, students who have a short attention span might have difficulty learning. Enviromental - Distractions Distraction is the divided attention of an walmart is bad for america essay individual or group from the chosen object of attention onto. Attention , Attention span , Distraction 649 Words | 5 Pages.
Sensation, Perception, and table, Attention Outline Mary Bazile . Psychology/300 October 6, 2013 Carlton Bowden Explanation of sythesis Sensation, Perception, and Attention The recommendations for the authority sensations, perceptive, and attention to learning would be like if a person. Auditory system , Mind , Perception 1119 Words | 4 Pages. Sensation, Attention in extended essay Psychology. Sensation, Perception, and Attention Team members react differently to various auditory stimuli therefore; we will conduct an open dialogue . about each team member’s threshold for auditory stimulation, as well as compare experiences and comfort levels for each team member using the cocktail party phenomena. We will discuss how dividing attention facilitates or impedes each team member’s learning. Psychosynthesis Trust? We will identify what is perceived as the sensory perception problem, and make recommendations for ground.
Acoustics , Attention , Cocktail party effect 1279 Words | 4 Pages. Exposure, Attention, and of contents format, Comprehension on the Internet. Exposure, Attention , and Comprehension on the Internet Consumer Behaviour : Marketing Strategy in Action: Exposure, . Attention , and Comprehension on the Internet Case Study Background : Case Study Background @ 8 Marketing Strategies on Internet: 1. Creating a good site name . 2. Academon.fr Dissertation? To have the most popular extension. - make sure the site comes up near to the Top 30 of the list on any web searches. 3. Try to reach out extended essay format proactively to potential customers and brings them to your site. (Traditional. Amazon.com , E-mail , Electronic commerce 1320 Words | 6 Pages. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Definition Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD, is one . of the most common mental disorders that develop in children. Children with ADHD have trouble paying attention , controlling their behaviors (may act without thinking about what the result will be), and in some cases, are overly active. . Research Apa Format Paper? If untreated, this disorder can have long-term effects into adulthood. Cause of of contents ADHD Scientists are not sure what causes ADHD, although.
ADHD predominantly inattentive , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1103 Words | 5 Pages. Walmart Is Bad For America? Sensation Perception and Attention. Essay Table Of Contents Format? Sensation, Perception, and research paper, Attention Sensation, perception, and attention are crucial when working in extended table of contents format a learning team. What we . sense, how we perceive, and how attentive we are to the task at hand are all extremely important. What we sense will not always be the same thing. Masters? How we perceive an essay format assignment or how we perceive each other will differ.
The attention that we pay to essay holocaust detail or to each other will also differ. Sensation, perception, and essay table of contents, attention can either be our strengths or the psychosynthesis, reason. Auditory system , Cognition , Concept 1545 Words | 4 Pages. Personal Responsibility and Attention to Detail. Taking personal responsibility and paying attention to detail are two very important character traits to table of contents format have.
It is important for civilians to . demonstrate these traits but even more important for police officers and police recruits. Academon.fr? Police officers and recruits should be held to a much higher standard than civilians because of the extended essay format, position they are in or will be in where they enforce the laws over civilians. Psychosynthesis? They should be a role model for extended essay table format people to follow. A lack of personal responsibility can. Constable , Individual responsibility , Police 1047 Words | 3 Pages.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Human Anatomy and site of rrna, Physiology Nervous System Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention Deficit Hyper . Activity Disorder, also known as ADHD, is extended essay table of contents format a neurological disorder which effects anyone from children to adults. The common symptoms of ADHD include impaired or diminished attention , impulsivity and essay holocaust, hyper activity. These symptoms can range in each individual from essay table, being mild to walmart is bad essay severe. People who have ADHD usually will range from normal to above average intelligence, the essay format, disorder. Amphetamine , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1830 Words | 5 Pages. Research carried out on attention has mainly been associated with the selective processing of incoming sensory information. It proposes, to . Essay Holocaust? some degree, our awareness of the world depends on of contents format what we choose to focus on and not simply the stimulation received by essay holocaust our senses.
Attention is extended essay often linked to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli whilst allowing a select few to masters pass through into our conscious awareness, however, a great deal of debate has been devoted to extended table format where the filter is situated. Research Apa Format Paper? Anne Treisman , Attention , Cocktail party effect 1591 Words | 5 Pages. Technology Changing Attention Spans Technology is a notion that will never end. New devices will be released and then advanced endlessly. It . Table Of Contents Format? changes society by altering the environment in which individuals adapt. Technology now is a concept that individuals cannot survive without; an average person needs technology, to eat, to entertain, to cook, and to do many other daily functions. Let’s face it, individuals need technology to survive. But this is to an extent, for example a computer can be one. Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Brain 1729 Words | 5 Pages. Research Apa Format Paper? Exposure, Attention, and Comprehension on the Internet. Exposure, Attention , and Comprehension on the Internet The Internet universe literally grows more cluttered by the minute.
According to . Network Solutions, Inc., which registers the vast majority of Web addresses around the essay of contents format, world, about 10,000 new addresses are registered each day. That means by the time you finish reading this case, about 60 new domain names will have been gobbled up. With all the clutter on the Web, how have some firms been able to masters mathematics coursework stand out and attract millions of customers. Format? Advertising , Bowl game , Great Depression 1522 Words | 5 Pages. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Cloud Community College Shawn Brandmahl April 24, 2014 Attention . Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder When people suffer with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their lively hood is majorly influenced by it. ADHD can affect people in their family lives, school performance, work performance, and can cause low self-esteem.
The three major ways a person who suffers with ADHD are affected personally are it causes difficulty maintain. Amphetamine , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1197 Words | 6 Pages. Masters Mathematics Coursework? Attention Deficit Hyperacitvity Disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Further information: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder There has been a . Essay Table Of Contents? proposal to psychosynthesis nelson increase the diagnostic criteria for the age when symptoms became present. The proposal would change the table, diagnostic criteria from symptoms being present before seven years of age to symptoms being present before twelve years of age. The new diagnostic criteria would read: B. Several noticeable inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were present by age 12.. ADHD predominantly inattentive , Amphetamine , Attention 1192 Words | 4 Pages. Effects of Age on Memory and Attention. late childhood (Santrock, 2008).
Children are prone to mathematics the power of suggestion, wherein an format adult can plant memories in the child by describing or discussing . an event (Santrock, 2008). Attention develops with age as well. Infants and young children may fixate on essay holocaust novel experiences and objects, although attention develops later in childhood and table format, throughout adolescence (and further). The cognitive capacity to attend to tasks decreases with age (late adulthood), however, especially as complexity increases. Affect , Episodic memory , Hippocampus 663 Words | 3 Pages. Sunburns: Skin and Medical Attention. healing process) causes the research apa format, blistering. Of Contents? 8. Why is this type of burn so painful? A second degree burn is masters mathematics painful since the sensory receptors of the essay table format, . nerves were damaged.
A burn is considered critical and academon.fr dissertation, should receive prompt medical attention if: 25% of the essay table of contents format, body is covered by 2nd degree burns or 10% of the body is covered by 3rd degree burns 9. What percentage of the total body surface has been burned? . Blister , Burn , Epidermis 910 Words | 4 Pages. Sensation, Perception and Attention. Sensation, Perception and Attention University of Phoenix Kessha Perry July . 23, 2011 Sensation and Perception Perception is defined as a process by academon.fr dissertation which organisms interpret and essay of contents, organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the essay holocaust, world. Sensation usually refers to the immediate, relatively unprocessed result of stimulation of sensory receptors in the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, or skin. Extended Table Of Contents? Perception, on the other. Absolute threshold of hearing , Hearing , Mind 1931 Words | 6 Pages. Sensation , Perception , and Attention.
Sensation, Perception, and Attention Every member of this Team has a specific and essay holocaust, diverse attention sensation and extended format, perceptive . process that is affected by his or her surroundings/environment. Sensation is research paper defined as the essay table format, process of bringing information from the outside world into the brain. This process is passive in a sense that the brain does not have to of rrna be engaged in sensing sensation. Perception is extended table of contents defined as the active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the information brought. Trust Nelson? Brain , Dichotic listening , Hearing 1725 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Format? Coping With Attention Deficit Disorder. ?Gabrielle Alicea Coping With Attention Deficit Disorder The life of a child with ADD is not an easy one. Dissertation? In the United States, each year, . Essay Table Of Contents? 8.4% of academon.fr dissertation children are diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. That is 5.2 million children every year.
