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How to get full marks on history GCSE B coursework (sources
bio lab reports Our AP Biology lab activities are designed to provide a wide variety of experiences. They will fall into two general categories: observational or skill labs, and experimental labs.#8221; Observational labs will mainly involve watching or observing natural phenomena occur or performing some scientific technique, while experimental labs will involve science process skills, such as hypothesis formation, manipulation of variables, gathering, tabulating and sources for gcse history coursework, graphically displaying data, etc. In college, lab report requirements vary greatly. Some are quite rigorous and require that a review of the pertinent scientific literature be included in the introduction. Since we are greatly limited by time in this course, our write-ups will be brief and less rigorous than ones that you may do in research college. It is essential that you prepare for labs before coming to for gcse history class. You will be required to keep a lab notebook in which you will write prelabs, record data, and note any conclusions or thoughts that you have as you perform each lab. At the beginning of isb scholarship essay, class on lab days, prelabs will be checked.
The following components should be completed: 1. Title and date of the lab. 2. Purpose - 1-2 sentences describing the sources coursework major goal of the research experiment. 3. Procedure - an easy to follow numbered list of steps that will be performed in the lab, written in your own words. For labs with several parts, divide your procedure accordingly. You may wish to sketch diagrams to help you visualize the steps of the lab. Once you are. done, you should be able to do your lab report without consulting with the lab book. 4. List the coursework following: independent and dependent variables, control and experimental groups, constants, and hypothesis. Visual Analysis. 5. Data - As you write your prelab, create all the data tables you will need. Read the procedure. carefully to determine all the information you will be recording, and organize it neatly.
Remember to sources coursework include units at the top of each column. 1. Fill in your data tables. 2. Note any changes that you make to the procedure. 3. Conclusions - Leave a space where you can jot down notes and other thoughts during the lab. This will help you to write your lab report later. The Giver Compare And Contrast Essay. Lab reports are due two days after the completion of the lab in class. This gives you enough time to ask any questions about the lab or get help with concepts you don#8217;t understand.
Lab reports must be typed, handwritten work will not be accepted (exception: data tables and for gcse history, graphs may be done by neatly hand). Research Paper. 1/2 credit will be given to lab reports that are late, up to 24 hours. Sources For Gcse Coursework. Remember that if you are tardy to class the day any assignment is due, your assignment will be counted late. After 24 hours, reports will not be accepted. Keep all returned lab reports. Labs constitute a significant portion of the AP exams. All experimental labs should follow this format: The Effect of ______ on _________. Be concise. (Instead of, #8220;environmental stimuli such as light and Something that you really about., moisture#8221; write, #8220;light and sources for gcse history, moisture#8221;). Always list the specific variables you tested. Essay. Include the scientific name of organisms involved.
Methods: What procedures were followed, what purposes did they serve, and what materials and equipment were used? For experimental labs and AP Labs, be sure to identify the independent and dependent variables, the constants, and the control group. For observational labs explain what you did. Never use personal pronouns. Do not create a list of materials, just include them within the context of your procedure. At the sources coursework beginning of your procedure, explain the #8216;big picture#8217; of the future paper lab. Explain what biological processes we are trying to learn more about. If the sources history coursework lab has several sections, revisit this in each section. Paper. Include relevant vocabulary terms in a way that demonstrates your knowledge. Write in coursework the past tense.
Your purpose is to communicate what you#8217;ve done, not give someone directions. Use the impersonal tense. (Instead of, #8220;We made choice chambers. .#8220; write, #8220;Choice chambers were made. . #8220;). Explain how data were gathered. Include your hypothesis, and briefly explain your reasoning. When writing your hypothesis, be as specific as possible about what you are measuring. Ex: If pill bugs are given a choice, they will prefer a moist environment to a dry one. You Really. Better: If pill bugs are placed in sources history a choice chamber, more will be found on the moist side than on the dry side at any given interval. If you performed any statistical analysis, including calculating an average, this should be in essay your procedure. Include the scientific name of the organism you are testing, and how you obtained your specimens. Results: This part of the history report will display, in patrick thesis table form and with a proper title, the data that you collected. It should also include any graphs labeled properly and in proper graph form.
It should be neatly and clearly presented. If the lab is observational in nature, you should include diagrams and/or descriptions of structures (labeled as instructed), chemical reactions, behaviors, etc. DO NOT FUDGE YOUR DATA!! Put only the data that you, or your lab group, or the class collected, not what you think that you should have seen. Use graph paper to history graphically display your data wherever appropriate. Give figures a number and a title, too.
Figures are any kind of drawing or picture, and graphs. Ex: Figure 1: Pill bug (top view) Figure 2: Pill bug (side view) Figure 3: Average number of pill bugs present in visual analysis wet choice chamber. (In the above example, the first 2 figures are drawings, the sources history third is visual analysis, a graph.) When graphing your data, only graph the average values of your trials, not the history coursework data from every trial. (Often, the reason why several trials are done is so we can average them and reduce error). Be sure to label your axes and the giver compare and contrast, include relevant units. If necessary, include a key. Discussion: Here you present a summary of the data generated by the lab. Put into your own words what the numbers or observations tell you. How do you interpret the data or observations in sources for gcse history coursework light of your hypothesis or your own expectations? Do not make the mistake of looking for rourke thesis the right answer and please do not ask, what was supposed to sources happen?
Nature does not lie, but is and contrast, often frustratingly difficult to figure out. In this section you must discuss YOUR results. If you come up with results that do not make sense, examine your methods and materials for sources of experimental error and describe them here. For Gcse History. For purely observational exercises, your discussion should include reactions to what you have just done and visual analysis, learned. Additionally, error should be thoroughly discussed.
This is, perhaps, the most important part of the history coursework lab discussion. Your discussion of error will help the reader decide whether or not your experiment is valid or invalid. Note: for our purposes in this class, measurement errors are not acceptable because this could be used as an excuse on every lab, and isb scholarship essay, does not that you are thinking on how the design or execution of this experiment could be improved. It is assumed by your instructor that measurements were take accurately. Sources For Gcse History. Refer to isb scholarship essay your tables and figures and explain important findings.
Use your data to sources history coursework support your statements. Only use the word #8220;significant#8221; if you#8217;ve done a statistical analysis. (Significant means something different to scientists than it does in Something that care about. a nonscientific sense). Your hypotheses can be #8220;supported#8221; or #8220;not supported#8221; by the data, they cannot be #8220;proved#8221; or #8220;disproved.#8221; Use the sources for gcse coursework impersonal tense. You Really Care. (Rather than #8220;We believe . . . ,#8221; write, #8220;It was found. . . .#8221;). Always be as specific as you possibly can be. For Gcse History Coursework. (Instead of #8220;Most of the time . . . ,#8221; write #8220;For 7 of the isb scholarship essay 10 time intervals examined. Sources For Gcse Coursework. . Patrick Rourke. . .#8221;). Don#8217;t describe your data as #8220;vague#8221; or #8220;inconclusive.#8221; If a trend that you thought would exist, doesn#8217;t, that doesn#8217;t mean the data are vague. The absence of sources for gcse coursework, evidence is care about., not evidence of absence.
When describing sources of error, don#8217;t include irregularities in the environment that you controlled. (Ex: The florescent lights in our room affect your control group the same as your experimental group, because they are on the whole time. Therefore, they#8217;re not a source of error. This is why we do a control in the first place!) Always be exact in your terminology. (Ex: #8220;dry choice chamber#8221; is better than #8220;dry environment#8221;). Be sure you have a complete understanding of terms before you use them. (Ex: Concluding that pill bug behavior is a taxis because it was a #8216;response to a stimulus#8217; is incorrect. Kinesis is also a response to a stimulus, its a random response rather than a directed one).
Be grammatically correct with your use of the sources history word #8220;data.#8221; #8220;Data#8221; is the plural of #8220;datum.#8221; (If your not sure, substitute the word #8220;numbers#8221; instead of data. Essays On Leonardo Da Vinci. Instead of, #8220;This data shows. For Gcse. .#8220; write, #8220;These data show . Visual Analysis. . #8220;). Whenever trying to explain a behavior or an adaptation, it may help to look at it from a natural selection perspective. Sources For Gcse History Coursework. (Think: How is it an advantage to the pill bugs survival and/or reproduction to find a moist environment?) Be aware of what you are measuring. Isb Scholarship Essay. (A pill bug#8217;s #8216;preferences,#8217; #8216;desires,#8217; or #8216;needs,#8217; are not measurable. Its movement, or its presence in a certain choice chamber, is measurable). Analysis questions: In this section, put the answers to ALL questions asked within the lab, and at history coursework the end of the research lab. Answers should be given in complete sentences.
Remember, the sources for gcse coursework write-up is due 2 days after the labs are completed in class.
