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In Their Own Words: Admissions Essays That Worked | University of
basic essay layout A. First point and supporting info. B. Second point and supporting info. That! C. Third point and supporting info. Mahat! The objective of a persuasive essay is to win the reader over to your side of an argument, while the primary objective of an argumentative essay is berkeley essays that worked just to show that you have a valid argument, allowing the reader either to adopt your position or to agree to disagree. Another difference between the two types of essay is help best help that in the persuasive essay, although you acknowledge the opposing view, only one side of the issue is debated. An important part of the berkeley worked argumentative essay is to use evidence both to of american revolution, substantiate one's own position and to refute the opposing argument.
The final difference between the argumentative essay and the argument (persuasive) essay is the berkeley worked organization of the composition. The persuasive essay follows the mahat basic essay format as displayed in the example. The argumentative essay may be formatted in several ways: Start building a strong case by refuting or disproving the opposing position. Use one paragraph to state each counter point, following your statement with related evidence that refutes the point. Present your case in the second section of the body. Use one paragraph to that worked, state each of your points, following your statement with the evidence that proves or supports your point.
The conclusion of this format is a restatement of your claim and a summary of the information that supports it. A. First counter point and refuting information. B. Second counter point and ideological origins revolution essay refuting information. C. Third counter point and refuting information. III Body Part II. A. First point and supporting information. B. Second point and supporting information. C. Berkeley Essays! Third point and supporting information. IV Conclusion - Restatement of claim and summary of the main ideas.
Start the first section of the write an essay on self help is the help body with your statement of claim or position. In this format, you begin by stating and supporting your points. Use one paragraph to state each of your points, following your statement with the evidence that proves or supports your point. Follow each point with an opposing view related to essays that, that point and evidence that supports the origins of american revolution objection. Use one paragraph for each counter point and its evidence. After you have finished presenting all points, counter points and evidence, start the second section of the body with your rebuttals to each of the counter points. Back your rebuttals with evidence and logic that shows why the berkeley objections are invalid. If the opposing view is origins of american revolution essay valid, acknowledge it as so but use your evidence to show that it's somehow unattractive and that your position is the more desirable of the two.
Use one paragraph to rebut each counter claim. The conclusion of this format is a restatement of berkeley that worked, your claim, a summary of supporting information and an assessment of rebuttals. II. Body Part I - Presenting the Case. A. Statement of the claim.
B. First point and supporting information. C. First point opposition and refuting evidence. D. Second point and supporting information. E. Second point opposition and essays on ecommerce refuting evidence. F. Third point and essays that worked supporting information. G. Third point opposition and refuting evidence. III. Body Part II- Author's rebuttal.
A. First point rebuttal. B. Second point rebuttal. C. Is The Help! Third point rebuttal. Start the body with your statement of claim or position. In this format, you begin by stating and berkeley essays that supporting your points.
Use one paragraph to state each of your points, following your statement with the evidence that proves or supports your point. Follow each point with an opposing view related to that point and evidence that supports the objection. Use one paragraph for each counter point and its evidence. Follow each objection with your rebuttal. Pukar Mahat Phd Thesis! Use one paragraph to rebut each counter claim. The conclusion of this format is a restatement of your claim, a summary of supporting information and an assessment of rebuttals.
A. Statement of the claim. B. First point and supporting information. C. First point opposition and refuting evidence. D. First rebuttal and supporting information. E. Second point and supporting information. F. Second point opposition and refuting evidence.
G. Second rebuttal and supporting information. Writing the Argumentative Essay. Now that you know how to format an argumentative essay, it's time to begin writing. Again, as in essays that, the persuasive essay, state your thesis objectively. Don't use first person. Instead of saying, I don't think global warming is worth worrying about, you might say, A two degree rise in temperature over the last hundred years makes global warming a trivial problem. Now that you have ‘put the gloves on be prepared to mahat, back up your thesis with facts. Use statistics, expert quotations, and other evidence in support of your thesis and in rebuttal of counter claims. In addition, all counter claims should be backed with solid evidence as well. As you research your material, anticipate objections and be prepared to make concessions. This will help you to research and write your thesis as if you were debating a real person instead of a piece of paper!
Perhaps the biggest mistake people make in that, writing an argumentative essay is to substitute their opinions for facts. Remember that each claim you make must be supported by solid evidence if your argument is to effective thesis argument, hold up to counter claims and berkeley essays objections. Although in an argumentative essay you don't have to win the reader over to your side, your objective at the least should be to write is the help, persuade them to agree to disagree with your position and worked accept it as another point of view that merits further thought and discussion.
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How to Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers–and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on a series of questions. Essays Worked. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the and effect people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward.
The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and essays, How well are they known? As for and effect anxiety, opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for berkeley essays that, the venture’s product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in essays on ecommerce, addition to demonstrating an understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Berkeley That. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to of american revolution compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. Berkeley Essays Worked. But one that asks the cause and effect essay about right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it.
Few areas of business attract as much attention as new ventures, and few aspects of new-venture creation attract as much attention as the business plan. Countless books and articles in the popular press dissect the topic. A growing number of annual business-plan contests are springing up across the berkeley essays worked United States and, increasingly, in essay, other countries. Both graduate and undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject. Indeed, judging by that worked all the hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the cause essay about only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and a decade of month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the essays that truth. In my experience with hundreds of entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2—on a scale from 1 to 10—as a predictor of a new venture’s success. And sometimes, in essays on ecommerce, fact, the more elaborately crafted the document, the more likely the venture is berkeley essays worked to, well, flop, for lack of a more euphemistic word. What’s wrong with most business plans? The answer is relatively straightforward.
Most waste too much ink on numbers and devote too little to essays on ecommerce the information that really matters to intelligent investors. As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for a new company—especially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for more than a year—are an act of imagination. An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to predict revenues, let alone profits. Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and time will be required to accomplish their objectives. Worked. Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections. Investors know about the padding effect and therefore discount the figures in business plans. Ideological Revolution. These maneuvers create a vicious circle of inaccuracy that benefits no one. Don’t misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers. But those numbers should appear mainly in the form of a business model that shows the entrepreneurial team has thought through the key drivers of the venture’s success or failure. That Worked. In manufacturing, such a driver might be the yield on a production process; in phd thesis, magazine publishing, the anticipated renewal rate; or in software, the impact of using various distribution channels. The model should also address the break-even issue: At what level of sales does the business begin to make a profit?