Attention deficit disorder is not extremely easy to diagnose, as its symptoms can sometimes mirror the symptoms of some learning disabilities. Symptoms of ADD include; inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. In addition to the typical symptoms one. Amphetamine , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1020 Words | 3 Pages. higher than ever before, many believe that innovation and creativity has been dwindling down each generation. The main reasons behind this lack of creativity . have been modern technology such as television, the internet, multimedia devices, shortened attention spans, and testing. Table? Kids these days will usually defer to their phones or watch TV for instant gratification to satisfy their need of entertainment. A 2009 Nielsen survey reports that “children ages 12 to 15 (spend) nearly 25 hours a week watching.
Attention , Attention span , Creativity 1641 Words | 6 Pages. Holding the Attention of the Audience in Othello. location is to capture and research paper, hold the extended table, attention of their audience. It is an irrefutable fact that in order for a play to be successful, the walmart for america, . playwright must maintain the interest of the extended table format, audience. The tragedy of Othello, the walmart for america essay, Moor of Venice, is essay table of contents format one of Shakespeare's most renowned plays, and has been capturing the mathematics coursework, interest of its audiences for many hundreds of years. The success of table Othello is largely due to Shakespeare's phenomenal ability to secure the unwavering attention of an audience. Various techniques.
Audience , Audience theory , Iago 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Mechanisms of Attention: Monitoring and research apa format paper, Noticing Information. CH 3 Mechanisms of Attention : Monitoring and Noticing Information I. Attention : What Is It? A. Basic Characteristics . 1-Limited capacity ? Visual attention limits are described with a spotlight metaphor ? Auditory attention limits are described with gateway metaphor 2- Flexibility ? Easily shift attention based on essay table of contents format situational demands 3- Voluntary control ? We can control how we direct our attention B. Pre-Attentive vs. Apa Format? Post-Attentive Processing . Anne Treisman , Attention , Binding problem 771 Words | 6 Pages. Cherry's Notion of Selective Attention. Cherry's notion of selective attention explains how people follow what they want to hear in spite of several distractions. He refers to this . phenomenon as the cocktail party effect. He studied this in a laboratory controlled experiment using the shadowing technique. An auditory message was presented to one ear of the participants over headphones whilst a simultaneous distractor message was presented to the other ear.
The participants had to 'shadow', i.e, ignore the distractor message while repeating. Anne Treisman , Attention , Cocktail party effect 1700 Words | 5 Pages. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd) or Attention Deficit Disorder. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Attention Deficit Disorder without the Hyperactivity (ADD) is a condition of . the brain that makes it difficult for essay table children to control their behavior in school and social settings. This condition is also known by various names: hyperactivity, minimal brain dysfunction, minimal brain damage and hyperkinetic syndrome. In 1968 the name was changed to hyperkinectic, meaning wildly fast-paced or excited, reaction of childhood. Mathematics? The focus was on hyperactive. Essay? ADHD predominantly inattentive , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1876 Words | 5 Pages. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is dissertation very common nowadays . in children. “In over 60% of extended essay table children diagnosed with … ADHD, the symptoms continue into adulthood” said by walmart essay Dr. Table Format? Oz. There are many symptoms of ADHD which tell you if someone’s child has ADHD or not.
Dr. Dissertation? Hallowell said “It is characterized by extended table distractibility, impulsivity and restlessness or hyperactivity” in a child. But with finding out if a child has ADHD; the psychosynthesis nelson, person should. Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Educational psychology 964 Words | 3 Pages. Change Blindness: a Literature Review on Attention. Change Blindness: A Literature Review on Attention When going about our daily lives, just how much are we missing of the things around us? . Visual attention has fascinated psychologists and now research is being carried out to extended distinguish to sythesis what extent, our attention or the absence of it, can affect our day-to-day lives. Change blindness is extended essay format something we all experience at some point, some more than others. By definition it refers to the failure a person has to notice a change that would otherwise. Attention , Change , Change blindness 1674 Words | 5 Pages. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Essay. Attention -Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention -Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is essay holocaust defined by intense inattention, . Essay Table Format? hyperactivity, and impulsiveness in a child.
People with ADHD have many problems in academic settings. Some of these problems are similar to apa format the problems of table of contents people with learning disabilities: slow and inefficient reading, slow essay-writing, and frequent errors in math calculation and of rrna, the mechanics of writing.” ( Berkeley p. 1) There are other characteristic of Attention-Deficit. ADHD predominantly inattentive , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 2393 Words | 7 Pages. The Effect of extended format Television on a Childs Attention Span. The effect of television on a childs attention span Samantha Martin COM/156 May 6, 2012 Jodi Galvan Axia College of the University of . Phoenix The effect of television on research paper a childs attention span In watching my 13-year-old daughter, and constantly trying to get her to extended table complete the simplest of tasks such as loading the dishwasher. I have often wondered if watching too much television has anything to psychosynthesis do with her inability to complete the smallest of tasks. Some people think that. Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Child 1511 Words | 4 Pages. Review of Literature on Joint Attention and Autism. ? Review of Literature Brian Garland Saint Xavier University Introduction With its growing rate of incidence and essay table format, consequential . publicity and attention , autism is a major topic of discussion within the field of research apa format education.
While the extended essay table of contents, cause of autism is still yet to be discovered, we can, in the meantime, focus on how to help those already with a diagnosis of autism. Autism is characterized by social, communicative, and behavioral deficits with the vast spectrum of autism diagnoses. 1920 , 1922 , 1924 1419 Words | 6 Pages. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Essay. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Abstract There have been major concerns about the different kinds of site of rrna . learning disorders and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one. While there are different kinds of the learning disorders which affect the old and the young alike, researchers have not been able to extended table of contents format find the cause of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This paper will begin by discussing the definition of the disorder, the recent statistics. Amphetamine , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1405 Words | 4 Pages.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd) Psych 106: Paper 2 – Assignment: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) December, 6, 2011 Robin B. Arslanian - 0196787 Student . Brookdale Community College Brookdale Community College The subject I have chosen for my final paper is a chronic common childhood disorder called Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder commonly referred to as ADHD. ADHD predominantly inattentive , Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , Attention 2466 Words | 7 Pages. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Imagine living in a world where sights, sounds, images and thoughts are constantly changing . and shifting. Unable to focus on whatever task is at hand, your mind wanders from one activity or thought to the next. Sometimes you become so lost among all the thoughts and site of rrna sythesis, images that you don't even notice when someone is speaking to you. This is what it is extended table like for site sythesis many people who have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.
Once called hyperkinesis. ADHD predominantly inattentive , Amphetamine , Attention 1023 Words | 4 Pages. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder essay. Extended Essay Table Of Contents Format? Has the Diagnosis of is bad for america essay ADHD Increased? Western Governors University Has the extended essay table format, Diagnosis of ADHD Increased? ADHD, . Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, was once known as hyper kinesis. ADHD has become a common diagnosis in children. Walmart Is Bad For America Essay? The three symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattentive. Table Of Contents Format? Research regarding ADHD has become a national priority. It is not known only as a children’s disease but many adults have been diagnosed with the psychosynthesis trust, condition as well. ADHD predominantly inattentive , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1983 Words | 7 Pages. ? Perception and Attention Sensation and Perception Senses effect a person’s brain information reflecting on the way a . person perceives information.
The five major senses are vision, audition, touch, taste, and smell. If one or more of a person’s senses is not working properly then it can affect their perception. Table? According to Robinson-Reigler and essay holocaust, Robinson-Reigler (2008), early selection theories propose that the processes whereby we designate information for further processing. Attention , Cognition , Concept 500 Words | 4 Pages. Attention to detail is one of the most important aspects of a good soldier, a good officer and a good leader.
The smallest of extended essay table format details are often . the ones that can threaten the success of a mission, and can mean the difference between life and death. Many people can happily go about masters mathematics, their lives with no worries about the small aspects of life that those in the military have been trained to observe. The United States military is an established institution with a history that goes back hundreds of years. Army , Military , Military of the United States 502 Words | 2 Pages. Moby Dick: Symbols to of contents Draw Attention. monomania grows increasingly as the trust, story moves forward. While on the ship, Ahab addresses his crewmembers with a doubloon, which symbolizes the extended essay table of contents, act of . drawing everyone into the vortex of monomania by Ahab. He uses this coin to focus everyone's attentions and research apa format paper, goals into finding Moby Dick. br brHowever, the coin incident is not the essay table, only symbol that Melville uses to display Captain Ahab's monomania. As they are sailing, the essay holocaust, Pequod passes various ships along their journey. Upon meeting with these.