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Gcse history coursework sources
Free Online Communication Skills Training | businessballs.com. Presentation Skills and Techniques. Presentations skills and sources for gcse history coursework, public speaking skills are very useful in many aspects of work and life. Effective presentations and public speaking skills are important in business, sales and selling, training, teaching, lecturing, and generally feeling comfortable speaking to a group of people. Presentation Skills and isb scholarship essay, Techniques. Table of contents. presentations for business, sales, and training - oral and sources for gcse coursework, multimedia. Presentations skills and visual analysis, public speaking skills are very useful in many aspects of for gcse work and life.
Effective presentations and public speaking skills are important in isb scholarship business, sales and selling, training, teaching, lecturing, and generally feeling comfortable speaking to a group of people. Developing the confidence and capability to give good presentations, and to stand up in front of an sources for gcse coursework audience and compare and contrast, speak well, are also extremely helpful competencies for self-development and social situations. Presentation skills and public speaking abilities are not limited to certain special people - anyone can give a good presentation, or perform public speaking to a professional and impressive standard. Like most specialisms, this requires preparation and sources for gcse history, practise . The formats and purposes of presentations can be very different, for example: oral (spoken), multimedia (using various media - visuals, audio, etc), powerpoint presentations, short impromptu presentations, long planned presentations, educational or training sessions, lectures, and simply giving a talk on a subject to a group on rourke thesis, a voluntary basis for pleasure. Even speeches at weddings and eulogies at funerals are types of presentations. Yet every successful presentation uses broadly the essential techniques and structures explained here. This article provides: a guide to the process of creating effective presentations , tips and techniques for successfully delivering presentations , and explanation and methods for reducing presentation fears and stresses - notably through the use of preparation and history coursework, control , to build confidence . presentations skills training - index. 1. Research? Fear of public speaking - You are not alone - 'Fearlessness in an Assembly' 2.1 Confidence and control - Experience, preparation and for gcse history, rehearsal. 1. Fear of public speaking and presentations. You are not alone if the thought of the giver essay speaking in public scares you.
On the contrary. Everyone feels fearful of presenting and public speaking to one degree or another. Giving a presentation is very worrying for many people. Presenting or speaking to an audience regularly tops the list in surveys of people's top fears - more than heights, flying or dying. Here is a popular saying (which features in many presentations) about giving presentations and sources history coursework, public speaking: Most people would prefer to be lying in the casket rather than giving the eulogy. I first heard a speaker called Michelle Ray use this quote in essays on leonardo da vinci the early 1990s.
The quote is often credited to Jerry Seinfeld, although the sources for gcse history coursework basic message is much older. Visual Analysis? For example (thanks Dr N Ashraf) the ancient Tamil work Thirukkural (also called Tirrukural) includes the following words in its aptly titled chapter, Fearlessness in an Assembly : Many are ready to even die in sources battle, but few can face an isb scholarship assembly without nerves. Couplet 723, from Thirukkural/Tirrukural, also called the Kural - a seminal guide to life and ethics attributed to the Tamil poet Thiruvalluvar, said to have lived between about 200-10BC. I am grateful also to R Ersapah for for gcse history an alternative translation of couplet 723, and below, a more modern literal interpretation: Many encountering death in face of foe will hold their ground; who speak undaunted in the council hall are rarely found. In more modern language this means: Many indeed may (fearlessly) die in the presence of (their) foes; (but) few are those who are fearless in the assembly (of the learned). In a French translation, this is:
Nombreux sont ceux qui peuvent affronter la mort face a leurs ennemis; rares sont ceux qui peuvent sans crainte se tenir devant une assemblee. The title of Tirrukural's chapter 73 is: Not to dread the Council (French: Ne pas craindre les assemblees). Couplet 727 says, amusingly and isb scholarship, incisively: The learning of history coursework him who is diffident before an assembly is like the shining sword of an hermaphrodite in the presence of his foes. (French: Les connaissances de celui qui a peur des auditoires sont comme l'epee tranchante que tient l'eunuque en presence de son ennemi. ) I am informed (thanks again R Ersapah) that all of chapter 73 fits the theme of public speech being one of the greatest challenges many people face in their lives . This is further evidence that speaking in public is not just a modern fear - this fear has been in humankind for at least 2,000 years. Incidentally the English translation of Tirrukural comprises various chapters such as: Domestic Virtues, Ascetic Virtue, Royalty, Ministers of State, The Essentials of a State. The English Translations are by Rev Dr G U Pope and Rev W H Drew. The French translation is by a Mauritian author M Sangeelee.
I'm always keen to on leonardo da vinci receive and share old examples of public-speaking-and-fear analogies - if you know any please send them. 2. Understanding/overcoming fear of public speaking and presentations. The key to managing and controlling anything is first to understand it, especially its causes. The cause of fear is (a feeling of) insecurity and/or an unfamiliar or uncontrollable threat. In the context of presentations and public speaking this is usually due to: lack of confidence , and/or lack of control (or a feeling of not having control) - over the situation, other people (the audience) and our own reactions and feelings and (in some cases) possibly a bad memory or experience from our past. The effects of these are heightened according to sources for gcse history the size of the audience , and visual analysis, potentially also the nature of the audience/situation - which combine to represent a perceived uncontrollable threat to us at a very basic and history coursework, instinctive level (which we imagine in the form or critical judgment, embarrassment, humiliation, etc). This 'audience' aspect is illustrated by the following:
Most of us would not feel very fearful if required to give a presentation to a class of compare and contrast 30 five-year-old children, but we would feel somewhat more fearful if required to give a presentation to an interview panel of three high court judges. So audience size is not everything - it's the nature of the situation and audience too. As such audience size and situation are circumstantial factors which can influence the degree of anxiety, but they are not causal factors in themselves. The causes exist because of the pressure to command, control, impress, etc. The two big causal factors (low confidence and control ) stem typically from: If we have a bad memory which is triggering a fear response, then it is likely that the original situation we recall, and for gcse, which prompts our feelings of anxiety, resulted from one or both of the above factors. Preparation and rehearsal are usually very manageable elements. It's a matter of making the effort to prepare and rehearse before the paper task is upon us. Presentations which do not work well usually do so because they have not been properly prepared and rehearsed. Experience can be gained simply by seeking opportunities for public speaking and presenting to history coursework people and groups, wherever you feel most comfortable (and then try speaking to compare groups where you feel less comfortable).
Given that humankind and society everywhere are arranged in all sorts of history coursework groups - schools and colleges, evening classes, voluntary groups, open-mic nights, debating societies, public meetings, conferences, the local pub, sports and hobby clubs, hospitals, old people's homes, etc, etc - there are countless groups everywhere of thesis people and potential audiences by which you can gain speaking and presenting experience - this is not so difficult to achieve. So experience , is actually just another manageable element before the task, although more time and for gcse, imagination is required than in preparing and paper, rehearsing a particular presentation. Besides these preparatory points, it's useful to sources consider that fear relates to stress . Stress can be managed in various ways. Understanding stress and stress management methods can be very helpful in reducing the anxiety we feel before and while giving presentations and public speaking. 2.2 Physiology, chemistry, stress - control/process. Fear of public speaking is strongly related to stress - see the causes of stress and isb scholarship, and stress management. A common physical reaction in people when having to speak in public is a release of adrenaline and cortisol into our systems, which is sometimes likened to drinking several cups of coffee. Even experienced speakers feel their heart thumping very excitedly indeed.
This sensational reaction to speaking in public is for gcse history certainly not only visual analysis felt by novices, and even some of the great professional actors and entertainers suffer with real physical sickness before taking the stage or podium. So you are not alone. Speaking in public is genuinely scary for sources history most people, including many who outwardly seem very calm. Our primitive brain shuts down normal functions as the 'fight or flight' impulse takes over - see FEAR under the acronymssection (note: there is some adult content among these acronyms for training and presentations). But don't worry - every person in your audience wants you to succeed. The audience is on your side (if only because they are very pleased that it's you up there in visual analysis the spotlight speaking and not them). All you need to do is follow the guidelines contained on this page, and everything will be fine. As the saying goes, don't try to history coursework get rid of the the giver compare and contrast butterflies - just get them flying in formation. (Incidentally the origins this famous public-speaking/performing butterflies metaphor is typically given as There is sources history coursework nothing wrong with stomach butterflies!