And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in any business plan. Near the back. What goes at berkeley essays that worked, the front? What information does a good business plan contain? If you want to speak the language of investors—and also make sure you have asked yourself the right questions before setting out on the most daunting journey of a businessperson’s career—I recommend basing your business plan on the framework that follows. It does not provide the kind of “winning” formula touted by some current how-to books and software programs for entrepreneurs. Nor is it a guide to brain surgery. Rather, the framework systematically assesses the four interdependent factors critical to every new venture: The People.
The men and women starting and running the venture, as well as the ideological origins of american essay outside parties providing key services or important resources for it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers. The Opportunity. A profile of the business itself—what it will sell and to whom, whether the business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and what stand in the way of essays that, success. The Context. Thesis Statement Argument. The big picture—the regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and the like—basically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by the entrepreneur. Risk and Reward. An assessment of everything that can go wrong and right, and a discussion of how the entrepreneurial team can respond. Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about business plans in a familiar context, as a tool for entrepreneurs. But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies.
Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the plans entrepreneurs put together? The answer to the first question is an essays emphatic yes; the answer to the second, an equally emphatic no. All new ventures—whether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the case with intrapreneurial businesses, by cause shareholders—need to pass the same acid tests. Berkeley. After all, the marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on who is pouring money into pukar phd thesis, them behind the scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it. Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in the form of capital-budgeting requests. These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the project wends its way through the chain of command, what I call the “neutron bomb” model of berkeley essays worked, project governance.
However, in the history of such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in cause about, excess of corporate hurdle rates. It is essays worked only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at the organization’s front door. That problem could be avoided in large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the guidelines set out in the accompanying article. For instance, business plans for such a venture should begin with the résumés of all the cause about people involved. What has the team done in the past that would suggest it would be successful in the future, and so on? In addition, the new venture’s product or service should be fully analyzed in terms of its opportunity and context. Going through the process forces a kind of discipline that identifies weaknesses and strengths early on and helps managers address both. It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the intrapreneurial venture lifts off.
When professional venture capitalists invest in new companies, they track performance as a matter of course. But in large companies, scrutiny of that worked, a new venture is pukar often inconsistent. That shouldn’t or needn’t be the case. A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the new venture doing relative to projections? What decisions has the team made in response to new information?
Have changes in the context made additional funding necessary? How could the team have predicted those changes? Such questions not only keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an berkeley that worked organization learn from its mistakes and triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the help of venture capitalists. Many of the underlying opportunities could have been exploited by large companies. Why weren’t they?
Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by essays studying the world of that worked, independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the framework is that great businesses have attributes that are easy to identify but hard to english essay assemble. They have an experienced, energetic managerial team from the top to the bottom. The team’s members have skills and experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing. Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past. The opportunity has an attractive, sustainable business model; it is possible to create a competitive edge and defend it. Many options exist for expanding the essays worked scale and on self help best, scope of the business, and these options are unique to essays the enterprise and its team. Value can be extracted from the gcse essay business in essays worked, a number of ways either through a positive harvest event—a sale—or by pukar scaling down or liquidating.
The context is that favorable with respect to both the regulatory and of american, the macro-economic environments. Risk is understood, and berkeley essays that, the team has considered ways to mitigate the impact of difficult events. In short, great businesses have the four parts of the framework completely covered. If only reality were so neat. When I receive a business plan, I always read the résumé section first. Shakespeare Essay. Not because the people part of the berkeley essays that new venture is the most important, but because without the right team, none of the other parts really matters.
I read the résumés of the venture’s team with a list of on ecommerce, questions in mind. (See the insert “Who Are These People, Anyway?”) All these questions get at the same three issues about the venture’s team members: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? Fourteen “Personal” Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer. Where are the founders from? Where have they been educated? Where have they worked—and for whom? What have they accomplished—professionally and personally—in the past? What is their reputation within the business community?
What experience do they have that is directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing? What skills, abilities, and knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the venture’s chances for success and the tribulations it will face? Who else needs to that worked be on the team? Are they prepared to recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to adversity? Do they have the mettle to make the inevitable hard choices that have to be made? How committed are they to this venture? What are their motivations? What and whom they know are matters of insight and experience.
How familiar are the team members with industry players and phd thesis, dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the block a few times. Berkeley That Worked. A business plan should candidly describe each team member’s knowledge of the new venture’s type of product or service; its production processes; and the market itself, from competitors to help best customers. It also helps to worked indicate whether the team members have worked together before. Not played—as in roomed together in college—but worked . Investors also look favorably on a team that is known because the real world often prefers not to deal with start-ups. They’re too unpredictable. That changes, however, when the new company is origins of american run by essays that people well known to suppliers, customers, and employees. An Essay On Self Is The Best Help. Their enterprise may be brand new, but they aren’t.
The surprise element of working with a start-up is somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the people part of a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, that’s where most intelligent investors focus their attention. A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per year. These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for new products and services that will change the world and reap billions in the process—or so they say. Berkeley Essays. But the and effect essay fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only essays that, execution skills count. As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the formation of such companies as Apple, Intel, and Teledyne, states, “I invest in people, not ideas.” Rock also has said, “If you can find good people, if they’re wrong about the product, they’ll make a switch, so what good is it to understand the product that they’re talking about in the first place?” Business plan writers should keep this admonition in mind as they craft their proposal. On Self Best. Talk about the people—exhaustively. Berkeley. And if there is nothing solid about their experience and abilities to herald, then the entrepreneurial team should think again about launching the venture. When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by focusing on two questions: Is the and effect essay anxiety total market for the venture’s product or service large, rapidly growing, or both?
Is the industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive? Entrepreneurs and essays, investors look for gcse, large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is often easier to obtain a share of a growing market than to fight with entrenched competitors for a share of a mature or stagnant market. Smart investors, in fact, try hard to identify high-growth-potential markets early in essays worked, their evolution: that’s where the big payoffs are. And, indeed, many will not invest in ideological revolution essay, a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to essays worked Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools. As for attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for markets that actually allow businesses to english shakespeare essay make some money. But that’s not the no-brainer it seems.
In the late 1970s, the computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. The technology was new and exciting. Dozens of companies jumped into the fray, aided by an army of that worked, professional investors. Twenty years later, however, the thrill is gone for managers and investors alike. Disk drive companies must design products to meet the perceived needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users. Selling a product to OEMs is cause and effect essay complicated. The customers are large relative to most of their suppliers. There are lots of essays worked, competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings.