Herman Melville , Moby-Dick , Novel 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Attention Seeking All of format this speech is mathematics based on my opinions. There is a popular term amongst younger people – ‘ attention . whore’. Extended Essay Format? The Urban dictionary describes this term as an research apa format individual who will go to any lengths in order to receive attention ; it does not matter whether the attention comes from extended essay format, positive or negative means. Now, the term attention whore is a negative term. People bandy the term around for anyone they deem to be engaging in [usually] negative attention seeking behaviour. Is Bad For America Essay? THIS. Childhood , Dictionary , Human behavior 433 Words | 2 Pages. Attention Deficit Disorder (Abnormal Psychology) ?Kristin Romanital Dr. Meg Abnormal Psychology March 2, 2014 How does Attention Deficit Disorder/ Attention Deficit . Essay Table? Hyperactive Disorder affect People? Each year hundreds of thousands of people are diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder/ Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADD/ADHD). “People with ADD often have poor concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (Schwartz Casey New York Daily)”.
It is academon.fr a fairly common neurological issue that for years has been recognized as a learning. Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , By the Way 1686 Words | 5 Pages. Marler 1 Austin Marler Ayafor En102 9/4/13 “The Laptop Ate My Attention Span” Did you know laptops are a causing issues in college . Extended Essay Format? classes? Some professors and research, students see them as a distraction to the class. Some students will look at the laptop screen while the student next to them is playing a game. Professors think this intrudes on the students learning. Other professors and students see them as a great note taking tool. The professors and students do not think they are a big distraction. Absent-mindedness , Attention span , Classroom 1207 Words | 3 Pages. is selective attention . When on the mound during a softball game, I selectively pay attention to the pitch I am about the throw . and how I’m going to go about that pitch. Extended Essay? I process information from one part of the environment and exclude all the other parts. I don’t notice the academon.fr dissertation, conversations happening on the bench or realize that my mom is on the phone while eating a pretzel.
I also don’t notice my shoes pressing against my feet or the glove enclosing my hand unless I shift my attention and think about. Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Consciousness 569 Words | 2 Pages. have to say. However, not paying attention to these experienced people is extended essay table of contents format actually more detrimental to us than it is to the experienced people. . Paying attention to sythesis older and knowledgeable people allows for extended essay of contents us to learn from their mistakes and helps to prevent future catastrophes. There are many examples in history to trust nelson prove this. Many consider Obama to be an extended intelligent person and are willing to listen to him.
However, even a great leader like Obama paid attention to is bad for america essay an older and experienced person. Experience , Frederick III, German Emperor , German Empire 432 Words | 2 Pages. Early vs Late Selection Models of Attention. This essays aims are to extended table compare and contrast early VS late selection models of site sythesis attention and attentional control. Specifically, its focus will . be on some of the theories and research put forward within this field of study, that using computer analogy terms have provided models to explain attention . Following a chronological structure a review of some of the most influential theories of selective attention will be compared those of Broadbent (1958) Treisman (1964) and Deutsh Deutsh (1970). It will.
Anne Treisman , Attention , Brain 2051 Words | 6 Pages. Psychology: Discuss Effects of Video Games on Attention. Psychology: Discuss effects of video games on attention Have you ever spent all night playing the latest version of “Call of Duty” or on . “Facebook” thinking that it had only been a few hours? This is due to the fact that your attention has been directed or channelized towards one specific activity. In cognitive psychology, attention is defined as the essay format, means by which we actively process a limited amount of academon.fr dissertation information through our senses. Even in a relatively simple video game, a player is taking in. Extended Essay Table? Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Cognition 1326 Words | 4 Pages.
Analytical Rhetoric: “’Center of Attention ’: The Gender of Sports Media” In Michael A. Messner’s article of the topic of sports . Essay Holocaust? portraying in the comparison between the extended essay format, genders, he justifies the theme by academon.fr claiming that “Sport is a man’s world.” Throughout history, sports in extended essay table of contents format America were mostly participated and entertaining to the masculine role. As for the women, through the men’s eyes, the female role in sports are observed as pawns in the game, only described by Messner’s translations, “Women. Female , Gender , Gender role 631 Words | 2 Pages. Attention Interference, Automatic Processing, and the Stroop Effect. James (as cited in Edgar, 2007) attention is a model of selecting and processing multiple streams of incoming information. Selective . attention is an information processing procedure that allows focusing on specific stimuli while preventing other distracting information to interfere. Essay Holocaust? This procedure is necessary as we are not capable of processing all incoming stimuli simultaneously and also need to detect relevant information as quickly as possible. Selective attention is therefore a performance limiting.
Arithmetic mean , Cognitive psychology , Color 2113 Words | 6 Pages. Extended Essay Table? Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and is bad for america, Behavioral Management. Extended Essay Table? bring the mathematics coursework, most attention of the teacher to him/her. Immediately, one might believe that this child has ADD as it’s most commonly related to a . hyperactive child. Extended Table Of Contents Format? However, ADD is not the correct term to trust describe this child, and furthermore, this child might not have ADD, but just a simple case of hyperactivity. Of Contents Format? First of all, ADD is not the essay holocaust, correct name for this disorder. Extended Essay Of Contents? ADD is attention deficit disorder, however the apa format, correct name for this type of disorder is ADHD, which means attention deficit hyperactivity.
Amphetamine , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 2426 Words | 7 Pages. 4: Attention and Consciousness Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Some Questions of Interest • What are some . of the functions of attention ? • What are some theories to extended table of contents format explain attentional processes? • Can we actively process information, even if we are not aware of doing so? Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 4 Main Functions of Attention 1. 2. 3. 4. Research Apa Format? Signal detection and vigilance Search Selective attention Divided attention Cognitive. Attention , Cognition , Cognitive neuroscience 1382 Words | 47 Pages.
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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the table C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Masters Coursework? All such macros use each of extended essay table format, their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in essay, most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. Essay Table Of Contents Format? However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Walmart For America? Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the extended essay format called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the walmart C function pushes its results to extended essay format be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.
Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an dissertation absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to extended of contents the top of the academon.fr stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. Essay Table Of Contents Format? In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . Dissertation? You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available.
LUA_MINSTACK is extended, defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the masters mathematics available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Table Of Contents Format? Pseudo-indices are used to psychosynthesis trust access the essay format thread environment, the site of rrna sythesis function environment, the extended registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and site, change the value of essay of contents format, global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and site of rrna, are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is extended essay table format, called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at site, position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the extended table current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index.
Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in walmart is bad essay, your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by extended essay table of contents format, the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the academon.fr dissertation C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for essay format instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by walmart, calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in extended essay of contents, alphabetical order.
Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is research, how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto table format, the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Dissertation? Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the extended table of contents format block. ptr is NULL if and site of rrna, only if osize is zero. When nsize is essay format, zero, the academon.fr allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the essay request.
When nsize is not zero and osize is psychosynthesis nelson, zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and extended format, that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . Research Apa Format? ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the extended table error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first.
Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the is bad stack when the function is extended format, called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is research paper, adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.
The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on extended essay table of contents format, the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is academon.fr dissertation, considered good programming practice. Type for extended essay table of contents C functions.
In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in essay holocaust, direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. Essay Of Contents Format? The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . Masters Mathematics Coursework? To return values to extended essay format Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of academon.fr dissertation, results. Any other value in extended table format, the stack below the masters mathematics coursework results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by extended essay, Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the essay holocaust stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.
On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at extended essay of contents format, the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at academon.fr dissertation, the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the table of contents format result is the empty string. Academon.fr Dissertation? Concatenation is performed following the extended of contents format usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . Psychosynthesis? In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the table format error object on of rrna sythesis, the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded.
Creates a new empty table and extended table of contents, pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is psychosynthesis nelson, useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and essay, produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in apa format paper, a function equivalent to the one dumped. Table Of Contents? As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to essay holocaust the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and extended essay table, index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Dissertation? Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.
Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of extended of contents, any type) must be on mathematics, the stack top. Extended Table Of Contents? This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to coursework the value of the extended table parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector.
LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in walmart is bad for america essay, use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of extended essay format, bytes of dissertation, memory in extended table, use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by psychosynthesis trust nelson, data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Essay Table Format? If you want to walmart is bad for america essay control the essay table of contents format step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the masters mathematics coursework step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the extended essay table of contents previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).
The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of dissertation, a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto essay of contents format, the stack the environment table of the apa format paper value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at extended of contents, the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . Walmart For America Essay? It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack.
Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the extended essay of contents value at the top of the stack. This function pops the is bad for america essay key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). Extended Table? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the apa format top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the extended table of contents format value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is psychosynthesis trust, nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the essay table format value at research, the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Essay Of Contents Format? Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack.
Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to nelson read the table of contents format chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an of rrna sythesis opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to essay table the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto trust nelson, the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by table, this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to site sythesis destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of extended essay table of contents format, memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.
Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is academon.fr dissertation, only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the extended essay table of contents format stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on trust, a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the of contents next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua.
By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the essay holocaust result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and essay table of contents format, nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Academon.fr? Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.
If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the extended essay of contents format current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and site, its return value will be the message returned on extended of contents, the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the research return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack.
When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto extended essay format, the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is research, called to create and table of contents format, push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the is bad function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to extended table of contents format a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to psychosynthesis be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is extended table format, defined as a macro:
Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). Site? The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an extended int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua.
A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is psychosynthesis nelson, not collected (as it was never created). Essay Table Of Contents Format? A light userdata is site, equal to extended of contents any light userdata with the site of rrna sythesis same C address. This macro is extended essay table, equivalent to sythesis lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Extended Essay Table Of Contents Format? Lua makes (or reuses) an walmart internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack.
Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the extended essay of contents given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto essay holocaust, the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the extended essay of contents two values in acceptable indices index1 and is bad for america essay, index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods).
Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the essay of contents value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and is bad for america essay, v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by extended of contents, lua_load . Research Paper? Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the extended table format reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the essay holocaust chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the of contents chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero.
Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into psychosynthesis, the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the extended essay table value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the dissertation coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in essay of contents format, case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and masters mathematics, then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. Extended Table Of Contents Format? If the value at academon.fr, the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and extended table of contents format, v is the of rrna value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for essay table the newindex event (see §2.8).
Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and site of rrna sythesis, sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in extended essay table of contents format, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is is bad, larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed.
Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of table format, a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to walmart is bad for america this state must be passed as the first argument to essay format every function in essay holocaust, the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the extended essay table thread L . The status can be 0 for essay holocaust a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and of contents format, nil ; otherwise it returns 0. Academon.fr Dissertation? It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. Table Of Contents? That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the of rrna sythesis Lua value at the given acceptable index to essay of contents the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to dissertation a C string.
If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the extended format actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is site, applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. Essay Table Of Contents Format? This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the essay holocaust corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to essay table of contents the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to walmart is bad essay a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to extended table of contents convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). Site? This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at extended essay table of contents, the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the coursework type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by of contents format, lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only psychosynthesis nelson, be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:
When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the extended essay table format running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by apa format, means of essay of contents format, functions and hooks . This interface allows the academon.fr dissertation construction of extended table format, different kinds of trust nelson, debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the table of contents format interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of psychosynthesis trust nelson, information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of essay of contents, this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of coursework, lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the extended essay table of contents function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the mathematics function was defined in of contents, a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in site of rrna sythesis, error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. Extended Essay Table Of Contents? what : the research paper string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for extended table of contents the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name.
If it cannot find a name, then name is set to research apa format NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the table of contents function was called. Psychosynthesis Nelson? (Lua uses the extended table format empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the apa format current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the extended table of contents what string with the coursework character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in extended table format, which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the apa format paper structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and extended essay table of contents, what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto essay holocaust, the stack a table whose indices are the extended essay numbers of the lines that are valid on of rrna sythesis, the function. Extended Essay? (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.
Non-valid lines include empty lines and academon.fr dissertation, comments.) This function returns 0 on extended essay of contents, error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to coursework a hook (see lua_Hook ). Extended Essay? The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). Walmart Is Bad For America? lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals).
Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the extended essay table of contents format interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the essay holocaust activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto essay table of contents, the stack, and for america, returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.
So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the extended essay table format empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and psychosynthesis nelson, LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the extended essay table field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in apa format paper, ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the table of contents normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is research paper, useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to table format execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the psychosynthesis trust hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. Extended Essay Of Contents? The hook is dissertation, called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments.
The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. Extended Essay? The hook is site sythesis, called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to essay the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of essay holocaust, a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only extended table of contents format, happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. Mathematics Coursework? (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of essay table of contents, a local variable of a given activation record.
Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to psychosynthesis nelson the variable and essay table of contents format, returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is site of rrna, greater than the essay format number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the of rrna sythesis value at the top of the extended stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.
The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the site basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the extended table of contents format check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for site sythesis arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and extended table of contents, types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the research character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the essay of contents string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros.
Adds to research apa format the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the of contents format stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the research apa format stack.
During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to extended essay table of contents buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is for america essay, luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only extended essay of contents format, argument. Academon.fr? In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call.
If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at extended essay format, position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the essay holocaust string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and extended of contents, caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. Coursework? (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an format additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and site, caveats of essay, that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:
It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of of rrna sythesis, errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in essay table of contents, case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the of rrna same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is extended essay table format, available.
This function never returns, but it is an academon.fr idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at extended table, index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the essay holocaust metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the extended essay table of contents string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in walmart is bad for america, the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Extended Essay Table Of Contents Format? name is the chunk name, used for debug information and masters mathematics, error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in extended essay table of contents, the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file.
As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the mathematics key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in extended, case of fatal errors. Returns the essay holocaust new state, or NULL if there is table of contents, a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is essay holocaust, nil , returns d . Extended Essay Of Contents? Otherwise, raises an error. If the academon.fr function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the extended of contents format function argument narg is walmart is bad for america essay, a number, returns this number. Extended Table Of Contents? If this argument is psychosynthesis, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
Returns an extended essay of contents format address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into masters, this space you must call luaL_addsize with the extended essay table size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at dissertation, index t , for the object at extended essay of contents, the top of the stack (and pops the site sythesis object). A reference is table, a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by academon.fr dissertation, reference r by table format, calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the psychosynthesis trust nelson stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is extended essay table, guaranteed to academon.fr dissertation be different from extended essay format any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for research apa format arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to essay of contents format the function. Any array of sythesis, luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library.
When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in essay of contents format, the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into research, the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of table format, package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in essay holocaust, variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and extended table, rt is the psychosynthesis nelson type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is essay format, removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is mathematics coursework, used to essay table of contents build a prefix for error messages.
The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of masters, these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to essay table format outside services (e.g., I/O); and dissertation, others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in of contents, C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the walmart for america following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the extended table format basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the psychosynthesis string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by extended, using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector.
It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the psychosynthesis trust nelson garbage collector. count: returns the extended of contents total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. Apa Format? The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in extended of contents, a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of is bad, arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the essay format collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for coursework step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the essay of contents error position is academon.fr dissertation, where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Table? Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of paper, error position information to the message.
If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the essay format associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message.
The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is walmart essay, used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to table =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and research apa format, run a given string, use the extended table idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in psychosynthesis trust, this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to table check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the is bad essay ipairs function.)
The behavior of extended essay of contents, next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal.
Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . Academon.fr? This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is essay of contents, true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is mathematics coursework, a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and table of contents, select returns the walmart is bad essay total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function.
As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the extended table of contents format metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the sythesis numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and table of contents format, 36, inclusive. Site? In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and extended table of contents, so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1).
In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the essay holocaust metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of extended table of contents format, elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the masters coursework list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in extended table format, protected mode, using err as the error handler. Research Apa Format Paper? Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and table of contents format, returns a status code. Its first result is the for america essay status code (a boolean), which is true if the essay table of contents format call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the masters coursework execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. Extended Essay Table Of Contents? The values val1 , ··· are passed as the essay holocaust arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the essay table of contents format coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by apa format paper, the body function (if the coroutine terminates). Extended Essay Format? If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread.
Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the psychosynthesis coroutine is suspended in extended essay table format, a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the site calling coroutine.
The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to extended resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of psychosynthesis nelson, its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in extended essay format, a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in site sythesis, package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Format? Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and academon.fr dissertation, sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).
Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is essay format, a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of walmart essay, global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. Table Of Contents Format? The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is psychosynthesis nelson, already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array.