You just have to research get them to fly in formation! - see the for gcse attribution information for the butterflies metaphor on the inspirational quotes page.) So, how do you calm the butterflies and get them flying in formation? The answer (where butterflies equate to fear ) is clear and simple in the following maxim: To calm the butterflies you must be relaxed . To be relaxed you must be confident . To be confident you must be prepared and rehearsed . Good preparation is the you really care about. key to coursework confidence , which is the key to being relaxed , and this calms the visual analysis butterflies,(i.e., overcomes the fear). Put another way, according to logical ' cause and effect': Good preparation and rehearsal will reduce your nerves by 75%, increase the sources for gcse likelihood of avoiding errors to patrick rourke thesis 95%. (Source: Fred Pryor Organisation, a significant provider of seminars and for gcse, open presentation events.) And so this is the most important rule for effective presentations and public speaking: Prepare , which means plan it , and practise/rehearse it . Then you'll be in control, and confident. Your audience will see this and respond accordingly, which in turn will help build your confidence, and you even start to enjoy yourself too. And remember that there is a cumulative effect: Every successful presentation that you create and deliver generates more experience and essay, confidence for you, which makes every future presentation easier and sources coursework, more successful for you, and so it goes, until every last butterfly is calmed.
3. Essays Da Vinci? Tips for effective presentations. 1. Sources For Gcse History Coursework? Preparation and knowledge (of subject and the presentation itself) are the pre-requisites for a successful presentation, which importantly produce confidence and control, in patrick rourke thesis turn important for relaxing the presenter, and the audience. 2. As a presenter, remember and apply Eleanor Roosevelt's maxim that no-one can intimidate me without my permission. When you are a presenter you are in charge. The audience generally accepts this, and sources coursework, you are within your rights to control anyone who does not. 3. Remember also that Depth of conviction counts more than height of logic, and rourke thesis, enthusiasm is worth more than knowledge, (which is apparently attributed to David Peebles, about whom I have no further details - please let me know if you do). Passion is therefore a very powerful component in sources coursework any successful presentation. 4. Patrick? Good presenting is sources for gcse history coursework about entertaining as well as conveying information. As well, people retain more if they are enjoying themselves and feeling relaxed.
So whatever your subject and Something that care about., audience, try to find ways to sources history coursework make the content and delivery enjoyable - even the most serious of occasions, and the driest of subjects, can be lifted to an enjoyable or even an that you really amusing level one way or another with a little research, imagination, and humour/humor. 5. Enjoyment and humour are mostly in the preparation. These effects are not easily produced spontaneously. You don't need to be a natural stand-up comedian to for gcse history coursework inject enjoyment and humour into a presentation or talk. It's the content that enables it, which is very definitely within your control. 6. Research and studies generally indicate that in presentations you have between 4 - 7 seconds in which to make a positive impact and good opening impression, so make sure you have a good, strong, solid introduction, and rehearse it until it is 'second nature' to you and that you really care about., an action of 'unconscious competence'.
7. Try to build your own credibility in your introduction, and create a safe comfortable environment for sources for gcse history your audience, which you will do quite naturally if you appear to be comfortable yourself . 8. Smiling helps a lot. It will relax you and the audience. In addition to giving you a relaxed calm appearance, smiling actually releases helpful 'happy' chemicals into you really care about., your nervous system, and makes you feel good. 9. So does taking a few deep slow breaths make you feel relaxed - low down from the pit of your stomach - before you take to the stage. 10. Avoid starting with a joke unless you are supremely confident - jokes are high risk things at the best of times, let alone at the start of a presentation. I was sent this excellent and for gcse, simple idea for a presentation - actually used in Something that about. a job interview - which will perhaps prompt similar ideas and adaptations for your own situations. At the sources for gcse history coursework start of the presentation the da vinci letters T, E, A, and sources for gcse coursework, M - fridge magnets - were given to members of the audience.
At the end of the presentation the speaker made the future research paper point that individually the history coursework letters meant little, but together they made a team. This powerful use of simple props created a wonderful connection between start and finish, and supported a concept in a memorable and impactful way. (Thanks P Hodgson) N.B. There is a big difference between telling a joke and injecting enjoyment and humour (US spelling, humor) into your talk. Jokes are risky. Enjoyment and humour are safe. A joke requires quite a special skill in its delivery. Future? Joke-telling is something of an art form. Only a few people can do it well without specific training.
A joke creates pressure on the audience to laugh at a critical moment. A joke creates tension - that's why it's funny (when it works). This tension equates to an expectation in the listener, which produces a small degree of pleasure when the joke works well, but a very unhelpful awkwardness if the joke is not well-delivered or well-received. A joke also has the potential to offend, and jokes are culturally very sensitive - different people like different jokes. Even experienced comedians can 'die' on sources for gcse, stage if their jokes and delivery are at isb scholarship essay, odds with the audience type or mood. Sources For Gcse? On the other hand, enjoyment and humour are much more general, they not dependent on creating a tension or the Something care expectation of a punchline. Enjoyment and humour can be injected in very many different ways - for example a few funny quotes or examples; a bit of audience participation; an amusing prop; an amusing picture or cartoon; an amusing story (not a joke). Another way to realise the difference between jokes and enjoyment is consider that you are merely seeking to make people smile and be mildly amused - not to have them belly-laughing in the aisles. 11. Apologising to the audience can also affect the moods and atmospheres of presentations. Generally try to avoid starting a presentation with an sources for gcse history apology - unless you've really made a serious error, or an apology is Something that about. part of sources history your plans, or an intentional humorous device.
Usually audiences will forgive you far more than you forgive yourself. Apologising for future trivial matters can cause audiences to feel uncomfortable, and may also give the impression that you are not in control or confident. If you do have to apologise for something, make the apology briefly and sources, clearly, and if possible try to make light of it (unless it's really serious of course). It is the giver and contrast normal to for gcse history make mistakes, and even the most experienced professional speakers and presenters make mistakes, so just relax and keep calm if (when) you make one. In acknowledging minor mistakes it is usually better to keep the mood light and relaxed, with phrases such as (or similar approaches): Observant delegates among you perhaps will have noticed (refer to the error). Welcome everyone. Who among you has noticed my deliberate mistake. Welcome everyone. You might have noticed the visual analysis experimental 'deliberate mistake' icebreaker this morning (refer to the mistake).
Could you split into groups of for gcse history coursework three; analyse the situation, and patrick rourke, prepare a two-minute presentation as to how the 'corrective-action loop' might be applied to minimize the sources for gcse history chances of this happening again. No, seriously. 12. Visual Analysis? Try to start on time even if some of the audience is late. Waiting too long undermines your confidence, and sources history coursework, the audience's respect for you. 13. On Leonardo? The average attention span of an average listener is apparently (according to various sources I've seen over for gcse coursework, the years) between five and ten minutes for any single unbroken subject. Younger 'Playstation' and 'texter' generations will have even less tolerance than this, so structure your content accordingly. 14. Any audience will begin to wriggle and essay, feel less comfortbale in their seats after about 40 minutes of stting listening/watching.
So presentations which are longer than this time should include a reason for the audience to move a little, or ideally stand up and move about, after about 40 minutes. 15. Break up the content so that no single item takes longer than a few minutes, and sources for gcse coursework, between each item try to visual analysis inject something amusing, amazing, remarkable or spicy - a picture, a quote, a bit of audience interaction - anything to break it up and sources for gcse, keep people attentive. 16. Future? Staying too long (ten minutes or more) on the same subject in the same mode of delivery will send people into a trance-like state, when they are not properly listening, watching or concentrating on history coursework, the presentation - often called the MEGO state (My Eyes Glaze Over). So break it up, and inject diversions and variety - in terms of content and media (the different ways you can communicate to patrick rourke thesis people or engage their interest). Using a variety of for gcse history media and patrick, movement will maintain maximum interest. Think of it like this - the audience can be stimulated via several senses - not just audio and visual (listening and watching) - consider including content and activity which addresses the other senses too - touch certainly - taste maybe, smell maybe - anything's possible if you use your imagination. The more senses you can stimulate the more your audience will remain attentive and engaged.
17. You can stimulate other things in your audience besides the usual 'senses'. You can use content and activities to stimulate feelings, emotions, memories, and even physical movement. Simply asking the for gcse history audience to stand up, or snap their fingers, or blink their eyes (assuming you give them a good reason for doing so) immediately stimulates physical awareness and involvement. Passing several props or samples around is also a great way to stimulate physical activity and involvement. 18. Visual Analysis? Quotes are a wonderful and sources history coursework, easy way to future stimulate emotions and feelings, and of course quotes can be used to illustrate and emphasise just about any point or concept you can imagine. Research and collect good quotations and include then in your notes. Memorise one or two if you can because this makes the delivery seem more powerful. See the funny quotations and inspirational quotes webpages for ideas and examples. Always credit the for gcse history source of quotes you use.
Interestingly, Bobby Kennedy once famously failed to credit George Bernard Shaw when he said that Some men see things as they are and ask 'why?'; I dare to visual analysis dream of things that never were and ask 'why not?'. 19. Failing to attribute a quote undermines a speaker's integrity and professionalism. Conversely, giving credit to someone else is rightly seen as a positive and dignified behaviour. Having quotes and other devices is important to for gcse coursework give your presentation depth and texture, as well as keeping your audience interested. If the only tool in your toolbox is a hammer you'll treat everything as a nail. (Abraham Maslow) 20.
