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W. H. Good Essay Introductions. Auden Literary Criticism - Essay. (Full name Wystan Hugh Auden) English-born American poet, dramatist, librettist, critic, essayist, editor, and why computer is important in our essay translator. The following entry presents an overview of Auden's career through 1997. See also W. H. Auden Criticism (Volume 1), and Volumes 3 , 4 . W. H. Auden is considered one of the good introductions preeminent English-language poets of the twentieth century. Graduate Of Education Essays. In many ways a contradictory personality, at once prudent, revolutionary, pious, and intemperate, Auden is distinguished for his enormous intelligence, technical virtuosity, complex philosophical and moral vision, and narrative essay keen wit. His prodigious output, spanning nearly a half century, includes inventive experiments with lyric and prose poetry, verse drama, librettos, and notable contributions to literary criticism. His best known poetry, most of which appears in The Orators (1932), Another Time (1940), Journey to a War (1939), New Year Letter (1941), For the Time Being (1944), The Age of Anxiety (1947), and Nones (1951), reflects his life-long preoccupation with political, psychological, and spiritual conflicts. As an innovative dramatist and librettist working in operatic forms, Auden also displayed an is important, intuitive musical ear and theatrical genius ahead of narrative essay his time. A highly original poet and celebrated man of letters, Auden's large and varied oeuvre attests to is important the impressive range and profundity of his literary and intellectual endeavors.
Born Wystan Hugh Auden in York, England, and named after a Saxon saint, Auden was raised in the industrial city of Birmingham by devout, well-educated Anglo-Catholic parents of clerical descent. Good Introductions. His father was School Medical Officer and Professor of Public Health in Birmingham. In Our Life. The family library, reflecting his wide ranging interests in archaeology, psychology, the classics, and Norse saga, acquainted the young Auden with scientific subjects and narrative essay introductions literature. His mother, with whom Auden maintained a powerful attachment, held a degree in French and short worked as a nurse. Auden attended preparatory school at Saint Edmund's between 1915 and 1920, where he befriended Christopher Isherwood. He then went to Gresham's School, Holt, where he wrote his first poems and began to come to terms with his homosexuality. His first published poem appeared in Public School Verse in 1924. A brilliant student whose wealth of diverse knowledge dazzled his instructors and peers, in 1925 Auden began study at Christ Church College, Oxford, on a scholarship in natural science, though he later switched to English. Good Narrative Introductions. At Oxford, Auden published poetry in of phoenix Oxford Poetry , for which he served as an good narrative essay, editor, and his first volume of poetry, Poems (1928), which was handprinted and privately distributed by classmate Stephen Spender.
During this time, Auden was at the center of a group of emerging young writers including Spender, Isherwood, and Cecil Day-Lewis, alternately known as the villanova scholarship Oxford Group or the Auden Generation. While still at Oxford, Auden also wrote his first dramatic work, Paid on introductions, Both Sides (1930), which T. S. Eliot eventually published in the Criterion . After graduating in short essay peace 1928. Auden spent a year in Berlin, then took up work as a schoolmaster in England and essay Scotland for several years while composing his first commercially distributed volumes, Poems (1930), The Orators , and a verse drama The Dance of Death (1933). Auden also collaborated with Isherwood on the verse dramas The Dog Beneath the Skin (1935), The Ascent of F6 (1936), and On the Frontier (1938). Established as a major poet during the 1930s, Auden became increasingly interested in left-wing political movements and social causes. He travelled to Iceland with Louis MacNeice in 1936, documented in Letters from villanova presidential Iceland (1937); to Spain in 1937 to support anti-fascist Loyalists in the Spanish Revolution, inspiring the essay poem Spain; and to China with Isherwood in 1938, recounted in the travel book Journey to a War . He also worked with composer Benjamin Britten on several documentary films and librettos, including On Hunting Fathers (1936) and Paul Bunyan (1941). Auden married Erika Mann, daughter of Thomas Mann, in 1935 to is important life provide her with British nationality enabling her to leave Nazi Germany, after which they divorced. In 1939, Auden moved to the United States with Isherwood, where he became an official citizen in 1946, remaining in New York City until 1972. Once in America, Auden underwent a religious conversion that restored him to the Christianity of his youth. Good Narrative. His first American publication, Another Time , contains some of his most memorable poetry.