By changing this array, we can change how require looks for extended table of contents a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for essay holocaust package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . Essay Table Of Contents? If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the walmart is bad essay returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the extended essay of contents format loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to sythesis this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the essay table format Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded.
When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the trust value stored there. A table used by require to control how to essay table of contents format load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for essay holocaust a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is essay table format, a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by essay holocaust, filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name.
So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for essay of contents a Lua file for module foo will try to masters open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Extended Of Contents Format? For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader.
The name of academon.fr dissertation, this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is essay table, replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the of rrna module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is extended essay table format, removed. For instance, if the module name is masters mathematics coursework, a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an extended all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into research paper, it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into extended table, one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Walmart Is Bad? Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is extended essay table format, a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used).
This function is not supported by ANSI C. Site? As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the table dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the academon.fr dissertation environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Extended Essay Of Contents? Any ;; in the value of the walmart is bad essay environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for essay format string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the is bad for america end of the string. Thus, the last character is at essay, position -1, and trust, so on.
The string library provides all its functions inside the table of contents table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the research paper __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in format, object-oriented style. For America? For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.
As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into extended essay, a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the site iteration. If repl is extended essay table format, a string, then its value is used for walmart for america essay replacement. Essay Of Contents Format? The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match.
The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the dissertation whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is essay table format, called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is walmart is bad for america essay, passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is extended, false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is academon.fr dissertation, kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to essay of contents represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in research, describing a character class: x : (where x is extended table of contents, not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the paper character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. Extended Format? %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is dissertation, any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by table of contents, a ' % ' when used to represent itself in is bad for america, a pattern. Essay? [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . Of Rrna? All other characters in extended essay table format, set represent themselves.
For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is essay holocaust, interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the table format class. Walmart Essay? For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.
The definitions of letter, space, and essay table of contents format, other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by coursework, ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in of contents, the class. These repetition items will always match the psychosynthesis trust nelson longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by essay table format, ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in essay holocaust, the class; % n , for n between 1 and table format, 9; such item matches a substring equal to research the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and extended table format, y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to walmart right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at essay of contents format, the end of essay holocaust, a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves.
A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in table format, the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the academon.fr part of the extended table string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the essay holocaust current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the format table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. Trust? For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary.
The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at extended essay format, the end of table t . Returns the essay holocaust largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the extended essay table of contents whole table.) Removes from essay holocaust table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to extended close the site of rrna space, if necessary. Extended Essay Of Contents Format? Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the essay length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of extended essay table, table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to masters coursework the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians).
Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the extended essay table format quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to academon.fr dissertation be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the table of contents format value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and sythesis, e such that x = m2 e , e is an extended essay of contents format integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.
Returns two numbers, the essay holocaust integral part of x and the fractional part of essay, x . Returns x y . Site Of Rrna? (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . Extended Of Contents Format? When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in walmart is bad for america essay, the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of extended table of contents format, numbers. Returns the apa format sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of extended essay, x . (You can also use the apa format expression x^0.5 to compute this value.)
Returns the table format tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. Psychosynthesis Trust? The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from extended format C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and apa format, io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files.
Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over extended table of contents the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and essay holocaust, sets its handle as the extended essay default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file.
In case of paper, errors this function raises the error, instead of table of contents, returning an psychosynthesis error code. Opens the extended of contents given file name in masters coursework, read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is extended essay table of contents format, called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and of rrna sythesis, automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the extended essay of contents default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in of rrna sythesis, the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message.
The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in extended table, binary mode. This string is nelson, exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to essay of contents format read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and site sythesis, is not available on all platforms.
Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. Extended Essay Table Of Contents? This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is academon.fr, a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the extended of contents entire next line (see below).
The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at essay holocaust, the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on essay table, end of file. Walmart Essay? This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an extended format empty string, or nil on site of rrna sythesis, end of file. Sets and gets the table file position, measured from the paper beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the of contents format file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.
The default value for whence is cur , and for essay holocaust offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and extended of contents format, the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the masters mathematics coursework file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of extended essay table of contents, any output operation appears immediately. Essay Holocaust? full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the extended table of contents format file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is walmart essay, buffered until a newline is output or there is of contents format, any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size.
Writes the value of each of its arguments to essay holocaust the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to extended essay of contents the given string format . If the time argument is research paper, present, this is the time to format be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of walmart for america essay, this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is of contents, formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. Trust Nelson? After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the essay table of contents format date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to of rrna sythesis os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and extended table of contents format, some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to essay holocaust be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is extended essay table format, system-dependent. Essay Holocaust? If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise.
Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the essay table format success code. Returns the is bad value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the of contents format given name. Essay Holocaust? Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the extended essay table format error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the apa format current locale is set to format an implementation-defined native locale.
If locale is the is bad string C , the current locale is essay, set to dissertation the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and table format, day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and apa format paper, isdst (for a description of essay table of contents, these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on masters mathematics, your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the extended essay format meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for sythesis a temporary file.
The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. Table Of Contents? (Someone else might create the site of rrna sythesis file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to format remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to essay holocaust use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the of contents functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Is Bad Essay? The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.
Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an extended essay table format interactive mode with the user, running each string that the paper user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and extended of contents, so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the site of rrna current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what])
Returns a table with information about format, a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to academon.fr dissertation fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of of contents format, valid lines. Masters? If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the essay of contents format option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the site sythesis table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the of contents stack. Essay Holocaust? (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the extended of contents last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is site of rrna, no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of format, range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.)
Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the essay holocaust given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the table of contents environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])
Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and trust nelson, the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is format, called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is essay holocaust, called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the extended essay table of contents hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from academon.fr dissertation a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the essay format hook also gets the psychosynthesis trust new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the table format getinfo function, and level 1 is the site sythesis hook function), unless the extended essay format event is tail return . Psychosynthesis Trust? In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. Table Of Contents? (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is academon.fr, valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable.
Sets the metatable for the given object to extended of contents the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is trust nelson, appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is table of contents, provided with the essay holocaust standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the essay of contents debug library. Its usage is:
The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the essay holocaust given args as string arguments. Table? When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the research standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Table? Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . Academon.fr? For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call.
the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . Extended Essay Of Contents? '. In interactive mode, if you write an mathematics incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for extended format its completion by is bad for america essay, issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the of contents format secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements).
Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by apa format paper, assigning to _PROMPT . Essay Table Format? See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the essay holocaust program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1.
You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). Format? However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for research apa format statement and for extended table the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. Essay Holocaust? You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in extended essay, luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the coursework whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated.
Function table.getn corresponds to extended table format the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. Site Of Rrna Sythesis? You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to extended essay table of contents format the new module system. Essay Holocaust? However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the format old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Psychosynthesis Nelson? Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead.
The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to extended table of contents set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Walmart For America? Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the extended essay table of contents format expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in walmart for america essay, extended BNF. Table Of Contents Format? (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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Aeschylus' Oresteia and Prometheus Bound: Hubris and the Chorus. Autor: reviewessays • April 26, 2011 • Essay • 1,626 Words (7 Pages) • 1,076 Views. The dramatic presentations of ancient Greece developed out of religious rites performed to honor gods or to mark the coming of spring. Playwrights such as Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides composed plays to be performed and judged at competitions held during the yearly Dionysian festivals. Extended Essay Table Of Contents? Those plays were chosen by a selection board and evaluated by a panel of judges. To compete in the contest, Greek playwrights had to submit three tragedies, which could be either based on a common theme or unrelated, and one comedy. However, relatively few of these ancient Greek plays survive today. Psychosynthesis Trust Nelson? Known as the extended essay format father of tragedy, Aeschylus introduced a second actor on stage, allowing for action and interaction to take place and establishing a caste of professional actors (Bloom, 45). He let the chorus converse with the characters, introduced elaborate costumes and stage designs. Two of Aeschylus' plays, Oresteia and Prometheus Bound, illustrate the importance of Chorus and the characteristic concept of hubris, or excessive pride, focusing on academon.fr man's social and political consequences in the universe in relation to the Greek gods.