Moreover, product life cycles are short and ongoing technology investments high. Effective Statement For An. The industry is subject to berkeley essays major shifts in technology and ideological of american revolution, customer needs. That. Intense rivalry leads to lower prices and, hence, lower margins. In short, the effective statement argument disk drive industry is essays that simply not set up to make people a lot of gcse english essay, money; it’s a structural disaster area. The information services industry, by contrast, is berkeley that paradise. Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and First Call Corporation, which provide data to the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side. First, they can assemble or create proprietary content—content that, by the way, is like life’s blood to thousands of money managers and stock analysts around the world. Gcse. And although it is often expensive to develop the service and to acquire initial customers, once up and running, these companies can deliver content to customers very cheaply.
Also, customers pay in advance of receiving the service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed. In short, the berkeley worked structure of the information services industry is beyond attractive: it’s gorgeous. And Effect Essay Anxiety. The profit margins of Bloomberg and First Call put the disk drive business to shame. The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It? Nine Questions About the berkeley that worked Business Every Business Plan Should Answer. Who is the new venture’s customer?
How does the customer make decisions about effective argument buying this product or service? To what degree is the product or service a compelling purchase for the customer? How will the berkeley product or service be priced? How will the venture reach all the identified customer segments? How much does it cost (in time and resources) to acquire a customer? How much does it cost to produce and deliver the product or service? How much does it cost to mahat support a customer? How easy is that it to retain a customer? Thus, the essay first step for berkeley essays worked, entrepreneurs is to make sure they are entering an industry that is large and/or growing, and and effect, one that’s structurally attractive. The second step is to make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the case. And if it isn’t the case, their business plan needs to berkeley essays specify how the essay venture will still manage to make enough of berkeley essays that, a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for that matter) will want to participate.
Once it examines the new venture’s industry, a business plan must describe in ideological origins essay, detail how the company will build and launch its product or service into the marketplace. Again, a series of questions should guide the discussion. (See the worked insert “The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It?”) Often the help is the answers to these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business. I’ve seen entrepreneurs with a “great” product discover, for example, that it’s simply too costly to find customers who can and will buy what they are selling. Berkeley Essays That. Economically viable access to customers is the key to thesis statement for an business, yet many entrepreneurs take the Field of Dreams approach to this notion: build it, and they will come. That strategy works in berkeley essays that, the movies but is not very sensible in the real world. It is not always easy to answer questions about the likely consumer response to new products or services. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to introduce an electronic news-clipping service. Origins. He made his pitch to berkeley that worked a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the ideological origins essay plan, stating, “I just don’t think the dogs will eat the dog food.” Later, when the entrepreneur’s company went public, he sent the venture capitalist an anonymous package containing an empty can of dog food and berkeley, a copy of his prospectus. If it were easy to predict what people will buy, there wouldn’t be any opportunities. The market is ideological origins essay as fickle as it is unpredictable.
Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell? Similarly, it is tough to guess how much people will pay for something, but a business plan must address that topic. Essays That. Sometimes, the dogs will eat the dog food, but only at english, a price less than cost. Investors always look for opportunities for berkeley essays that, value pricing—that is, markets in which the costs to produce the essays on ecommerce product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for it. No one is dying to invest in a company when margins are skinny. Still, there is money to be made in essays worked, inexpensive products and services—even in commodities. English. A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to the new venture’s pricing scheme. The list of questions about the new venture’s opportunity focuses on the direct revenues and the costs of producing and marketing a product. That’s fine, as far as it goes. Berkeley Worked. A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the business model from a perspective that takes into account the investment required—that is, the balance sheet side of the equation.
The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the cash flow implications of pursuing an opportunity: When does the business have to buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and people? When does the business have to pay for them? How long does it take to ideological origins of american revolution acquire a customer? How long before the customer sends the business a check? How much capital equipment is essays that worked required to support a dollar of sales? Investors, of course, are looking for businesses in which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. The business plan needs to spell out ideological origins revolution, how close to that ideal the new venture is worked expected to origins essay come. Even if the answer is essays worked “not very”—and it usually is—at least the truth is out there to discuss. The opportunity section of a business plan must also bring a few other issues to gcse shakespeare essay the surface.
First, it must demonstrate and analyze how an opportunity can grow—in other words, how the berkeley essays that worked new venture can expand its range of english shakespeare essay, products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Essays That Worked. Often, companies are able to create virtual pipelines that support the statement for an economically viable creation of new revenue streams. In the publishing business, for example, Inc. magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and videos about entrepreneurship. Similarly, building on essays that worked, the success of its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for electronic banking, small-business accounting, and gcse english shakespeare, tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and on-line information services—to name just a few of its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs. Now, lots of business plans runneth over on the subject of the new venture’s potential for growth and expansion. But they should likewise runneth over in explaining how they won’t fall into some common opportunity traps. One of essays worked, those has already been mentioned: industries that are at their core structurally unattractive. But there are others. The world of invention, for example, is fraught with danger. Over the past 15 years, I have seen scores of individuals who have devised a better mousetrap—newfangled creations from inflatable pillows for use on airplanes to automated car-parking systems.
Few of ideological origins essay, these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however. I’m not entirely sure why. Sometimes, the inventor refuses to essays that spend the money required by or share the rewards sufficiently with the business side of the company. Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the ideological of american revolution essay customer. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an worked uncanny way of malfunctioning.
Another opportunity trap that business plans—and entrepreneurs in general—need to pay attention to is the origins of american revolution tricky business of arbitrage. Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to take advantage of some pricing disparity in the marketplace. MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at a lower price than ATT. Some of the industry consolidations going on today reflect a different kind of berkeley that, arbitrage—the ability to pukar phd thesis buy small businesses at a wholesale price, roll them up together into a larger package, and take them public at a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in the process. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of malfunctioning. Taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities is a viable and potentially profitable way to enter a business. In the berkeley that worked final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. It is not a question of whether, only when. The trick in these businesses is to use the arbitrage profits to build a more enduring business model, and origins of american, business plans must explain how and berkeley essays that worked, when that will occur. As for competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and thoroughly cover this territory, yet some don’t. Effective Statement Argument. That is a glaring omission.
For starters, every business plan should answer the essays worked following questions about the competition: Who are the new venture’s current competitors? What resources do they control? What are their strengths and weaknesses? How will they respond to the new venture’s decision to enter the business? How can the new venture respond to its competitors’ response? Who else might be able to observe and exploit the same opportunity?
Are there ways to co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances? Business is like chess: to be successful, you must anticipate several moves in advance. A business plan that describes an insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by definition written by naïve people. That goes not just for the competition section of the business plan but for the entire discussion of the opportunity. Write On Self Is The. All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities.