So don't just speak at people. Give them a variety of visual analysis content, and different methods of delivery - and activities too if possible. 21. Be daring and bold and have fun. Use props and pass them around if you can. The more senses you can stimulate the more fun your audience will have and the more they'll remember. 22.
Some trainers of public speaking warn that passing props around can cause a loss of control or chaos. For Gcse Coursework? This is true, and I argue that it's good. It's far better to keep people active and engaged, even if it all needs a little additional control. Better to have an audience slightly chaotic than bored to that care death. 23. Planned chaos is actually a wonderful way to keep people involved and history, enjoying themselves.
Clap your hands a couple of times and say calmly Okay now - let's crack on, or something similarly confident and un-phased, and visual analysis, you will be back in sources history coursework control, with the audience refreshed for research another 5-10 minutes. 24. Create analogies and themes, and use props to illustrate and reinforce them. For example a bag of fresh lemons works well: they look great, they smell great, they feel great, and they're cheap, so you can give out loads and not ask for them back - all you have to do is think of an excuse to for gcse history coursework use them! 25.
Here are examples of fun, humour, interest, participation and the giver compare essay, diversion that you can use to for gcse coursework bring your presentation to life, and keep your audience attentive and enjoying themselves. Some people in the presentation field refer to these presentational elements as 'spice'. Patrick Thesis? Like the spice of sources coursework a meal, spice in a presentation gives it a lift - stimulates the senses, and isb scholarship essay, adds texture and richness. Here are examples of the many sorts of 'spice' elements you can add to a presentation: Stories Questions and 'hands-up' feedback Pictures, cartoons and video-clips Diagrams Video-clips and sound-clips Surveys and statistics Straw polls (a series of hands-up votes/reactions which you record and then announce results) Inviting a volunteer to take the stage with you (for a carefully planned reason) Audience participation exercises Asking the sources history audience to do something physical (clapping, deep breathing, blinking, finger-snapping, shouting, and other more inventive ideas) Asking the audience to engage with each other (for example introductions to person in next chair) Funny quotations (be careful not to offend anyone) Inspirational quotations Acronyms Props, samples, physical objects (see the visual aids ideas page) Examples and case-study references Fables and analogies Prizes, awards and on leonardo, recognising people/achievements Book recommendations Fascinating facts (research is easy these days about virtually any subject) Statistics (which dramatically improve audience 'buy-in' if you're trying to persuade) Games and exercises and icebreakers body language, and the changing tone and pitch of your voice.
26. For long presentations of more than an hour or two, such as training sessions, aim to have a 'rest' break every 45-60 minutes for people to get up and stretch their legs, otherwise you'll be losing their attention regardless of the amount of variety and diversion 'spice' you include. 27. Take the pressure off yourself by not speaking all the for gcse history coursework time. Get the future audience doing things, and make use of all the communications senses available. 28. Interestingly the use of sources for gcse coursework visual aids generally heightens retention of the essays da vinci spoken word - by sources for gcse history, 70% or more. Isb Scholarship Essay? The figure is history demonstrably and substantially more than 70% for certain things, for example: try memorising a person's face from purely a verbal description, compared with actually seeing the research paper face. A verbal or written description is only fractionally as memorable as actually seeing anything which has more than a basic level of complexity. 29.
Some people refer to the following figures on sources for gcse history, the subject of information retention, which are taken from Edgar Dale's theory called the Cone of Experience: Edgar Dale's Cone of Experience. N.B. Rourke? The original work by Edgar Dale was considerably more than a line of sources for gcse coursework statistics. The ideas date back to 1946, and are subject to debate and different interpretation.
These figures should therefore be regarded as much more symbolic than scientifically accurate, especially when quoted out of the context of Edgar Dale's wider work. 30. So use visual aids a lot in your presentations. Your voice is not the only or main tool at your disposal. Get visuals working fully for you, and your presentations will be more engaging, and a lot easier for you to deliver and enjoy. 4. Tips for using visual aids in presentations and future research, public speaking. 1. Sources? For printed visual aids with several paragraphs of text, use serif fonts (a font is a typeface) for quicker readability. 2. For computer and LCD projectors use sans serif fonts, especially if the point size (letter size) is quite small. 3.Arial is a sans serif font. Times is a serif font. (A serif font has the extra little cross-lines at the ends of the isb scholarship essay strokes of the letters.
Interestingly, serif fonts originated in sources history coursework the days of engraving, before printing, when the engraver needed a neat exit from each letter.) 4. Extensive sections of text can be read more quickly in serif font because the words have a horizontal flow, but serif fonts have a more old-fashioned traditional appearance than sans serif, and essays, so stylistically can seem old-fashioned, which does not fit certain presentations. 5. If you need to sources history coursework comply with a company/corporate typeface (font/letter design) you'll maybe have no choice of future lettering style. If you are creating and delivering the presentation for sources coursework a company or organization of any sort then ask if there is a recommended/compulsory 'house' typeface, and if so, then use it, along with corporate colour/color schemes and branding. Marketing departments usually keep this information. 6. Generally try to use no more than two different typefaces (fonts) and no more than two size/bold/italic variants, or the text presentation becomes confused and visual analysis, very distracting to read quickly and easily. 7. For Gcse? Whatever - try to select fonts and point sizes that are the best fit for essays your medium and purpose.
8. If in doubt simply pick a good readable serif font and use it big and bold about coursework, 20-30pt for visual analysis headings, and 14 - 16 point size for the body text. 9. Sources For Gcse History Coursework? Absolutely avoid using upper case (capital letters) in lots of body text, because people need to be able to read word-shapes as well as the visual analysis letters, and of course upper-case (capital letters) makes every word a rectangle, which takes much longer to sources history read, and becomes uncomfortable and tiring. Upper-case is acceptable for short headings if you really must use it, but even for headings lower-case lettering is best. If you want to emphasize some words or headings then increase the point (letter) size in headings, or embolden the words in the body text. Also use phrasing/wording that is easy to understand quickly (by an eight-year-old child). this heading is quicker and easier to read.
And this passage can be read and compare and contrast essay, understood and for gcse coursework, absorbed far more quickly and effortlessly, because your brain recognises the shapes of the words , before it reads the research letters. . THAN THIS PASSAGE CAN BE READ AND UNDERSTOOD AND ABSORBED, ESPECIALLY IF YOU HAVE TO READ A FEW HUNDRED WORDS LIKE THIS; ALL BORING RECTANGULAR SHAPES; WHICH IS VERY TIRING AND FRUSTRATING INDEED. 10. See 'tricks of the trade' in the marketing and history, advertising section for that you really lots of tips and coursework, secrets about presenting written/typed/electronic/printed words. 11. See also the writing tips on this website for good general guidance and tips about writing effectively, so that your audience can read, understand, and absorb what you want to communicate to compare and contrast essay them. 12. Your own written cue/prompt cards and history coursework, notes - Create your own prompts and notes to suit your purpose and situation. Cue cards are usually very effective aids, but make sure to number them and tie then together, in order . Visual Analysis? In the pressure of a presentation it is very easy to accidentally shuffle or drop your cue cards, which is then a serious nuisance and distraction for any presenter. A single ' at-a-glance' timetable sheet is a useful aid for any presenter, especially for presentations longer than half an hour, where keeping track is more challenging. A timetable on one sheet is for gcse also useful to monitor your timing and pace.
5. Preparation and creating your presentation - process. This is a sequential step-by-step process - a list of the main action points - for creating and preparing a successful and effective presentation - large or small. The process includes preparing, creating, checking, rehearsing, refining and finalizing the presentation. 1. Think about your audience, your aims, their expectations, the surroundings, the essay facilities available, and what type of presentation you are going to give (lecture style, informative, participative, etc). 2. What are your aims? To inform, inspire and entertain, maybe to demonstrate and prove, and maybe to persuade.
3. How do you want the audience to history react? 4. Thinking about these things will help you ensure that your presentation is going to achieve its purpose. 5. Essay? Clearly identify your subject and your purpose to yourself, and then let the creative process take over for a while to gather all the possible ideas for subject matter and how you could present it. 6. Think about interesting ways to convey and illustrate and bring your points to life, so that your presentation is full of interesting things (think of these as 'spices') to stimulate as many senses as possible. A presentation is not restricted to sources for gcse spoken and visual words - you can use physical samples and visual analysis, props, sound and video, body movement, audience participation, games and for gcse, questions, statistics, amazing facts, quotes, and lots more ideas to support your points and keep the audience engaged.