Aeschylus was a native of Eleusis, a Greek town near Athens. The year of his birth was 525 B.C. He was the first of the great Greek tragedians, preceding both Sophocles and extended table of contents, Euripides. He witnessed political and social changes when he spent much of his life in Athens. Aeschylus was a soldier; his military experience included fighting in the battle of Marathon against the Persians in 490 B.C. He later fought against the Persians at masters mathematics coursework, Salamis and Platea in 480 B.C. (Bloom, 58). Athens, at that time, was part of a federation of small Greek states allied against extended essay table of contents, the forces of the Persian army, which was led by King Xerxes. Aeschylus fought against the Persians who invaded Athens and is bad for america, lost his brother in the final battle. Over eighty plays are credited to his name, of which only seven have been preserved in full by the efforts of ancient historians.
Of the seven surviving plays, the Suppliants is generally agreed to be the earliest and is usually assigned to the first decade of the century. The Persians was produced in 472 B.C., the Seven Against Thebes in 467, and the Oresteia in 458 (Bloom, 43). In Aeschylus' trilogy, the Oresteia, he dramatizes the phenomenon of the ancestral curse upon the House of Atreus. Agamemnon and extended essay table format, Menelaus, sons of Atreus, have inherited the curse. Site Of Rrna Sythesis? Agamemnon, the powerful king in all Greece, has marshaled an expedition to attack Troy and return Helen to Menelaus. Encountering the wrath of Artemis, Agamemnon must in appeasement sacrifice his daughter, Iphigenia.
Agamemnon is the first of essay table of contents, a triology, the Oresteia, the other two parts of which are The Libation Bearers and The Eumenides. Agamemnon depicts the assassination of the title character by his wife, Clytemnestra, and her lover, Aegisthus. The Libation Bearers continues the story with the return of psychosynthesis trust, Agamemnon's son, Orestes, who kills his mother and avenges his father. In The Eumenides, Orestes is pursued by the Furies in punishment for his matricide, and of contents format, finally finds refuge in Athens where the god Athena relives him of his persecution. Aeschylus wrote the research apa format Prometheus Bound in essay format, about 456 B.C. The play is a tragedy that details the sufferings of trust, Prometheus for his rebellion against Zeus.
This play is composed of almost entirely of speeches and contains little action since its protagonist is chained throughout the play. At the beginning of the table format play, Cratos and Bia and Hephaestus chain Prometheus to a mountain in the Caucasus and then depart. The daughters of research apa format paper, Oceanus, who make up the chorus, appear and attempt to comfort Prometheus by conversing with him. Extended Format? Prometheus is then visited by Io, who has been changed into a cow by Zeus to dissertation, save her from the wrath of Hera. Prometheus gives her knowledge of her own future, telling her that one of her descendants will release him from his torment. Finally, Hermes is sent down by the angered Zeus to demand that Prometheus tell him who threatens to overthrow Zeus. Prometheus refuses along with his excessive stubbornness, and faces the unfortunate wrath. The role of extended essay of contents format, hubris, or excessive pride, comes before the death of Agamemnon. This can be illustrated through the speeches of the Chorus when they discuss the dangers of being too successful in essay holocaust, life: The gods fail not to essay of contents format, mark/Those who have killed many/The black Furies stalking the man/Fortunate beyond all right/Wrench back again the set of his life/And drop him to darkness. There among/The ciphers there is is bad for america no more comfort/in power.
And the vaunt of of contents format, high glory/Is bitterness; For Gods thunderbolts/Crash on the towering mountains/Let me attain no envied wealth/Let me not plunder cities/Neither be taken in turn, and face/Life in the power of another. (Grene Lattimore, 461-474). Walmart Is Bad? This scene describes when Clytemnestra induces her husband to tread on the purple robes strewn in extended of contents format, his path; this is the symbolic act of hubris, an act that foreshadows his death. When it comes to focusing on those lines of the Chorus, it appears that the knowledge of the is bad for america Greek gods is necessary. Those Greek gods are too good in their jealousies, and rather than reward human greatness, they tend to see mortal achievement as a threat to their own power. When a Greek human like Agamemnon rises too high, he is seen as a threat to those gods. The main theme of extended essay table of contents, gods is heavily used in Prometheus Bound. When Prometheus gets angered by Io's suffering, He shouts out the following lines: But aren't you childish, I mean/Sillier than any child, expecting me to essay holocaust, tell you/Anything?/Zeus doesn't have one torture, not one ingenious device/To pry this out of me/Not till He eases/These shameful chains/Let Him rocket His lighting/The bolts trailing smoke!/With white wings of snowflakes/With earth shattering/Thunder/Let Him heave together everything there is/In one confusion!/None of this will make me stoop to tell/Who's fated to table of contents, overthrow/Him from His tyranny. (Scully Herington, 1510-1525).
In those lines, Prometheus mocks Hermes and apa format paper, says that he will tell nothing, after Hermes enters and orders Prometheus to reveal the identity of Zeus's son. Extended Table Of Contents Format? Hermes accuses Prometheus of being overly disobedient, and Prometheus deflects each accusation with sarcasm. This shows that Prometheus displays no fear of his destiny, indicating that he is too stubborn.
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essay on extended format, dreams dismiss for paper 28 days 1 year info. [NOTE: This was the last work that Paine ever gave to extended table of contents the press. It appeared in New York in 1807 with the following title: An Examination of the Passages in the New Testament, quoted from the dissertation Old and called Prophecies concerning Jesus Christ. To which is prefixed an Essay on Dream, showing by what operation of the mind a Dream is extended, produced in sleep, and research, applying the same to the account of Dreams in the New Testament. With an Appendix containing my private thoughts of a Future State. And Remarks on the Contradictory Doctrine in the Books of extended essay of contents format, Matthew and Mark. By Thomas Paine, New York: Printed for the Author. pp.
68. This work is made up from the unpublished Part III, of the Age of Reason, and the answer to the Bishop of Landaff. In the Introductory chapter, on Dream, he would seem to have partly utilized an earlier essay, and this is the only part of the work previously printed. Nearly all of site of rrna sythesis, it was printed in Paris, in English, soon after Paine's departure for America. This little pamphlet, of which the only copy I have seen or heard of is in the Bodleian Library, has never been mentioned by essay table any of Paine's editors, and perhaps he himself was not aware of its having been printed.
Its title is: Extract from the essay holocaust M.S. Third Part of Thomas Paine's Age of Reason. Chapter the essay of contents format Second: Article, Dream. Paris: Printed for M. Chateau, 1803. It is possible that it was printed for private circulation.
I have compared this Paris pamphlet closely with an original copy of Paine's own edition, (New York, 1807) with results indicated in footnotes to the Essay, Dr. Clair J. Grece, of Redhill, has shown me a copy of the essay holocaust Examination which Paine presented to his (Dr. Table Format. Grece's) uncle, Daniel Constable, in New York, July 21, 1807, with the prediction, It is academon.fr, too much for the priests, and they will not touch it. Essay Of Contents Format. It is rudely stitched in brown paper cover, and without the Preface and the Essay on Dream. Of Rrna Sythesis. It would appear from a note, which I quote at the beginning of the Examination, by an early American editor that Paine detached that part as the only fragment he wished to be circulated. This pamphlet, with some omissions, was published in London, 1811, as Part III. of the Age of extended table, Reason, by Daniel Isaacs Eaton, for which he was sentenced to eighteen months imprisonment, and to stand in the pillory for one hour in each month. This punishment drew from Shelley his celebrated letter to Lord Ellenborough, who had given a scandalously prejudiced charge to the jury. -- Editor.] IT is the duty of every man, as far as his ability extends, to detect and expose delusion and error. But nature has not given to everyone a talent for the purpose; and among those to whom such a talent is research apa format paper, given, there is often a want of disposition or of courage to do it.
The world, or more properly speaking, that small part of essay of contents format, it called christendom, or the christian world, has been amused for more than a thousand years with accounts of Prophecies in the Old- Testament about the coming of the essay holocaust person called Jesus Christ, and thousands of sermons have been preached, and volumes written, to make man believe it. In the extended of contents following treatise I have examined all the passages in the New-Testament, quoted from the psychosynthesis trust Old, and called prophecies concerning Jesus Christ, and I find no such thing as a prophecy of any such person, and I deny there are any. Extended Essay. The passages all relate to circumstances the Jewish nation was in at the time they were written or spoken, and not to anything that was or was not to happen in the world several hundred years afterwards; and I have shown what the circumstances were to trust which the passages apply or refer. I have given chapter and verse for every thing I have said, and have not gone out of the books of the extended Old and New Testament for evidence that the passages are not prophecies of the psychosynthesis nelson person called Jesus Christ. The prejudice of unfounded belief, often degenerates into the prejudice of essay table of contents format, custom, and becomes at last rank hypocrisy. When men, from custom or fashion or any worldly motive, profess or pretend to believe what they do not believe, nor can give any reason for believing, they unship the helm of their morality, and being no longer honest to their own minds they feel no moral difficulty in being unjust to others. It is from the influence of this vice, hypocrisy, that we see so many church-and-meeting-going professors and pretenders to religion so full of trick and deceit in their dealings, and trust, so loose in the performance of their engagements that they are not to be trusted further than the laws of the country will bind them.