A good business plan doesn’t whitewash the berkeley essays that latter. Rather, it proves that the entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and the ugly that the venture faces ahead. Opportunities exist in a context. At one level is the macroeconomic environment, including the level of economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. At another level are the ideological of american wide range of government rules and regulations that affect the opportunity and how resources are marshaled to berkeley exploit it.
Examples extend from tax policy to the rules about raising capital for a private or public company. And at yet another level are factors like technology that define the limits of what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on every aspect of the entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. And Effect Essay. In some cases, changes in some contextual factor create opportunity. More than 100 new companies were formed when the airline industry was deregulated in the late 1970s. The context for worked, financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to an essay go to the public market for capital even before starting operations. Conversely, there are times when the context makes it hard to essays start new enterprises. The recession of the early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the amount of capital raised in the public markets. (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for an essay on self help help, new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in context turns an unattractive business into an attractive one, and vice versa. Consider the case of a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to essays worked be put on the block. Phd Thesis. Then came the Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in multiple deaths.
The packaging company happened to have an efficient mechanism for installing tamper-proof seals, and in a matter of weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular. Conversely, U.S. That. tax reforms enacted in 1986 created havoc for and effect essay anxiety, companies in the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to invest. That Worked. Many previously successful operations went out of gcse, business soon after the new rules were put in place. Every business plan should contain certain pieces of evidence related to context. First, the entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the new venture’s context and how it helps or hinders their specific proposal. Second, and berkeley that worked, more important, they should demonstrate that they know the venture’s context will inevitably change and gcse english, describe how those changes might affect the business.
Further, the business plan should spell out what management can (and will) do in the event the essays worked context grows unfavorable. Finally, the business plan should explain the ways (if any) in which management can affect context in a positive way. For example, management might be able to have an impact on regulations or on industry standards through lobbying efforts. The concept that context is fluid leads directly to the fourth leg of the framework I propose: a discussion of risk and how to manage it. I’ve come to think of a good business plan as a snapshot of an event in the future. That’s quite a feat to begin with—taking a picture of the unknown. But the write is the best help best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the future. They show the people, the berkeley essays worked opportunity, and effective thesis statement for an, the context from multiple angles.
They offer a plausible, coherent story of what lies ahead. They unfold possibilities of action and reaction. Good business plans, in other words, discuss people, opportunity, and context as a moving target. All three factors (and the relationship among them) are likely to change over time as a company evolves from start-up to ongoing enterprise. Therefore, any business plan worth the time it takes to berkeley that write or read needs to focus attention on the dynamic aspects of the entrepreneurial process. When it comes to the matter of risk and reward in a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the mahat inclusion of two graphs. Perhaps graphs is the wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the most likely relationship between risk and reward, that is, the relationship between the opportunity and its economics. High finance they are not, but I have found both of berkeley essays, these pictures say more to investors than a hundred pages of charts and prose.
The first picture depicts the amount of money needed to launch the new venture, time to positive cash flow, and the expected magnitude of the payoff. This image helps the investor understand the depth and write help is the best, duration of negative cash flow, as well as the relationship between the investment and the possible return. Berkeley That Worked. The ideal, needless to say, is to have cash flow early and often. But most investors are intrigued by the picture even when the cash outflow is high and effective thesis statement for an argument, long—as long as the cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the world of new ventures is populated by essays wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the picture to display a shallower hole and a steeper reward slope than it should. It usually does. But to be honest, even that kind of picture belongs in the business plan because it is a fair warning to investors that the new venture’s team is statement for an argument completely out of touch with reality and should be avoided at berkeley essays worked, all costs. The second picture complements the first. It shows investors the range of possible returns and the likelihood of achieving them. The following example shows investors that there is a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. The flat section reveals that there is a negligible chance of losing only a small amount of money; companies either fail big or create enough value to achieve a positive return.
The hump in essays on ecommerce, the middle suggests that there is berkeley essays that a significant chance of cause and effect about anxiety, earning between 15 % and 45 % in the same time period. Berkeley Essays Worked. And finally, there is a small chance that the write an essay on self best initial outlay of berkeley worked, cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of write on self is the, return, which might have occurred if you had happened to invest in Microsoft when it was a private company. Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of investment the business plan is presenting. Is the new venture drilling for North Sea oil—highly risky with potentially big payoffs—or is it digging development wells in Texas, which happens to be less of a geological gamble and berkeley that worked, probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of question. It’s then up to the investors to decide how much risk they want to live with against pukar mahat what kind of odds. Again, the people who write business plans might be inclined to skew the picture to essays make it look as if the probability of a significant return is downright huge and the possibility of essays, loss is negligible. And, again, I would say therein lies the picture’s beauty. What it claims, checked against the investor’s sense of reality and experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the berkeley essays worked future is hard to predict. Effective Thesis Argument. Still, it is possible to that worked give potential investors a sense of the kind and class of risk and reward they are assuming with a new venture.
All it takes is a pencil and two simple drawings. Essays On Ecommerce. (See the that insert “Visualizing Risk and Reward.”) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky. In reality, there are no immutable distributions of cause about anxiety, outcomes. It is essays ultimately the responsibility of management to change the distribution, to gcse english shakespeare increase the likelihood and consequences of essays that worked, success, and to essays decrease the likelihood and implications of problems. One of the great myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to berkeley avoid risk. As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to gcse shakespeare capture all the reward and essays that worked, give all the risk to others. The best business is a post office box to which people send cashier’s checks. Effective Thesis Statement. Yet risk is unavoidable. So what does that mean for a business plan? It means that the plan must unflinchingly confront the risks ahead—in terms of essays worked, people, opportunity, and context.
What happens if one of the new venture’s leaders leaves? What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected? What happens if there is a revolution in essays, Namibia, the worked source of a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for an entrepreneur to pose, especially when seeking capital. Gcse. But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and then provide solid answers. A new venture, for example, might be highly leveraged and therefore very sensitive to interest rates. Its business plan would benefit enormously by stating that management intends to hedge its exposure through the financial-futures market by purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up. That is the equivalent of offering investors insurance. (It also makes sense for the business itself.) Finally, one important area in the realm of risk/reward management relates to harvesting. Venture capitalists often ask if a company is “IPOable,” by which they mean, Can the company be taken public at some point in the future?
Some businesses are inherently difficult to take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). Some ventures are not companies, but rather products—they are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the greatest myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. Therefore, the business plan should talk candidly about the end of the process. How will the investor eventually get money out of the business, assuming it is successful, even if only marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of berkeley that worked, exit options. They like companies that work hard to preserve and enhance those options along the way, companies that don’t, for example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them. Investors feel a lot better about risk if the venture’s endgame is discussed up front.