7. Use brainstorming andhttps://www.businessballs.com/problem-solving-and-decision-making/brainstorming-for-team-building-and-problem-solving-how-to-109/brainstorming and 'mind-mapping' methods (mind-mapping is sketching out patrick rourke thesis, ideas in extensions, like the branches of a tree, from sources a central idea or aim). Both processes involve freely putting random ideas and connections on a piece of paper - the bigger the sheet the better - using different coloured pens will help too. 8. Don't try to write the presentation in detail until you have decided on the content you need and created a rough structure from visual analysis your random collected ideas and material. See the brainstorming processhttps://www.businessballs.com/problem-solving-and-decision-making/brainstorming-for-team-building-and-problem-solving-how-to-109/brainstorming process - it's very helpful and relevant for creating and writing presentations. 9. When you have all your ideas on for gcse history coursework, paper, organize them into subject categories.
Three categories often work best. Does it flow? Is there a logical sequence that people will follow, and which makes you feel comfortable? 10. Care? Use the 'rule of three' to structure the presentation where possible, because sets of three have a natural balance and flow. Sources History Coursework? A simple approach is to have three main sections. Patrick? Each section has three sub-sections.
Each of these can have three sub-sections, and so on. Sources History Coursework? A 30 minute presentation is unlikely to need more than three sections, with three sub-sections each. Visual Analysis? A three day training course presentation need have no more than four levels of three, giving 81 sub-sections in all. Simple! 11. For Gcse? Presentations almost always take longer to deliver than you imagine.
12. Patrick Thesis? When you have a rough draft of your presentation you should practise it, as if you were actually in front of an audience, and check the timings. If your timings are not right - (usually you will have too much material) - then you can now adjust the amount of content, and for gcse history coursework, avoid unnecessarily refining sections that need to be cut out. Or if you are short of content, you can expand the presentation material accordingly, or take longer to explain the content you already have. 13. Patrick Rourke? You must create a strong introduction and a strong close . 14. You must tell people what you're going to speak about and the purpose or aim of sources for gcse your presentation . 15. And if you finish with a stirring quotation or a stunning statistic, you must, before this, summarise what you have spoken about and if appropriate, demand an future paper action from your audience , even if it is to go away and sources for gcse, think about Something, what you have said. 16. Essentially the structure of all good presentations is to: Tell'em what you're gonna tell'em. Tell'em.
Then tell'em what you told'em. (Thanks N Toptani for suggesting that this famous quote about for gcse history coursework, public speaking was originated by George Bernard Shaw) 17. Patrick Rourke Thesis? When you have structured your presentation, it will have an opening, a middle with headed sections of subject matter, and a close, with opportunity for questions, if relevant. This is still a somewhat flat 'single-dimensional' script. Practice it in its rough form , which is effectively a 'read-through' rather than a fully formed presentation with all aids and for gcse history, equipment.
18. Next you bring it to life as a fully formed presentation - give it space and life and physicality and character - by blending in your presentation methods, aids, props, and devices, as appropriate. This entails the equipment and materials you use, case studies, examples, quotations, analogies, questions and isb scholarship essay, answers, individual and syndicate exercises, interesting statistics, samples, visual and for gcse history, physical aids, and any other presentation aid you think will work. Compare And Contrast? This stage often requires more time than you imagine if you have to source props and materials. 19. Sources History Coursework? Practice your presentation in future paper rough full form with all your aids and devices. Review and record the timings. They will be different compared to sources for gcse history coursework earlier simple read-throughs. Amend and refine the patrick thesis presentation accordingly. Practise at this stage is sources history essential to future build your competence and confidence - especially in handling and managing the for gcse history coursework aids and devices you plan to use - and also to future paper rehearse the pace and timings. For Gcse? You'll probably be amazed at this stage to realise how much longer the presentation takes to deliver than you imagined when you were simply reading on your cards or notes.
20. If your presentation entails audio-visual (AV) support and equipment provision by research paper, specialist providers then ensure you control the environment and these services. Sources For Gcse History Coursework? If there are audio-visual aspects happening that you don't understand then seek clarification. You must understand, manage and control these services - do not assume that providers know what you need - tell the providers what you want, and ask what you need to know. 21. Ask an honest and tactful friend to listen and the giver, watch you practice. Ask for his/her comments about how you can improve, especially your body-language and history coursework, movement, your pace and voice, and whether everything you present and da vinci, say can be easily understood.
If your test-listener can't make at least a half a dozen constructive suggestions then ask someone else to watch and sources history coursework, listen and give you feedback. 22. Refine your presentation, taking account of the feedback you receive, and your own judgment. Test the presentation again if there are major changes, and repeat this cycle of refinement and testing until you are satisfied. 23. Produce the presentation materials and organise the equipment, and ensure you are comfortable with your method of that you really about. reading from notes, cards etc. 24. Practice your presentation it in its refined full form. Coursework? Amend and refine as necessary, and if possible have a final rehearsal in the real setting, especially if the venue/situation is strange to patrick rourke thesis you.
25. Take nothing for granted. Don't guess or make assumptions about anything that could influence your success. History Coursework? Check and double-check, and plan contingencies for anything that might go wrong. 26. Compare And Contrast? Plan and control the layout of the room as much as you are able. If you are a speaker at someone else's event you'll not have complete control in for gcse history coursework this, but if it's your event then take care to position yourself, your equipment and your audience and the seating plan so that it suits you and the situation. For instance, don't lay out a room theatre-style if you want people to participate in teams; use cabaret-layout instead. Use a boardroom layout (everyone around a big long table) if you want a cooperative debating approach for a group up up to 10-12 people.
Consider splitting people into sub-groups if the essays on leonardo total group size is more than 10-12 people. (See guidance on managing groups sizes in the teambuilding section.) 27. Make sure, when the room/venue is for gcse history prepared, that (before delegates arrive) everyone will be able to see you, and all of the visual displays (screen, wipeboard, etc). 28. Isb Scholarship Essay? Make sure you understand, and if appropriate control and convey, the domestic arrangements (fire drill, catering, smoking, messages, coffee and lunch breaks etc). If you are running/starting the event, then this is for gcse coursework your responsibility. It is also good to visual analysis remind people of these arrangements when restarting after a lunch-break. So build these aspects into your presentation and sources for gcse history, timings if they are required. 6. Delivering (giving) presentations successfully.
1. The day before your presentation see again the notes about calming your butterflies - i.e., be prepared and future, rehearsed, be confident, calming your butterflies, and overcoming any fears you have. 2. In the half-hour before your presentation: Relax. If you are not relaxed then try to find a way to become so. Think about breathing slowly and deeply. Sources History Coursework? Think about calming relaxing things. Visual Analysis? Smile. If despite all your preparations you remain scared, a good way to overcome your fear is just to do it. (Paraphrasing the sources for gcse great philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche..) What doesn't kill you makes you stronger. Remember you are not alone among presenters in having these feelings, and the audience is on your side. Remember also, initial impact is made and visual analysis, audience mood towards you is established in sources history the first 4-7 seconds. So go for it. 3. Start with your solid practised opening, and smile . Enjoy it.
Or look like you are enjoying it. 3. Be firm, be confident and be in control; the visual analysis stage is yours, and the audience is on your side. 4. Introduce yourself and tell them what your going to tell them. Tell them why you are telling them it; why it's important, and why it's you that's telling them. 5. Tell the history coursework audience how long your presentation will last, and the giver compare essay, explain when in the presentation that the audience is able to ask questions. 6. It is generally easier to deliver and manage a presentation if you tell the audience to ask their questions at the end. For a more participative and involving presentation you can allow questions at any time, but ensure you keep firm control of your timings, and the audience.
7. If your audience is more than about 30-40 people then it can become difficult to take questions during the presentation, so for large groups, and certainly groups exceeding 100 people it's generally best to take questions at the end of the presentation. 8. By the time you've done this introduction you've established your authority, created respect and sources history coursework, credibility, and overcome the worst of your nerves. You are probably enjoying it. If you're just giving a short presentation then by the time you've done all this you've completed a quarter of it! 9. Be aware of your own body language and remember what advice you got from your friend on your practice run. You are the most powerful visual aid of all, so use your body movement and position well. Don't stand in front of the patrick rourke screen when the projector is on. 10. If people talk amongst themselves just stop and look at them. Say nothing, just look.
You will be amazed at the effect, and for gcse coursework, how quickly your authority increases. This silent tactic usually works with a chaotic audience too. 11. If you really need to change things during the presentation then change them, and explain to the audience why you are doing it if that helps you and them. 12. If you want a respite or some thinking time, asking the audience a question or involving them in an exercise takes the pressure off you, and on leonardo, gives you a bit of breathing space. 13. Pausing is fine.
A pause tends to seems like an sources coursework age when you're up there presenting, but actually the audience won't notice a pause, and will not think a pause is a mistake, unless you draw attention to it. Visual Analysis? An occasional pause is perfectly fine, and very reasonably helps you to concentrate on what you're going to say next. 14. Keep control. No-one will question your authority when you have control, so don't give it up. 15. If you don't know the answer to a question then say so and for gcse history, deal with it later. You have the right to on leonardo defer questions until the end (on the grounds that you may well be covering it in the presentation later anyway, or just simply because you say so).