Morality has no hold on their minds, no restraint on their actions. One set of preachers make salvation to extended of contents consist in believing. They tell their congregations that if they believe in Christ their sins shall be forgiven. This, in the first place, is an encouragement to sin, in a similar manner as when a prodigal young fellow is told his father will pay all his debts, he runs into debt the masters mathematics coursework faster, and extended of contents format, becomes the more extravagant. Daddy, says he, pays all, and on he goes: just so in the other case, Christ pays all, and on goes the sinner. In the next place, the doctrine these men preach is not true.
The New Testament rests itself for credibility and testimony on site, what are called prophecies in the Old-Testament of the person called Jesus Christ; and if there are no such things as prophecies of extended format, any such person in the Old-Testament, the New-Testament is a forgery of the Councils of Nice and Laodicea, and the faith founded thereon delusion and falsehood. [NOTE by academon.fr PAINE: The councils of Nice and Laodicea were held about 350 years after the time Christ is said to have lived; and the books that now compose the New Testament, were then voted for by YEAS and NAYS, as we now vote a law. A great many that were offered had a majority of nays, and were rejected. This is the way the extended of contents New-Testament came into being. -- Author.] Another set of preachers tell their congregations that God predestinated and site of rrna sythesis, selected, from all eternity, a certain number to be saved, and a certain number to be damned eternally. If this were true, the 'day of Judgment' IS PAST: their preaching is in vain, and extended essay format, they had better work at some useful calling for walmart is bad for america essay their livelihood. This doctrine, also, like the former, hath a direct tendency to demoralize mankind. Can a bad man be reformed by essay of contents telling him, that if he is one of walmart is bad for america essay, those who was decreed to be damned before he was born his reformation will do him no good; and if he was decreed to be saved, he will be saved whether he believes it or not? For this is the result of the doctrine. Such preaching and such preachers do injury to the moral world. Extended Essay Format. They had better be at the plough.
As in my political works my motive and research apa format paper, object have been to extended table of contents format give man an elevated sense of his own character, and free him from the slavish and superstitious absurdity of monarchy and dissertation, hereditary government, so in table of contents format, my publications on religious subjects my endeavors have been directed to bring man to a right use of the reason that God has given him, to impress on him the great principles of divine morality, justice, mercy, and a benevolent disposition to all men, and to all creatures, and to inspire in him a spirit of trust, confidence, and consolation in essay holocaust, his creator, unshackled by the fables of books pretending to be 'the word of God.' In order to understand the nature of Dream, or of that which passes in ideal vision during a state of sleep, it is first necessary to understand the composition and extended essay table of contents format, decomposition of the human mind. The three great faculties of the mind are IMAGINATION, JUDGMENT, and MEMORY. Every action of the mind comes under one or the other of these faculties. Masters. [NOTE: This sentence is essay format, not in Paris edition. -- Editor.] In a state of wakefulness, as in the day-time, these three faculties are all active; but that is masters coursework, seldom the case in sleep, and extended of contents format, never perfectly: and this is the cause that our dreams are not so regular and rational as our waking thoughts. The seat of that collection of powers or faculties that constitute what is called the walmart is bad essay mind, is in the brain. There is not, and cannot be, any visible demonstration of this anatomically, but accidents happening to essay table living persons shew it to be so. Masters Coursework. An injury done to the brain by table a fracture of the skull, will sometimes change a wise man into a childish idiot, -- a being without a mind. But so careful has nature been of of rrna sythesis, that Sanctum Sanctorum of man, the brain, that of all the external accidents to which humanity is subject, this occurs the most seldom. Extended Table Of Contents. But we often see it happening by long and habitual intemperance.
Whether those three faculties occupy distinct apartments of the brain, is psychosynthesis, known only to that ALMIGHTY POWER that formed and organized it. We can see the external effects of extended, muscular motion in all the members of the body, though its premium mobile, or first moving cause, is unknown to man. Our external motions are sometimes the site sythesis effect of intention, sometimes not. If we are sitting and intend to rise, or standing and intend to sit or to walk, the limbs obey that intention as if they heard the order given. But we make a thousand motions every day, and that as well waking as sleeping, that have no prior intention to direct them. Each member acts as if it had a will or mind of its own. Man governs the whole when he pleases to govern, but in the interim the essay table several parts, like little suburbs, govern themselves without consulting the sovereign. And all these motions, whatever be the generating cause, are external and visible.
But with respect to the brain, no ocular observation can be made upon it. All is mathematics coursework, mystery; all is darkness in format, that womb of thought. Whether the brain is a mass of matter in continual rest whether it has a vibrating pulsative motion, or a heaving and falling motion like matter in fermentation; whether different parts of the brain have different motions according to the faculty that is employed, be it the imagination, the judgment, or the memory, man knows nothing of. Psychosynthesis Trust Nelson. He knows not the cause of essay table of contents, his own wit. His own brain conceals it from him. Comparing invisible by visible things, as metaphysical can sometimes be compared to physical things, the operations of dissertation, these distinct and several faculties have some resemblance to a watch. The main spring which puts all in motion corresponds to the imagination; the pendulum which corrects and regulates that motion, corresponds to the judgment; and the hand and table format, dial, like the memory, record the operation. Now in proportion as these several faculties sleep, slumber, or keep awake, during the continuance of a dream, in that proportion the dream will be reasonable or frantic, remembered or forgotten. If there is any faculty in mental man that never sleeps, it is that volatile thing the imagination. The case is different with the judgment and memory.
The sedate and sober constitution of the judgment easily disposes it to rest; and masters, as to the memory, it records in silence and is active only when it is called upon. That the judgment soon goes to sleep may be perceived by extended essay table format our sometimes beginning to dream before we are fully asleep ourselves. Some random thought runs in the mind, and we start, as it were, into recollection that we are dreaming between sleeping and waking. [If a pendulum of a watch by any accident becomes displaced, that it can no longer control and regulate the elastic force of the spring, the works are instantly thrown into confusion, and continue so as long as the spring continues to have force. In like manner] [NOTE: The words within crotchers are only in the Paris edition. In the New York edition (1807) the next word If begins a new paragraph. -- Editor.] if the judgment sleeps whilst the imagination keeps awake, the dream will be a riotous assemblage of misshapen images and ranting ideas, and the more active the imagination is the wilder the site sythesis dream will be.
The most inconsistent and the most impossible things will appear right; because that faculty whose province it is to keep order is in a state of absence. The master of the school is gone out and the boys are in an uproar. If the memory sleeps, we shall have no other knowledge of the dream than that we have dreamt, without knowing what it was about. Essay Table Format. In this case it is sensation rather than recollection that acts. The dream has given us some sense of pain or trouble, and we feel it as a hurt, rather than remember it as vision. If the masters mathematics coursework memory slumbers we shall have a faint remembrance of the dream, and after a few minutes it will some-times happen that the principal passages of the dream will occur to essay format us more fully.
The cause of this is that the memory will sometimes continue slumbering or sleeping after we are awake ourselves, and that so fully, that it may and sometimes does happen, that we do not immediately recollect where we are, nor what we have been about, or have to do. But when the memory starts into wakefulness it brings the knowledge of these things back upon psychosynthesis trust nelson us like a flood of light, and extended table format, sometimes the dream with it. But the academon.fr most curious circumstance of the mind in a state of extended table of contents format, dream, is the masters coursework power it has to table of contents format become the agent of every person, character and thing of which it dreams. It carries on conversation with several, asks questions, hears answers, gives and receives information, and it acts all these parts itself. Yet however various and eccentric the imagination may be in the creating of masters mathematics coursework, images and ideas, it cannot supply the place of memory with respect to things that are forgotten when we are awake. For example, if we have forgotten the extended table of contents format name of a person, and dream of seeing him and asking him his name, he cannot tell it; for it is ourselves asking ourselves the question. But though the imagination cannot supply the place of real memory, it has the wild faculty of counterfeiting memory. It dreams of persons it never knew, and mathematics, talks to them as if it remembered them as old acquaintance. It relates circumstances that never happened, and tells them as if they had happened. It goes to places that never existed, and knows where all the streets and houses are, as if we had been there before.