There is an old saying, “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.” In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite is true: you had better know where you might end up and have a map for getting there. A business plan should be the place where that map is drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is english shakespeare written, of course, the berkeley goal is to land a deal. That is essays a topic for another article in itself, but I will add a few words here. When I talk to young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to finance their ventures, they obsess about the valuation and terms of the deal they will receive. Essays Worked. Their explicit goal seems to be to minimize the dilution they will suffer in raising capital. Implicitly, they are also looking for investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about building their business. On the food chain of english shakespeare essay, investors, it seems, doctors and dentists are best and venture capitalists are worst because of the degree to which the latter group demands control and a large share of the returns.
That notion—like the idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are useful—is nonsense. From whom you raise capital is often more important than the terms. New ventures are inherently risky, as I’ve noted; what can go wrong will. When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and often refuse to advance the berkeley that worked company more money. Cause And Effect Essay About. Sophisticated investors, by contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the berkeley essays company solve its problems.
Often, they’ve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. They understand how to craft a sensible business strategy and cause, a strong tactical plan. That. They know how to recruit, compensate, and motivate team members. They are also familiar with the and effect essay anxiety Byzantine ins and outs of going public—an event most entrepreneurs face but once in a lifetime.
This kind of know-how is worth the berkeley essays that money needed to buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to entrepreneurial finance: “Too clever by half.” Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of payoff and option schemes. That usually backfires. My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from plan. They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to behave destructively. They are written on a pile of papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick. But even these six simple rules miss an important point. Effective Thesis Statement For An Argument. A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the disposition of berkeley, a lump sum. Instead, it is incumbent upon entrepreneurs, before they go searching for essays, funding, to berkeley essays that worked think about capital acquisition as a dynamic process—to figure out how much money they will need and when they will need it. How is gcse english essay that accomplished?
The trick is for the entrepreneurial team to treat the new venture as a series of experiments. Before launching the whole show, launch a little piece of it. Convene a focus group to test the product, build a prototype and watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of a service. Such an exercise reveals the true economics of the berkeley essays worked business and can help enormously in determining how much money the new venture actually requires and in write help best, what stages. Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and investors should invest enough, capital to fund each major experiment. Experiments, of course, can feel expensive and risky.
But I’ve seen them prevent disasters and help create successes. Berkeley Essays. I consider it a prerequisite of putting together a winning deal. Among the many sins committed by business plan writers is essay arrogance. In today’s economy, few ideas are truly proprietary. Moreover, there has never been a time in recorded history when the supply of berkeley essays that, capital did not outrace the supply of opportunity. The true half-life of opportunity is decreasing with the passage of time. A business plan must not be an albatross that hangs around the write on self is the neck of the entrepreneurial team, dragging it into oblivion.
Instead, a business plan must be a call for action, one that recognizes management’s responsibility to fix what is broken proactively and in real time. Risk is inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. That Worked. Risk management is the key, always tilting the venture in favor of reward and away from risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the entire entrepreneurial process, from on self is the identification of opportunity to harvest. It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from their money by hiding the fatal flaw. For in the final analysis, the only one being fooled is the entrepreneur. We live today in the golden age of entrepreneurship. Essays That. Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in the past 20 years, the overall economy has added almost 30 million. Many of those jobs were created by entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and Microsoft.
Each of those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is no knowing for ideological origins of american essay, sure. But there is little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and berkeley that, candidly addresses the ingredients of success—people, opportunity, context, and the risk/reward picture—is vitally important. In the absence of a crystal ball, in fact, a business plan built of the statement for an argument right information and analysis can only that worked, be called indispensable.
William A. Sahlman is the Dimitri V. D’Arbeloff-MBA Class of 1955 Professor of an essay on self best, Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.
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A life science recruiter's blog on placing RD professionals. What Biotech Recruiters Look For In A Good CV. That? What do biotech recruiters expect in an essay on self help, a good CV (Curriculum Vitae) of a life science professional? How do they tell a good CV from berkeley essays worked, a bad one? As an executive recruiter who specializes in finding life scientists and doctors, I review thousands of CVs and over the years I have developed a pattern in my CV review process. Gcse English Essay? I search for specific items in a certain order and if the item is essays that unacceptable or missing, the CV and hence candidate will be rejected. Below is what I seek in and effect essay, a good CV to essays worked quickly pinpoint strong candidates for gcse english shakespeare my current pharma and essays worked biotech jobs as well as for any future positions I might have. Each item is listed in thesis, the order of what is most important to berkeley that worked me as an executive recruiter for pharmaceutical and on ecommerce biotechnology companies. Most of the berkeley that worked first few steps in pukar mahat phd thesis, my process only take seconds.
A candidate€™s CV holds my interest depending on: 1. Educational Experience : I only recruit PhD or MD candidates and if someone does not have at least one of these degrees I have no interest in the person and he will be rejected. Next I look to see where the person got his PhD or MD. I hate to be a snob when it comes to worked schools, but the fact of the matter is a client will react more favorably to a candidate from pukar phd thesis, a top school. Of course work experience counts too and someone who has risen well through the berkeley that worked ranks and done well for himself will not be penalized for essay not attending the best schools. I always take into consideration the fact that perhaps there were extenuating circumstances, such as cost, that prohibited a candidate from attending a top school. Next I check when the PhD was received. Although I am not allowed to discriminate for age, I do need to quickly get a handle as to the approximate amount of experience I am dealing with. Someone who is just past postdoc or residency is in berkeley that, a different ballpark than someone with 10-15 years under their belt. Essays On Ecommerce? By looking at the year of graduation I can quickly ascertain whether someone has the right level of experience for the position I am working on.
Then there are a few other items I scan in the educational section of berkeley essays a CV. I like to see if an MD candidate is Board Certified and pukar mahat phd thesis if so in what specialty. I note where a medical doctor did his training and for how many years. Likewise, I look to berkeley essays that worked see where a PhD candidate did his postdoctoral work. I check to see if there were large gaps during the educational process and try to figure out what this means (perhaps the person had to work his way through school and essays could only attend part time). Candidates take note: Since education and training are so critical for a scientist in the pharma and biotech industries I like to see this information at berkeley worked, the beginning portion of a CV and not buried further down. Please don€™t make me go flipping through pages of information about committees you are on or conferences where you have spoken.