16. Close positively and for gcse coursework, firmly, thank the audience, and accept plaudits graciously. 7. Summary - creating and giving presentations. creating presentations - step by step. This is the basic sequence of Something that care about. actions for creating and preparing a presentation up to the point of actually delivering the presentation to an audience: Define purpose Gather content and presentation ideas Structure the history coursework subject matter (sections, headings, order) Develop how to present it (style, elements, props, equipment) Prepare presentation (wording, design, materials, equipment) Practise and rehearsals (get feedback, refinement) Plan venue, control the environment 'Dress rehearsal' if warranted Relax and prepare yourself - confidence and control. And in a little more detail.. What's the purpose? For whom? What outcomes and reactions are you seeking?
Consider the visual analysis more detailed nature of: Subject and content, audience needs, type of presentation, equipment and venue. Create and sources for gcse coursework, gather ideas - brainstorm, mind-map, initially random, be innovative and daring. Materials, media, exercises, case-studies, statistics, props, quotations, analogies, participation. Anticipate questions, know your subject and that, reference points Decide your notes system - cue cards, sheet notes.
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How To Write an #8220;About Me#8221; Page That Gets You Hired. An about page doesn't have to be anxiety-inducing. Sources For Gcse History. Keep it simple and put your inner-critic aside. H onestly, I don’t know anyone who enjoys this process. Even if you’re comfortable writing about compare essay, yourself, it’s hard to for gcse coursework know where to patrick start or what to leave out. You know yourself better than anyone, but that only history, seems to make it worse. Over the isb scholarship essay, past 10 years, I’ve been fortunate enough to help all sorts of people get their websites into shape. I’ve taught workshops on coursework, honest marketing and developing portfolios, and I co-wrote a book about writing useful, friendly content. Whenever About pages come up, these are the tips I share: Write to your dream audience. Highlight the kind of work you want to be doing.
Tell the truth in patrick rourke your own voice. Read it aloud to make sure it sounds like you. Treat it as a draft. Share it early and sources for gcse history coursework update it regularly. Think of your About page as a way to introduce yourself. It doesn’t need to be exhaustive, and you don’t have to say anything that makes you uncomfortable. Find a balance between being personal and professional, and try to have some fun. This is a great time to step away from the computer, put your self-critic aside, and do some exploratory writing to take the pressure off. I’ll walk you through the process that I share with my clients. This is focused on freelancers and solo practitioners, but you can use the future paper, same steps for your company or project.
It’s tempting to start by looking at sources for gcse history coursework other people’s work for inspiration—and we’ll get to that. But before you dive into design blogs or Pinterest, find a quiet place to reflect and write about your goals. Give yourself at least two minutes with each of these exercises. (You may want to grab tea or coffee, a favorite notebook, and a timer.) Where do you see yourself in one to three years? How does your work fit into the world you want to live in? What kinds of Something you really projects interest you? (It sometimes helps to list tasks you want to stop doing first.) What kinds of people do you want to sources coursework work with?
Who are your dream clients? What do you want people to do after visiting your website (e.g., hire you, subscribe to your blog)? If someone were telling a potential client about you, what would you want them to say? These notes will guide your writing later in the process. Essays On Leonardo. Next, make a list of different kinds of information you might include. We’re still exploring here, so don’t worry about finding the “perfect” words just yet. Sources For Gcse History. (I like to use sticky notes to gather ideas so I can arrange them visually afterwards.) Start with the basics. About pages don’t have to isb scholarship essay be cutesy or clever. A simple bio with concrete facts goes a long way. Tell us who you are, where you’re from (if it matters to you), where you live, and sources history coursework what you do. And if you have a photo or video of yourself you want to share, make a note to include that.
Share your experience. What are you most proud of? This isn’t your CV, so don’t worry about outlining every job you’ve ever had. Summarize your biggest accomplishments, and feel free to link to publications, talks, interviews, events, or recent clients. If you’re a freelancer, you may want to include a short list of skills or services you offer. Show your passion. The Giver Compare Essay. Don’t be afraid to get personal, especially in your bio. After all, if someone visits this page, they’ve expressed an interest in you as a person. List a few things you love doing, eating, reading, listening to, or thinking about. Sources. If you have any special talents or strongly held beliefs, jot those down.
How did you get into this field? What do you love about it? Take some time to think about how your process or perspective differs from your peers. Link it up. Don’t forget that you’re writing for the web. Add links to your online shop, newsletter, or side projects. Tell us what to isb scholarship do next. What do you want people to for gcse history do after meeting you or reading your bio? Point us in thesis the right direction. Sources For Gcse History. Maybe you’re taking on illustration projects, looking for blog sponsors, or hoping to do more public speaking.
Make it easy to contact you—and if you’re booked up for a while, include a note about your availability or response time. Isb Scholarship. Once you have these notes together, whittle it down to the essentials. For Gcse History. Pick a small section of you really care your About page to begin with. A quick Mad Libs exercise can help you write your bio. History. Look back at your notes as you fill in the blanks: When I’m not ______, you can find me ______. Thesis. Want to sources for gcse history work together? I’d love to hear from you. Play with the structure and rewrite it until it sounds like you. Isb Scholarship. When you’re happy with it, use it as a headline or the first part of your longer bio. (If you like these kinds of exercises, Alexandra Franzen has some great ones on her site.) Move the sources for gcse history coursework, elements around and see what you can leave out.
Focus on answering questions you’d expect your dream clients to have. I love this diagram from Something that care about. Mitch Goldstein. If you’re stuck, look at sites from other people and companies in sources for gcse coursework your field. See how they present their work and levels of experience. Here are some of my favorites: Instead of Something you really about. copying them, look at the language they use. Did they write in the first or third person?
How do they describe themselves? Do they use formal titles, casual wording, or a combination of the two? (I love how Eileen Ruberto calls herself a designer, researcher, and sources for gcse history information wrangler .) How do the future paper, words make you feel? See what you can learn from their choices and the way they talk to readers. Sources For Gcse History Coursework. Once you have a rough draft, take it to the next level: Make it sound like you. Use simple words you’d say to a friend or neighbor.
Skip the paper, industry jargon, unless your clients are looking for common keywords like responsive web design or mindfulness coaching . Sources History. Be honest. This is the perfect place to show your true colors. Don’t say you love collaborating if you’d rather work alone. Tell the you really, truth, and if something’s hard to express, think about sources for gcse history coursework, how you’d explain it in person. It’s better to be upfront than to have to reveal these details at your first client meeting. The Giver Compare Essay. Keep it short and sweet.
Check over your main points. Is the most important information at the top? Don’t overcomplicate things with hefty phrasing. Try to limit your sentences to one main idea with 20 words or fewer. Read it out loud. Editing is about listening, so listen to your writing. Read it aloud in a quiet room. You’ll naturally notice where the words are jumbled, repetitive, or imprecise. Ask yourself: Is it clear? Does it sound like you? Is every word true?
Can you cut any adjectives or modifiers? One of the biggest mistakes people make is trying to perfect their writing the first time. For Gcse Coursework. You’re writing for the web—not a print publication. On Leonardo Da Vinci. You can change your mind, add things, remove things, and polish it as much as you’d like. Don’t worry if your About page is short, missing information, or overly detailed. Go ahead and put it out there. Ask a few friends or colleagues to read over it and give you feedback. See if people write to coursework you with better questions or spend more time on your site.
After a few weeks, come back to isb scholarship essay it. Does it reflect how you feel now? If your goals have changed or you have a clearer picture of your ideal client, make a few adjustments. Sources History Coursework. Keep revising as you learn more about yourself, the work you care about, and the people you want to compare and contrast essay work with. What do you like about sources history coursework, your about research paper, page? The Best Creative Career Insights, Delivered Weekly. More articles on coursework, Personal Branding. Essay. Grape Expectations: The Transformation of Wine Labels. Just a few years ago, most bottles of vino featured label designs that you might describe as “vintage”—and not in a good way.
But things have changed. 99U heads to sources for gcse history wine country to find out what’s behind this recent evolution. Turning Hand-Painted Ads into Something care Social Media Magnets. Colossal Media uses old-school artistry to draw millions of eyeballs to big brands, from Nike to Netflix. How do they do it?
A Real-Life Education in Protecting Your Creative Work In a Digital Age. Artist Syd Weiler’s Trash Doves sticker pack turned into an internet phenomenon earlier this year. For Gcse. Then the nightmare began. Here is what she learned about protecting art on the internet. Creative Careers Demand Reinvention. We are what we do. Patrick Rourke. Until the guillotine drops and we have to become our next best self, an equally terrifying and sources coursework exhilarating prospect. How Sophisticated Branding Aims to Make You Rethink Cannabis. As the future, marijuana industry begins to mature, purveyors recognize the history, need to separate themselves with distinct branding. The hand-painted signs, bad puns, and Rastafarian flags that once defined the industry are giving way to sophisticated design that abandons aging stoners in favor of more upscale clientele.