The scenes it creates are often as scenes remembered. It will sometimes act a dream within a dream, and, in the delusion of dreaming, tell a dream it never dreamed, and tell it as if it was from memory. It may also be remarked, that the essay format imagination in a dream has no idea of academon.fr, time, as tune. It counts only by extended essay circumstances; and if a succession of circumstances pass in a dream that would require a great length of time to accomplish them, it will appear to the dreamer that a length of time equal thereto has passed also. As this is the state of the mind in a dream, it may rationally be said that every person is nelson, mad once in twenty-four hours, for essay of contents were he to act in the day as he dreams in the night, he would be confined for a lunatic. In a state of wakefulness, those three faculties being all active, and acting in unison, constitute the rational man. In dream it is psychosynthesis, otherwise, and, therefore, that state which is called insanity appears to be no other than a dismission of extended format, those faculties, and nelson, a cessation of the judgment during wakefulness, that we so often experience during sleep; and format, idiocity, into which some persons have fallen, is that cessation of all the faculties of which we can be sensible when we happen to wake before our memory.
In this view of the mind, how absurd it is to place reliance upon dreams, and how much more absurd to make them a foundation for religion; yet the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, begotten by the Holy Ghost, a being never heard of before, stands on the foolish story of an old man's dream. And behold the apa format paper angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of table of contents, David, fear not thou to trust nelson take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is extended essay of contents, conceived in her is of the essay holocaust Holy Ghost. -- Matt. 1. 20. After this we have the childish stories of three or four other dreams: about format Joseph going into paper Egypt; about his coming back again; about this, and about that, and this story of dreams has thrown Europe into a dream for more than a thousand years. All the efforts that nature, reason, and conscience have made to awaken man from it, have been ascribed by priestcraft and superstition to extended table format the working of the devil, and had it not been for the American Revolution, which, by establishing the universal right of conscience, [NOTE: The words right of are not in the Paris edition. -- Editor.] first opened the way to free discussion, and for the French Revolution that followed, this Religion of Dreams had continued to be preached, and that after it had ceased to be believed.
Those who preached it and did not believe it, still believed the delusion necessary. They were not bold enough to be honest, nor honest enough to be bold. [NOTE: The remainder of research paper, this essay, down to the last two paragraphs, though contained in the Paris pamphlet, was struck out of the essay format essay by Paine when he published it in America; it was restored by an American editor who got hold of the original manuscript, with the exception of two sentences which he supposed caused the author to reserve the nine paragraphs containing them. It is probable, however, that this part was omitted as an interruption of the essay on Dream. The present Editor therefore concludes to insert the passage, without any omission, in apa format, this footnote:] Every new religion, like a new play, requires a new apparatus of dresses and machinery, to fit the new characters it creates. The story of Christ in the New Testament brings a new being upon the stage, which it calls the extended table Holy Ghost; and the story of Abraham, the father of the Jews, in the Old Testament, gives existence to a new order of beings it calls Angels. There was no Holy Ghost before the time of Christ, nor Angels before the time of Abraham. We hear nothing of these winged gentlemen, till more than two thousand years, according to mathematics coursework the Bible chronology, from the time they say the heavens, the earth, and all therein were made.
After this, they hop about as thick as birds in extended essay table, a grove. The first we hear of, pays his addresses to Hagar in the wilderness; then three of them visit Sarah; another wrestles a fall with Jacob; and these birds of passage having found their way to earth and back, are continually coming and essay holocaust, going. They eat and of contents format, drink, and up again to heaven. What they do with the food they carry away in psychosynthesis nelson, their bellies, the Bible does not tell us. Perhaps they do as the birds do, discharge it as they fly; for neither the scripture nor the church hath told us there are necessary houses for them in extended essay, heaven. One would think that a system loaded with such gross and vulgar absurdities as scripture religion is of rrna sythesis, could never have obtained credit; yet we have seen what priestcraft and fanaticism could do, and credulity believe. From Angels in the Old Testament we get to extended essay of contents format prophets, to witches, to seers of visions, and dreamers of dreams; and sometimes we are told, as in research apa format, 1 Sam. ix. 15, that God whispers in the ear. At other times we are not told how the impulse was given, or whether sleeping or waking.
In 2 Sam. xxiv. 1, it is said, And again the anger of the lord was kindled against Israel, and table, he moved David against them to essay holocaust say, Go number Israel and Judah. And in format, 1 Chron. xxi. I, when the same story is again related, it is essay holocaust, said, And Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel. Whether this was done sleeping or waking, we are not told, but it seems that David, whom they call a man after God's own heart, did not know by what spirit he was moved; and as to extended essay the men called inspired penmen, they agree so well about the matter, that in one book they say that it was God, and in the other that it was the Devil. Yet this is trash that the church imposes upon the world as the WORD OF GOD; this is the collection of lies and contradictions called the of rrna HOLY BIBLE! this is the rubbish called REVEALED RELIGION! The idea that writers of the Old Testament had of a God was boisterous, contemptible, and vulgar. They make him the Mars of the Jews, the fighting God of Israel, the conjuring God of their Priests and extended, Prophets. They tell us as many fables of him as the Greeks told of Hercules. They pit him against Pharaoh, as it were to box with him, and Moses carries the challenge.
They make their God to say insultingly, I will get me honor upon Pharaoh and upon all his Host, upon site sythesis his chariots and upon his Horsemen. And that he may keep his word, they make him set a trap in the Red Sea, in the dead of the night, for Pharaoh, his host, and his horses, and extended of contents format, drown them as a rat-catcher would do so many rats. Great honor indeed! the story of Jack the giant-killer is better told! They match him against the Egyptian magicians to conjure with them, and after hard conjuring on both sides (for where there is no great contest there is no great honor) they bring him off victorious. The first three essays are a dead match: each party turns his rod into walmart for america a serpent, the rivers into blood, and creates frogs: but upon extended table the fourth, the God of the academon.fr dissertation Israelites obtains the laurel, he covers them all over with lice! The Egyptian magicians cannot do the same, and this lousy triumph proclaims the victory! They make their God to rain fire and brimstone upon Sodom and Gomorrah and belch fire and smoke upon mount Sinai, as if he was the extended essay table Pluto of the lower regions. Site Of Rrna. They make him salt up Lot's wife like pickled pork; they make him pass like Shakespeare's Queen Mab into the brain of their priests, prophets, and essay table format, prophetesses, and tickle them into dreams, [NOTE: Tickling a parson's nose as 'a lies asleep, Then dreams he of another benefice. (Rom. and Jul.) -- Editor.] and after making him play all kinds of psychosynthesis nelson, tricks they confound him with Satan, and leave us at a loss to know what God they meant! This is the descriptive God of the Old Testament; and as to the New, though the authors of it have varied the scene, they have continued the essay of contents format vulgarity.
Is man ever to be the dupe of priestcraft, the slave of superstition? Is he never to have just ideas of his Creator? It is better not to believe there is a God, than to believe of him falsely. Sythesis. When we behold the mighty universe that surrounds us, and dart our contemplation into the eternity of space, filled with innumerable orbs revolving in eternal harmony, how paltry must the tales of the Old and New Testaments, profanely called the word of God, appear to thoughtful man! The stupendous wisdom and unerring order that reign and govern throughout this wondrous whole, and call us to reflection, 'put to shame the extended essay Bible!' The God of eternity and of all that is real, is not the God of passing dreams and shadows of man's imagination.
The God of truth is not the God of fable; the essay belief of of contents format, a God begotten and a God crucified, is a God blasphemed. It is making a profane use of reason. Sythesis. -- Author.] I shall conclude this Essay on Dream with the table first two verses of Ecclesiastics xxxiv. one of the books of the Apocrypha. The hopes of a man void of understanding are vain and false; and dreams lift up fools. Whoso regardeth dreams is like him that catcheth at a shadow, and academon.fr, followeth after the wind.
I now proceed to an examination of the passages in the Bible, called prophecies of the coming of Christ, and to show there are no prophecies of any such person; that the passages clandestinely styled prophecies are not prophecies; and that they refer to essay format circumstances the Jewish nation was in at the time they were written or spoken, and not to any distance of masters, future time or person.
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