During the next decade, Auden was the recipient of two Guggenheim fellowships, taught at several prestigious liberal arts colleges, and university continued to produce important volumes of poetry, including The Double Man (1941), reprinted the essay introductions same year under the title New Year Letter; For the Time Being; and The Age of Anxiety , for villanova presidential which he received the good Pulitzer Prize in 1948. Auden also published the first of several collections of his work with The Collected Poetry (1945), for which he received the german Award of Merit Medal from the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Auden suffered a fatal heart attack at his summer home in Kirchstetten, Austria, in 1973. Auden is best known as a poet of great erudition, wisdom, and remarkable lyrical gifts. His early verse in Poems (1930) is characterized by good essay introductions terse exposition, alluring abstraction, and inventive use of language, bearing the project development influence of Eliot and Thomas Hardy, Auden's initial master, as well as Laura Riding, Wilfred Owen, and Gerard Manley Hopkins. Auden's early poems also adumbrate his penchant for Anglo-Saxon phrasing, syncopated rhythms, traditional forms, the allegorical imagery of science and geology, and his deep-felt humanitarian concerns. Drawing on eclectic sources for narrative introductions the verse drama Paid on Both Sides , inspired by villanova questions the lively dramatic action of the good parlor charade and the plays of Bertolt Brecht and William Butler Yeats, Auden merges the archaic style and blood-feud theme of Anglo-Saxon poetry with structural elements of Greek tragedy and the fragmentary modernist presentation of Eliot's The Waste Land . Auden built upon villanova essay questions these early experiments in the prose and narrative introductions verse of The Orators , drawing on Freudian psychoanalysis, Marxist doctrine, and the avant-garde techniques of Eliot, James Joyce, and Gertrude Stein to present a surreal vision of the revolutionary hero and a warning against the danger of fascism. Peppered with private jokes and allusions to his friends, The Orators laments and satirizes the stagnation of English society and the dubious promise of aqa gcse german coursework untamed modernism. Similar political and psychological concerns are echoed in Auden's collaborative verse dramas with Isherwood from this period, including The Dog Beneath the Skin, The Ascent of F6 and essay On the aqa gcse Frontier. Look, Stranger! (1936), reprinted as On This Island (1937), marks Auden's entrance into leftist politics and his shift toward an increasingly formal aesthetic.
Turning away from the obtuseness of modernism and the subjective idealism of the Romantics, Auden invokes the directness and good clarity of light verse to give serious expression to his strong ethical stance and to impose order upon the chaos preceding the Second World War. His poem Spain, composed immediately after witnessing the brutal internecine combat in that country, reflects Auden's disillusionment with political causes and school the indiscriminate violence of narrative war. In Time of War. a sequence of sonnets which appeared in Journey to a War , reveals the maturation of Auden's civic voice and liberal humanist creed. Published shortly thereafter, Another Time displays the full emergence of Auden's unique synthesis of technical mastery, moral probity, and spirited lyricism. This volume, his first American publication, contains many of his greatest poems, including As I Walked Out One Evening, Musee des Beaux Arts, Lay Your Sleeping Head, My Love, September 1, 1939, The Unknown Citizen, Letter to Lord Byron, and elegies to poets Matthew Arnold, A. E. Short Essay Peace. Housman, and Yeats. Good Narrative Essay. The full impact of Auden's self-imposed exile and acute spiritual crisis, which led to his reversion to Christianity, is in our essay evident in The Double Man . This volume contains New Year Letter, an extended epistolary poem on good, the evils of modern civilization rendered in development team Augustan form, and the sonnet sequence The Quest. Influenced by good narrative the existentialist thought of Soren Kierkegaard and American theologian Rheinhold Neibuhr, Auden moved still further toward a cerebral style that sought universal harmony in a system of peace religious ideals.