A five-step guide for how to the giver compare and contrast build and develop a compelling narrative, that can be adapted to your preferred storytelling medium.
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Student Guidance for GCSE History Controlled Assessment - CCEA
deep essays Case Studies in History and Society. Beneath the Surface: Critical Essays in the Philosophy of Deep Ecology . Edited by Eric Katz, Andrew Light, and David Rothenberg. Cambridge, MA London, UK: The MIT Press (2000), viii, 328 pp. Reviewed by J. Stan Rowe, emeritus Professor (Ecology), University of coursework, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. Ecology is the skin-out study of what envelops and influences things, as compared to physiology with its focus on skin-in functions--which leads to the thought that the appropriate title for those primarily concerned with their inner soul/selves is isb scholarship essay, Deep Physiologists. In contrast, the name Deep Ecology (DE) suggests exploration of history coursework, human ecology to its outer limits, asking what is the reality of you really care, people's relationship to the world that envelops them, and what ethical actions flow from that relationship? Over the last quarter century Arne Naess has been the most influential voice of eco/philosophy and eco/sophy (ecological wisdom) in the Western world. Naess's thoughts and actions have been motivated by what he sees as the appalling deterioration of planet Earth, overpopulated and sources for gcse coursework under attack by a consumer society.
From this came his founding of the Deep Ecology Movement (DEM) for social-political change, centered on a Platform of eight Principles (composed with George Sessions) that, in summary, calls for valuing and respecting all forms of life, for an attitude of non-interference with natural processes and systems, for thesis, de-emphasizing the primary significance of people and their institutions, for restructuring society in harmony with natural processes, and for a reexamination of the for gcse coursework, ends of essay, human life, replacing the pursuit of material abundance with a heightened quality of life experience. The introductory chapter of Beneath the Surface states that the sources for gcse history, book's primary goal is to examine the philosophy of isb scholarship, DE, a difficult task without a philosophical interpretation of the for gcse history, DEM Platform. The editors propose six points as essential to the philosophy of DE. In abbreviated form they are: (1) Rejection of strong anthropocentrism, (2) Replacing anthropocentrism with ecocentrism (the ecosphere and ecological systems central), (3) Identification with all forms of life, (4) The sense that caring for the environment is part of essays, individual human self-realization, (5) A critique of instrumental rationality and sources for gcse history an emphasis on alternative modes of thinking, (6) Personal development of a total worldview prior to isb scholarship social action. Naess values the diversity of philosophical/cultural faiths and is willing to recognize many as underpinnings of the DEM. He conceived it as four linked levels, illustrated with the Apron Diagram so-called because it flares out generously above and below the Platform-Principles waist. Level 1, the bust of the apron, encompasses a broad spectrum of religions and philosophies willing to subscribe to Level 2, where the sources for gcse history coursework, Platform Principles cinch all together. Level 3 and Level 4 comprise the hips and hem of the garment, the former expressing general consequences (such as choice of lifestyle) in harmony with the the giver and contrast essay, Platform, and the latter specifying concrete situations and for gcse history practical decisions of a political nature.
In Naess's words, The DEM thus can manifest both plurality and unity: unity at Level 2, and plurality at the other levels. Midway through the book editor/essayist Andrew Light examines ethicist Callicott's arguments for a singular foundational ecophilosophy based on essays on leonardo Aldo Leopold's concept of people's duties to the larger biotic communities of which they are members. Light concludes that environmental philosophy is too young to settle on one right path, and so he too endorses a pluralism of ecophilosophies at Level 1. Obviously Naess does not consider his personal philosophy, Ecosophy T, as the only valid one, but the editors justify particular attention to his thinking not only sources for gcse, because he is the founding father but also because many of the essays that the book comprises were initially slated for publication in the journal Inquiry as a special issue titled, Arne Naess's Environmental Thought. Thus many of the essays are understandable in the light of Something you really care, Naess's Ecosophy T, which shows the influence of coursework, Eastern philosophies. In my view his three outstanding ideas are: (1) Self-realization for all Beings . This is the belief that the route to future paper an ecological worldview begins with individuals surmounting their little egos by sympathetically extending the boundaries of their identities, wider and wider, through the intuition and ecological knowledge that each is coursework, embedded in and supported by a network of relationships--to the human community, to animals and plants, to the world. The enlarged consciousness that experiences identity with Nature and Something that you really care desires the same happiness for all beings is sources, described as the Self (also known as ecological self or universal self) as opposed to the little egoistic skin-bounded self. (2) Ontology before ethics . Naess insists that ethics or right action flows from prior beliefs about the fundamental nature of things, about what is real and valuable. In philosophical terms, ontology (reality as believed in) precedes ethics. Compare! Hence the most important task is to sources for gcse history coursework understand one's ecological relationships to the world for then ethical choices and beautiful actions will be obvious and spontaneous.
Phrased another way, humanity needs a new ecological worldview before new ethical/environmental theories. (3) Spontaneous Experience . Naess is suspicious of reason as the unassisted guide toward the dual realization of the ecological worldview and the extended Self. He places his faith in care apprehending Nature by direct experiences whose holistic gestalt patterns reveal the reality obscured by culture's abstract language and social constructions. The main source of creative change in society, he believes, lies in the qualitative richness and concrete contents of the individual's gestalt experiences. According to sources for gcse history editor/essayist Eric Katz, the pillars of Ecosophy T (which he lists as Identification with Nature, Self-realization, and Ontology as the basis of normative values) suffer from the fault of anthropocentrism (homocentrism).
Only a strong environmental ethical system can move beyond Naess's limited perspective that is tellingly exposed in his ambiguity about human interests versus nature protection. Something That About.! Katz approves the Deep Green Theory of Richard Sylvan who, disagreeing with Naess's idea of Self, argued for sources for gcse history, an ethic based on eco-impartiality. The proper course for environmental philosophy, Katz concludes, is not an ecosophy such as Naess's ontological worldview but an unbiased environmental ethic that de-emphasizes human-centered categories of value. Countering the opinion of Katz, William Grey criticizes Sylvan's Deep Green Theory because it postulates values in nature independent of valuers, while admitting that values vary between cultures. Grey points to that you really care about. other inconsistencies, exemplified by the wording of the Deep Green obligation principles, such as Do not jeopardize the well-being of natural objects or systems without good reason. Destroyers of environment always have good reason and so Grey judges Deep Green Theory as no better than DE.
Whether Katz, Grey, and sources coursework several other contributors draw a distinction between homo/morphic and isb scholarship homo/centric is unclear. All human thoughts and sources actions are homo/morphic (shaped by rourke thesis humans) but they are not necessarily homo/centric (centered on humans), and sources history insofar as Naess and Sylvan center their values on other-than-human things, they should not be accused of homocentrism. Naess's foundational ideas draw the isb scholarship essay, fire of Mathew Humphrey for privileging the intuitive over the rational. To be human is to reason, he argues, and therefore the rational-moral should be privileged over the beautiful. The only defensible basis for sources for gcse history coursework, action is provided by reasoned ethical codes, not from the intuitive realization of Self-identity through gestalt experiences. The Giver And Contrast! The Humphrey/Naess difference echoes the sources for gcse history coursework, old Plato/Sophist controversy, unresolved after 2500 years. The question is, which of truth and beauty should be trusted to guide the other? Western tradition favors the former but Naess wants to give the latter a try. Humphrey is research paper, targeted in turn by for gcse history ecofeminist Ariel Salleh who is suspicious of current ethical systems.
Everyone, not just Naess, acts from a sense of self-identity, she argues. Compare And Contrast! Philosophers are mostly academic, middle-class, white males who bolster their self-identities with liberalism--valuing individual autonomy and freedom of choice above all else. But liberalism is a discredited source of ethics because it is sources for gcse, anthropocentric, Eurocentric, class-based, and gendered. Visual Analysis! It is a failed political formula, socially unjust and environmentally destructive. DE is on the right track but it needs to embrace a theory of labor, of embodied materialism, working (as do women in production and reproduction) at the interface of Humanity and Nature. Like Humphrey, ethicist Val Plumwood is critical of Naess's ontology before ethics and of his thesis that treats ethics as unnecessary (a fairer assessment might be that Naess treats ethics as derivative). She sides with Katz in skepticism of Naess's stress on for gcse consciousness change and on Self-realization through unity (identity) with nature. What is needed, she believes, is an compare essay ethic of solidarity, enabling strong connections to human liberation movements as well as to nature. The DEM should not neglect institutional change, and a good start would be reforming the institution of property/land which, in the Lockean formula, is valueless until developed by for gcse history coursework human labor.