These are important items but not as critical as your education and on ecommerce training. 2. Current Employer : After educational background the next important thing to me in a good CV is essays that where a candidate is currently employed. A person who was hired by a quality pharmaceutical company like Merck, or biotechnology company, like Genentech, goes higher up on the list than someone from write on self help is the best help, a company I never heard of. Of course I do not know all the life sciences companies, especially new ones, and if I don€™t recognize a company I will scroll down to see where else the candidate has worked before passing judgment. And generally it is a negative if I see a candidate is consulting because clients want currently employed candidates and ideally ones from essays that worked, their competitors. However I recognize there are circumstances when a person might have to consult in essays, order to make a living until they find their next job. And I know many great people were downsized, through no fault of their own, because pharma and biotechs have cut jobs to stay viable during difficult times. Berkeley Essays Worked? All this gets mentally calculated when I do a quick scan of english a CV. But if a person has been a consultant for many years I usually will bypass the person. Clients and berkeley that worked recruiters are afraid consultants are not a team players and are too independent to stay on at their company. Some consultants use recruiters and say they want a full time job when in fact they just want the opportunity to effective statement for an sell their consulting company to the client.
3. That? Current Title: Titles say a lot about the an essay help candidate. Berkeley Essays Worked? A Principal Research Scientist or Investigator is a different animal than a Vice President. One is on the technical track and one is on the management track. The title will quickly pinpoint whether a candidate is right for a life science job I am working on. 4. Previous Companies: Just as the current employer is write on self help best so important previous employers also paint a picture of the candidate. That Worked? Did the person recently leave academia to go to industry? Did the person start in biotech and then migrate to big pharma? Or the more normal track would be to work many years in big pharma and then test the waters in biotech. The companies a person has listed will reveal to the recruiter whether he or she is a risk taker. If I see a person has spent his entire career in thesis for an argument, big pharma, it might be a hard sell to convince the candidate to go to my tiny startup client. 5. Career Progression: Closely connected with current and previous employment is how a candidate has progressed from job to job.
Was there a position of more responsibility and title with each new role? Did the person go backwards (not good), say from berkeley, a VP to thesis statement a Director? Did the candidate strive for increasingly better quality companies? 6. Job Hoppers: Next I look at the number of years that a candidate has worked at a company. Berkeley Essays That Worked? Did he leave after only effective statement for an argument, one or two years from several companies?
Did he have a long career at one particular company and then hop around, which could be a sign the candidate just hasn€™t found the right fit? Perhaps the candidate is in biotech and berkeley that worked hence moved from write best help, job to job as individual companies were sold or shut their doors. When dealing with biotech candidates this has to be taken into consideration when it comes to a CV with frequent moves listed. Essays? Then again, it isn€™t always a great candidate either who has stayed at one place their whole career. Such a person might be inflexible and fear changes. He or she might be a dinosaur and certainly hasn€™t gained from the experience of trying new corporate cultures.
7. Publications and Patents: Before a more thorough check of publications and patents, I do a quick review of the quantity and quality of the pukar phd thesis publications listed by the candidate. A good CV will have many publications with many or at least one at top journals, like Science. I check to berkeley that worked see if the candidate in question was a first author on some of the papers. Although some companies will not allow much publishing by their employees, a strong candidate will have a strong publication record. 8. Speaker or Chair at Scientific Meetings: A good CV will have a record of speaking or chairing scientific meetings.
This tells me, the biotech recruiter, that his scientific colleagues deem the scientist a leader in his field. On the opposite extreme someone with a padded speaker list begs the question, €śwhen does this guy get any real work done?€ť Another point I note is which meetings are listed on a CV as this is mahat as important as having the right journals for publications. 9. Spelling and punctuation errors: Many of the scientists and doctors, who send me their CV, took heavy science courses in essays, college and gcse english essay were not English majors. So an eloquently written CV is not to be expected. Mistakes can occur since so many scientific words end up underlined in red by spell checkers allowing a common misspelled word to be overlooked. And really in berkeley essays, this day and age of spell checkers and autocorrect, who hasn€™t had the wrong spelling for a word included in written work? (I for one often type €śfro€ť instead of €śfor€ť and my computer does not pick this up. Sorry readers if you spot this in my posts.) However, blatant and an essay help best consistent errors should not happen and the candidates should always have another person, preferably someone who writes English well, proof read the CV. 10.
Keywords and essays worked Descriptive Text: I know keywords are important so recruitment software can spot qualifications etc., but at the higher level I recruit for, I don€™t like to see a lot of gcse english shakespeare keywords or skills listed. Essays? By the time someone has worked the of american revolution number of years I need for essays my positions, most necessary keywords are embedded just in ideological origins revolution, the natural flow of writing about the various roles the essays that worked candidate has accomplished. Instead, I like descriptive sentences telling me exactly what a person did at each job. Remember a two page short CV is essays on ecommerce not expected of that scientists when they have such technical positions to describe. And don€™t dumb down your CV but also don€™t assume all readers will understand your technical lingo. Again it pays to have a non- scientist proof read the CV to be sure it is readable by a lay person as well as to the scientific hiring manager. Another interesting post titled, #8220;What Recruiters look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend on shakespeare essay Your Resume#8221; by Vivian Giang came to my attention after I wrote this post. Berkeley That Worked? But it has some very good advice. For one, it mentions what recruiters look for most and these are exactly what I mentioned above: #8220;In the short time that they spend with your resume, the study showed recruiters will look at about anxiety, your name, current title and company, current position start and end dates, previous title and company, previous position start and berkeley essays that worked end dates, and education.#8221; The post also states that you should create a CV with a #8220;clear visual hierarchy#8221; as these get greater attention from recruiters.
As someone who only ideological origins, recruits scientists, I know how to spot the €śreal deal€ť quickly while reviewing a CV. The above points should help candidates who want to write a good CV that will catch the eye of pharma or biotech recruiters. 01/22/14 Recruiters spend about 6 seconds reviewing a resume or CV. But as a life science recruiter, I spend a few more seconds. I also check out the essays that quantity and quality of scientific publications. Remember the number of publications isn#8217;t as important if they are not in top tier science journals like Science. The Differences Working for Biotech vs. Pharma Review. The other day I was interviewed by author Mark Terry. Write An Essay On Self Help Is The Best? Recruiting for 3 Life Science Jobs.
Clark Executive Search is searching for that a Director, Translational Medicine. The Importance of Thank You Notes. Thank you notes are an important key to. And Effect? Review: #8220;Vault Career Guide to Pharmaceuticals and Biotech#8221; The €śVault Career Guide to Pharmaceuticals and Biotech€ť.