For the Time Being contains For the Time Being: A Christmas Oratorio, an overt Christian allegory based on good narrative, the Nativity in which he employs the is important in our life essay terminology of good introductions science and psychology to rationalize religious faith, and The Sea and the Mirror: A Commentary on Shakespeare's The Tempest , an ambitious allegorical work that examines the complex relationship between life and art and the creative potential of essay peace literary interpretation. His next major work, The Age of Anxiety , subtitled a baroque eclogue, relates the inner consciousness of four disparate characters as they converse among themselves in a New York City bar during the Second World War. Returning to the alliterative Anglo-Saxon versification of his early poetry, Auden explores the spiritual dimensions of good narrative introductions their ordinary lives and individual failings within a religious context. The height of graduate school of education Auden's mature, intellectual style is evident in Nones , which contains In Praise of Limestone, The Shield of Achilles (1955), featuring Horae Canonicae and Bucolics, and Homage to Clio (1960), which includes The Cave of Making and Tonight at Seven-Thirty. Devoid of the narrative essay introductions frivolity of his earlier poetry, the serene meditations of these late volumes, frequently in german neo-classical or pastoral modes, displays Auden's unsurpassed technical control and deep insights into good introductions the nature of human existence and experience, particularly as informed by the philosophy of Martin Heidegger, medieval Christianity, history, and nature.
Auden's highly perceptive critical essays, reviews, and aqa gcse german coursework lectures in The Enchafed Flood (1950). The Dyer's Hand (1962), and Forewords and Afterwords (1973) document his intellectual concerns and artistic principles during his American period. Auden is widely regarded as one of the greatest poets of the essay twentieth century. Though a decidedly modern poet in project development team terms of his radical politics and bold experimentation with accepted literary forms, Auden's idiosyncratic virtuosity and protean ethical perspective distinguishes him from his contemporaries. Good Narrative Essay Introductions. As many critics note, Auden's striking originality stems from his counterrevolutionary appropriation of traditional poetic forms, unabashed Christian faith, and mistrust of university of phoenix thesis irrationalism, all seemingly at odds with the narrative essay tenets of both modernism and romanticism from which his poetry derives. While most critics view Auden's poetry from the presidential scholarship essay questions 1930s and early 1940s as his best, especially as found in The Orators, Another Time , and the poems Spain, In Time of good narrative essay War, and New Year Letter, controversy surrounds evaluation of the middle and german later periods of his career. New Year Letter continues to receive much critical attention, as does the relevance of Auden's self-imposed exile in America. Some critics believe that Auden's poetry lost much of its imaginative power and vitality after his emigration to the United States.
However, others contend that the good essay contemplative Christianity and Horatian intellectualism of Auden's American period represents the university apogee of his disciplined style and sensibility, particularly as evident in The Age of Anxiety , The Sea and the Mirror from For the Time Being , and In Praise of Limestone from Nones . Many critics note a tendency toward obscurity in much of Auden's poetry throughout his career, variously attributed to good narrative essay his liberating genius, private satire, and cloaked references to development team his homosexuality. Despite Auden's significant contributions to narrative contemporary musical theater, he remains largely unstudied as a dramatist and librettist, mainly due to the fact that the forms in which he worked have either fallen out of favor or never fully developed popular appreciation. A prolific poet of extraordinary technical dexterity, intellectual domain, engaging perspicacity, and epigrammatic wit, Auden forged a rare poetic voice that reconciled the opposing forces of aqa gcse tradition and modernism, for which he is hailed as a towering figure of twentieth-century literature. Access our W. H. Auden Study Guide for Free. Poems (poetry) 1928. Poems (poetry) 1930. Paid on Both Sides (drama) 1931. The Orators: An English Study (poetry) 1932. The Dance of good essay Death (drama) 1933. The Dog Beneath the Skin; or, Where Is Francis? [with Christopher Isherwood] (drama) 1935.
The Ascent of F6: A Tragedy in Two Acts [with Christopher Isherwood] (drama) 1936. Look, Stranger! (poetry) [published in the United States as On this Island , 1937] 1936. On Hunting Fathers [with Benjamin Britten] (libretto) 1936. Thesis. Letters from Iceland [with Louis MacNeice] (poetry) 1937. Spain (poetry) 1937. On the Frontier: A Melodrama in Three Acts [with Christopher Isherwood] (drama) 1938.
Selected Poems (poetry) 1938. Ballad of Heroes [with Randall Swingler and Benjamin Britten] (libretto) 1939. Journey to a War [with Christopher Isherwood] (poetry) 1939. Another Time (poetry) 1940. The Double Man [republished as New Year Letter ] (poetry) 1941. Paul Bunyan: An Operetta in Two Acts and a Prologue [with Benjamin Britten] (libretto) 1941. For the Time Being (poetry) 1944. The Collected Poetry (poetry) 1945. The Age of Anxiety: A Baroque Eclogue (poetry) 1947. Collected Shorter Poems, 1933–1944 (poetry) 1950.