The land, Nature, should also be recognized as a value-producing active agent. Bron Taylor, interested primarily in the social action side of the DEM, finds many weaknesses in its philosophic underpinnings as he understands them at the grassroots level. Research Paper! The problem is a set of dualisms--inherited from such thinkers as Paul Shepard, Gary Snyder, George Sessions, and Bill Devall--that he identifies as the main conceptual tendencies found in North America's deep ecology movements. He lists a number of good/bad twosomes, for example: Taylor argues that such dualistic thinking is simplistic and counterproductive when the goal is to marshal resistance to environmental deterioration from sources for gcse, every culture in the giver compare the world. Emphasizing his empirical research, he reports the unsurprising discovery that people are motivated to action by immediate threats to their well-being, not by bioregional ideology or calls for history coursework, consciousness transformation. He plumps for a new Green social philosophy, something like the isb scholarship, Earth Charter that sets out principles of reverence for Earth acceptable to all religious faiths. Mainstream DEs may suspect that Taylor is a reform environmentalist but the litmus-test question -- does he endorse the DEM Platform? -- is not answered.
Had all contributors opened with a yea or a nay on this question, their orientations would have been clarified for the benefit of readers. The book's purported goal of sources for gcse coursework, examining DE philosophy keeps slipping out of focus. John Clark's How Wide is Deep Ecology? shows the difficulty of isb scholarship essay, dealing strictly with DE philosophy apart from the sources for gcse history coursework, Platform and its social/political implications. Clark would prefer a more specific Platform to welcome in social ecologists and ecofeminists by Something that care giving practical content to the DEM's call for sweeping social change. As with Salleh, Plumwood, and Taylor, the Platform and its deficiencies for sparking political programs (at Naess's Levels 3 and 4?) are the center of attention. Jonathan Maskit sees personal philosophies and political platforms necessarily evolving together. Changes in sources coursework the individual and in culture/politics go hand in you really about. hand, and either alone is a no-go. Seek reality through spontaneous experience, say the DEs, but experience depends on cultural presuppositions. For example, how can the individual reduce desire for consumption when the culture endorses consumption as a high social goal? In Kantian terms the role of the State is to make people act as they would voluntarily if they really were rational beings, curbing desires by reasonable laws.
The new sympathetic worldview that the DEM urges on its members necessitates co-evolution of the cultural-ideational medium in sources for gcse history coursework which all are immersed. On the essays, supportive side, editor/essayist David Rothenberg explains Naess's relational thinking as phenomenology minus the sources coursework, subject, meaning that Naess's aim is to apprehend directly nature's qualities or concrete contents, not as (minus) an observer but merging the subjective and objective, the human and the natural, in spontaneous experience. Through Rothenberg's eyes, DE is viewed as an entirely new philosophy, a new horizon, a direction for progress in ontology, a poetic way of being in visual analysis the world. Arran Gare is sources for gcse coursework, also sympathetic to the DEM, which he believes is marginalized through lack of a Grand Narrative. DE needs a persuasive cultural myth that saves what is good in modernism (the emancipatory agenda for the disadvantaged) and essays extends it to the world of nature so that living creatures and for gcse history coursework ecosystems as well as cultural diversity may flourish. In effect he repeats Maskit's theme that the research, development of self, in whatever form, is shaped by the stories by which each culture defines itself--and the appearance of a compelling ecological saga is overdue.
Indirectly this criticizes the philosophic pluralism that Naess espouses. Two articles trace links between Naess's Ecosophy T and eastern religions/philosophies. Knut Jacobdson points out Naess's debt to Gandhi who believed that the history, way to self-realization was not only patrick thesis, through knowledge and meditation but also through political action. He notes ironically that DE reverses the Hindu aim of sources for gcse history coursework, freeing the self from bondage to the material world, seeking instead to integrate humans into the natural Earth cycles of birth, growth, and death. Dean Curtin explains Naess's ties to essay Buddhism through the philosophy of for gcse history coursework, Dogen, whose thought goes beyond DE from Self-realization to Cosmic Co-realization. We will never be released from suffering, said Dogen, as long as we search within the circle of visual analysis, human suffering alone.
Thus the advice to Naess to advance beyond biocentrism with its focus on sources history living things, and be released into the coming and going of all things. This appears to be a call for ecocentrism as Earth-centerdness. Paradoxically, the sympathetic glue that binds together all things, amoebas and crystals, humans and mountains, aquatic and visual analysis terrestrial ecosystems, is their impermanency. Finally, and farthest off the mark, Michael Zimmerman's essay -- Possible Political Problems of sources, Earth-based Religiosity -- expresses fears that a theology of future research, Earth linked with the DEM might be coopted and used as the Nazis used their nationalistic blood and soil motif to for gcse coursework justify totalitarian programs of suppression and extermination. Research! In view of the known history of humanity in sources for gcse the West over the last several thousand years, with its frequent ethnic cleansings under the aegis of a transcendental male God, the thought that belief in isb scholarship essay a supra-national divine mother Earth would do worse seems a long shot. Zimmerman devotes much of his article to the philosophy of Ken Wilber, who initially explained humanity's assault on nature as due to death anxiety but now as a second guess locates the for gcse coursework, fault in retro-romantics (including followers of Earth-based religions). Wilber prescribes the development of personal consciousness in ever more elevating stages. His platonic idealism (Deep Physiology) contrasts with Naess's being-in-the-world realism (Deep Ecology). Concluding comments: The 14 contributors generally agree that Deep Ecology is not a finished philosophy. It is still finding its roots below and expanding its greenness above. The voluminous literature that has developed around Naess's Ecosophy T and Something that you really about. the DEM Apron Diagram contribute to its current fluidity.
The tightest section is the Platform and its eight principles (the Apron waist), which many believe should be further refined to better encourage social/political change. Stronger tie-strings in the middle will keep the Apron from blowing in the wind. Eastern philosophies, like Western religions, lay heavy hands of responsibility on the individual to shape up. Coursework! This idea is apparent in Naess's philosophy. But few can bootstrap their own conversion from that, self to Self without cultural assistance.
On this important point Bowers (1995, see especially p. 169 for note on Naess#146;s individualism) has criticized Naess for accenting the authority of individual judgment while ignoring culture as the primary source of influence on thought and behavior. The needed ecological worldview is sources for gcse coursework, unlikely to result from everyone concentrating on developing her/his own ecosophy. A powerful ecological narrative that neither disparages Nature nor people is overdue. One problem on the philosophers' side is suspicion of Earth-based science, leading to vague use of ecological language particularly when it comes to terms such as nature, life, community, ecology, ecosystem, biosphere, biocentric ecocentric. An example is on leonardo da vinci, pinning the adjective ecocentric indiscriminately on social ecology, ecofeminism, bioregionalism, and deep ecology (e.g., McLaughlin (1995) uses ecocentrism broadly and sources for gcse indefinitely for essays da vinci, all viewpoints that are not anthropocentric, when a correct usage of the word according to its etymology is home-centered, i.e. Sources History! ecosystem-centered, Ecoregion-centered, Ecosphere-centered or Earth-centered). Ecological terminology, freely used but imperfectly understood, needs to be sorted out and defined in Earthly terms if people are to accept a narrative that identifies humans as dependent Earthlings.
Such a compelling story/myth is a necessary counterpart of and support for the giver essay, the experiential ways of knowing championed, for example, by sources history Naess and Rothenberg. The essays convey the future, feeling that two different cultures are confronting one another. Naess is an outdoorsman, a mountaineer, as are many of his followers: Sessions, Drengson, LaChapelle. These people, like naturalists of the for gcse history, ilk of Muir and Thoreau, have been touched by oceanic nature-experiences, intuitions of unity with Earth. They are impelled to formulate a philosophical rationale for isb scholarship, their Wordsworthian epiphanies, borrowing eclectically from the scriptures of Lao Tsu, Protagoras, Dogen, Spinoza, Bergson, Husserl. Sources For Gcse! Facing them somewhat incredulously is a majority of research paper, rationalist academics, city-born and bred, who have never been touched by Earth, never climbed mountains, never wandered in a wilderness, never hugged a tree. Sources History Coursework! Ethical rules are their meat, not spontaneous experiences. The mind-sets of two such different groups of people are far apart, and the Ecological Narrative that pulls them together will richly deserve the title Grand. Bowers, C.A. 1995. Educating for an Ecologically Sustainable Culture: Rethinking Moral Education, Creativity, Intelligence, and Other Modern Orthodoxies . Albany: SUNY Press.
McLaughlin, Andrew. 1995. For a Radical Ecocentrism, pages 257-280 in Drengson, Alan and Yuichi Inoue (eds.), The Deep Ecology Movement: An Introductory Anthology . Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.