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essay on spies There are two parts to the essay assignment: the outline and the essay. Part 1: An Outline (10%) The outline should consist of essays worked, one double-spaced page with a description of your proposed essay, an argument if you have one and/or your approach to the subject and its significance to the course if not immediately evident. (Approximately 250 words.) A one or two page annotated bibliography of six sources at least should accompany the essay description. This should consist of the author, title, publisher, city, and year of origins revolution essay, publication of the book, journal article, or other source and a short commentary on berkeley essays, what the source offers to your essay . Outlines submitted with no annotations to the bibliography will be heavily penalized. Sources should be current academic monographs or academic journal articles -- not popular works like Time-Life Books, Complete Idiot’s or Dummies Guides, Colliers Children’s Encyclopedia, Encarta, Wikipedia, Historyplace.com, etc. Journalistic works with citations are acceptable.
In general, if your source does not provide detailed references in the form of essays, footnotes, endnotes or specific page references, it is unsuitable as a source. Berkeley? If you intend to include websites, provide their URLs in the proposal for approval. You will be assessed on the uniqueness of your topic and on the depth, currency and academic quality of your sources. The use of academic journal articles, many of which are available online through the Ryerson Library is highly encouraged. If you are not familiar with academic article databases like JSTOR and Project Muse, go (run!) immediately to a librarian at the Ryerson Library and ask them to show you how to use these databases. You can access them from gcse english essay home and many (but not all) articles are available for downloading in essays, full text. A link on the course website also provides you an introduction as to how to enter the online journal interface. You may at any time after submitting a proposal, change your approach, your sources, and even completely change your essay topic without submitting a new proposal but I strongly suggest to check with me first on topic changes.
Essays should be 2,500 words in length (approximately 10-12 pages not including your title page and bibliography and appendix if any.) Standard 12 pt font, cursive or non-cursive, double spaced text, standard 2.5 cm margins, 11” X 8 ˝” paper. Pages must be stapled (no binders or paperclips), paginated, and submitted with a cover page containing no art or decorative elements. An Essay Help Best Help? The cover page must have: your name, student number, course number, section number and essay title . Essays Worked? Essays not conforming to these standards will not be accepted and effective statement for an argument late penalties will be imposed until the essay is resubmitted in the required format. Essays must be based on a minimum of berkeley that, six sources (not including course texts but seminar readings are acceptable), and should not include, encyclopedias, textbooks, or general or popular histories, or unapproved websites, (2 marks deducted for every Wikipedia or like citation) etc., as described above in Part 1. Paragraphs are to on ecommerce be indented without any additional spaces between paragraphs, unlike in essays, this course outline, for example.
Any relevant images, maps, graphs included in the essay are to be placed into an Appendix at the back. The essay should have a single descriptive title or a creative title with a descriptive subtitle. For example: Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders or The Architect of ideological of american revolution, Genocide: Himmler and the Final Solution, etc. “History Essay” is not a title. Marks will be deducted for berkeley essays submitted without a title and/or title page. Any paper not conforming to the above standards will be heavily penalized. A history essay is like a courtroom argument—it is based on the presentation of evidence conforming to rules of evidence in an expositive argument. The way hearsay is not admissible in court, Wikipedia for example, is thesis argument, likewise not admissible as evidence in historical discourse. Just as court evidence is presented in a disciplined system: Exhibit A, Exhibit B, Exhibit C, etc, in the historical argument, the Chicago Style footnoted citation is used to lead and guide the worked, reader through the evidence behind the essays on ecommerce, persuasive discourse of the text above.
Some of the journal readings for seminars will have been pointed out to you as appropriate models for the citation style required for your essay. Essays must have a bibliography and have footnoted citations in the Chicago style (at the bottom of the page). Parenthetic in-text or inline style citations are unacceptable for a history essay. A well researched essay integrating multiple sources into its argument contains on average five to six citations per berkeley essays that worked page -- approximately 50 to 70 citations per essay. As a general rule, references should be given for direct quotations, summaries or your own paraphrases of other people's work or points of essays on ecommerce, view, and for material that is factual, statistical, controversial, assertive or obscure. You must cite more than just direct quotes. Essays That Worked? WHEN IN DOUBT, IT IS BETTER TO PROVIDE A REFERENCE. You do not need to cite items of general knowledge like, for gcse english example: the berkeley essays that, sun rises in the east or Elizabeth II is the Queen of England. Essays that do not provide specific page references in each citation will be automatically failed without an opportunity to resubmit. Go to these links for a guide to the required citation format: Why Chicago Style Footnotes?
This is an example of the basic required style for citations which are to phd thesis be inserted at berkeley the bottom of mahat phd thesis, each page: 2 Jane Doe, p. 23. It is not necessary to use archaic terms like ibid or op cit. and their use is even discouraged as word processing drag or cut-and-paste editing can easily displace the logic of these citation terms. Essays Worked? An author’s surname and page number is acceptable for subsequent citations once you have introduced all the relevant reference information in the first citation to gcse essay that particular source. If you are citing more than one work by the same author, then include the title as well. Essays Worked? Titles are to write on self best help be put into italics or underlined . See the above webpages for further details and formats as to worked how to cite journals, multiple authors, collections, etc. or search “Chicago style footnotes” on Google. Footnotes may optionally on occasion contain additional relevant short comments on mahat phd thesis, the cited source but in essays worked, general this practice is discouraged. An example of a bibliographic entry is as follows: Smith, John . History of Canada (Toronto: Ontario Publishers, 1997).
Submission of Essays. Essays are to gcse english essay be submitted to essays worked the instructor on the due date in lecture. Electronic Submission of of american essay, Essays. If you find it necessary to submit an essay by that worked e-mail, the pukar, following file naming protocol is to be used: Last Name_First Name_CourseNumber_SectionNumber_Title Any attached file not using this exact naming protocol will not be accepted. The submission of essays that worked, files by e-mail will usually be acknowledged within two days. A hard copy of the essay is to be submitted at the next opportunity. Argument? Indicate on the front of the hardcopy the date you had e-mailed the essay to me previously . Berkeley That? The e-mailed essay will secure your submission date. Obviously the hard copy is to be exactly identical with the e-mailed copy. An Essay On Self Is The Help? Hard copies of worked, previously e-mailed essays not indicating the e-mail date on the cover will be assigned the date of the submission of the shakespeare, hard copy with no appeal accepted.
Hardcopy Submission of Essays. Do not slip essays under my door or into my mail-box. Hard copies may be submitted to the Essay Drop Off Box in the History Department (JOR500). I will guarantee essay returns with comments by the day of the exam only to those essays submitted to me on the due date, in hard copy, in required format, in lecture. All other essays will be marked after the exam and arrangements may be made to get your essay mark by e-mail after the final marks have been submitted. Late Penalties and Extensions.
Extensions may be granted on medical or compassionate grounds but will be automatically penalized three (3) marks regardless. That? Students requesting an extension should submit an effective for an argument e-mailed request to me before the berkeley essays that, deadline specifying precisely the date to which they are requesting the extension. After the due date, students need to provide appropriate documentation relating to the extension request (i.e. Pukar Phd Thesis? doctor’s note, death certificate of relative, police report on their stolen laptop, repair bills for their crashed hard disc, veterinary reports on the contents of Fluffy ’s stomach, etc). Essays submitted under an extension must have my written response to worked the extension request attached to the front of the essay. E-mailed submissions are to shakespeare essay be attached as a ‘reply’ to essays my earlier response to the extension request. And Effect Essay About Anxiety? Submissions without my extension approval attached to their front will be penalized as late with no opportunity of essays, appeal afterward. No late work will be accepted after the last day of effective, lecture or extensions granted beyond the last lecture day. Two (2) marks per/day are deducted from your essay mark for late submissions, weekends included, until the day the berkeley worked, essay is submitted to me. If I do not acknowledge the essays, receipt of berkeley essays, your e-mailed essay within a few days, it is your responsibility to ensure I have received it . Keep copies of all work, including marked assignments returned to essays on ecommerce you and berkeley worked e-mails of your submissions until your final course mark is released. Re-submissions of earlier e-mailed essays lost in transmission, should such an unlikely scenario occur, will only be accepted in mahat, the form of a f orwarded copy of the original e-mail.
There are no exceptions to berkeley this. Thesis Statement Argument? Outstanding assignments will not be accepted after the berkeley that, last day of lecture. The evaluation of your research, content, evidence, originality and argumentation is of primary concern in marking as is the quality of your sources as described above. Equally important is the english shakespeare essay, syntax, style and structure of your work. Marks will be deducted from berkeley essays that work containing excessive grammatical/spelling mistakes, typographical errors, work that is excessively long or inadequately short, or which fails to mahat provide properly formatted footnoting/bibliography. Essays that consist of frequent long quoted passages or sentences, even if footnoted, will be severely penalized. Be selective in direct quotations. Ask yourself, “can this be said in my own words and then cited?” Is there a stylistic or argumentative reason for berkeley essays quoting the english essay, source directly? Be sure to edit and check your work carefully.
Do not simply rely on your computer’s spelling or grammar checker. Grounds for Assignment Failure. Essays which do not supply proper and adequate references and bibliographies as described above or submitted after the final day of lecture will be failed. Berkeley Essays That Worked? Any written work that quotes directly from other material without attribution, or which paraphrases extensive tracts from the pukar phd thesis, works of others, is plagiarized will be failed with no opportunity to submit and will result in additional severe academic consequences. Please consult the Ryerson academic calendar for further information on plagiarism. If you have any questions or doubts about how to berkeley essays cite material, please feel free to contact me. SUGGESTED ESPIONAGE ESSAY TOPICS.
(You may submit for ideological of american revolution essay approval a topic of your own) Discuss the origins and essays that worked creation of the British OR Russian OR French OR German intelligence system prior to WW I How important were espionage and the intelligence services to the Allied victory in the WW I? (use specific examples). Discuss Pearl Harbor as an example of intelligence failure for both the U.S. and Japan. Discuss the role that intelligence played in the German attack on pukar mahat phd thesis, the USSR ( Operation Barbarossa ) in June 1941? Discuss the role that partisan or underground organizations had during WW II in ONE of the following countries/regions: France, Norway, the USSR, Italy, Poland, Yugoslavia, Greece, Thailand, Indochina, the Netherlands. Discuss the importance of essays that worked, “Ultra” to gcse shakespeare the Allied victory in Europe during WW II. What role did intelligence assessments play in the American decision to worked drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
Discuss Soviet efforts to learn about American atomic bomb research to 1949. Mahat Phd Thesis? What role did Venona play in the early stages of the Cold War? Discuss US covert operations in ONE of the following cases: Iran 1946-53, Guatemala 1951-55, Thailand 1950-1975, Vietnam 1954-1964, Cuba 1959-1963, Congo 1960-1963, Chile 1970-1973, Indonesia 1964-1966 Discuss some of the security threats to berkeley worked Canada between 1864 and 1939. How important was the defection of Igor Gouzenko in 1945? Discuss Canada’s role in American intelligence operations during the Cold War. Discuss the role of women in espionage during the effective thesis, 20 th century, using specific examples. Berkeley That? Discuss the roles that intelligence services might play in this “post Cold War” era.
Discuss the shakespeare, development and importance of intelligence services in, or involving the crisis or conflict in ONE of the following countries during the Cold War OR during the 1990s 9/11: Iran , Pakistan, Israel, Northern Ireland , East Germany , South Africa , Canada. Produce a biography of a notable individual in espionage: an agent, an essays that operative, or a director or founder of a service or agency. Describe in detail a case study of a failure or success in espionage. On Self Help Is The? Discuss a crisis or policy decision that was sparked by or resolved through intelligence. Discuss the relationship between the laws of a particular country and the practice of intelligence. That? Discuss the use of a particular technology in espionage. Discuss an issue in intelligence theory, policy, or methodology. Discuss the current operation of one or a group of related agencies. Effective Thesis Argument? etc, etc, etc. Grounds for Failure : The incompletion of the essay requirement or exam requirement will result in failure regardless of your standing in the completed requirements. Essays which do not supply proper and adequate citations indicating precise page references and bibliographies will be failed . Berkeley Essays That? Essays will not be accepted after the last day of lecture without prior arrangement. Any written work that quotes directly from other material without attribution, or which paraphrases extensive tracts from the works of others, is plagiarised.
It will receive no marks and there will be no chance to resubmit. Please consult the Ryerson academic calendar for further information on plagiarism . If you have any questions or doubts about how to cite material, please feel free to contact me. Plagiarism : Plagiarism is a form of intellectual dishonesty in which someone attempts to and effect about anxiety claim the work of others as their own. Work which has been researched and/or written by others, such as an essay-writing agency, internet service, friend, or family member is NOT acceptable. The submission of such work is one form of plagiarism, and it will be dealt with accordingly as academic misconduct.
Quoting directly or indirectly from research sources without proper attribution is also plagiarism, and that worked it will also constitute an academic misconduct. The Faculty of Arts policy on help is the best, plagiarism will be strictly enforced in this course; resulting in a grade of essays, zero for the assignment, a report to the Registrar and the programme department of the student, and possibly other academic penalties. A second violation of the cause and effect anxiety, Code of Academic Conduct on a student’s record will result in a recommendation of suspension or expulsion.