The Enchafed Flood; or, The Romantic Iconography of the good narrative essay Sea (criticism) 1950. Nones (poetry) 1951. The Rake's Progress: Opera in Three Acts [with Chester Kallman and Igor Stravinsky] (libretto) 1951. The Shield of why computer life essay Achilles (poetry) 1955. Homage to Clio (poetry) 1960. Elegy for Young Lovers [with Chester Kallman and Hans Werner Henze] (libretto) 1961. The Dyer's Hand and Other Essays (essays) 1962. About the House (poetry) 1965. The Bassarids [with Chester Kallman and Hans Werner Henze] (libretto) 1966. Collected Shorter Poems , 1927–1957 (poetry) 1966. Collected Longer Poems (poetry) 1968.
City Without Walls and Other Poems (poetry) 1969. Good Narrative. Epistle to a Godson and Other Poems (poetry) 1972. Forewords and short peace Afterwords (essays) 1973. Thank You, Fog: Last Poems (poetry) 1974. Collected Poems (poetry) 1976. The English Auden: Poems, Essays, and Dramatic Writings, 1927–39 (poetry, essays, and drama) 1977.
Samuel Hynes (essay date Winter 1982) SOURCE: The Voice of Exile: Auden in 1940, in Sewanee Review , Vol. 90, No. 1, Winter, 1982, pp. 31-52. [ In the following essay, Hynes discusses Auden's emigration to the United States, his preoccupation with history and art, and good narrative essay New Year Letter as a reflection of Auden's historical sensibility .] What I am going to say here concerns the relations between poetry and history. I intend to deal with Auden as an historical poet—in the sense not of in our life essay a poet reconstructing the past in the manner of good essay Browning and Pound, but of one who saw human actions as conditioned by history, and history as the of education essays necessity that men must recognize if they are to be free; and who wrote his historical understanding into his. (The entire section is 7730 words.) Get Free Access to this W. H. Auden Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades.
Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and good narrative essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and villanova presidential characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in narrative essay introductions one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free.
Ron McFarland (essay date Spring 1983) SOURCE: Auden's Cena: 'Tonight at university of phoenix thesis, Seven-Thirty,' in Southern Humanities Review , Vol. 17, No. 2, Spring, 1983, pp. 139-47. [ In the following essay, McFarland examines the significance of Roman satiric verse and the conventions of the cena, a Roman banquet, in Tonight at Seven-Thirty. ] Among W. H. Auden's many neo-classical poems, the dozen collected under the rubric, Thanksgiving for a Habitat (written between 1958 and July 1964), each poem dedicated to good essay some personal friend or friends, constitutes perhaps the most outrageously (some might say self-indulgently) Augustan of his opus. Every home should be a fortress, he writes in The Common Life, equipped with all the very latest. (The entire section is 3471 words.) Get Free Access to this W. H. Auden Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Short On World Peace. Alan W. France (essay date Spring 1990) SOURCE: Gothic North and the Mezzogiorno in Auden's 'In Praise of good introductions Limestone,' in Renascence: Essays on Value in Literature , Vol.
42, No. 3, Spring, 1990, pp. 141-8. Graduate School Of Education Essays. [ In the following essay, France examines Auden's historical perspective and juxtaposition of Latin and Gothic Christianity in his In Praise of Limestone. ] Critics of W. Introductions. H. Auden's In Praise of Limestone have often been lulled by the poem's casual voice into overlooking its seriousness. It has been said, for example, to betray a frivolity [that] has modulated into a quixotic, religious playfulness ([Richard] Johnson) or the indulgent … humor of a family portrait of Mother Nature ([Edward] Callan). A good reading of In. (The entire section is 2904 words.) Patrick Deane (essay date Summer 1991) SOURCE: 'Within a Field That Never Closes': The Reader in W. H. Auden's 'New Year Letter,' in project team Contemporary Literature , Vol.
XXXII, No. 2, Summer, 1991, pp. 171-93. [ In the following essay, Deane explores Auden's theoretical assumptions, linguistic techniques, and open-ended relationship with the reader in New Year Letter. Good Narrative Essay. ] In October 1941, the pages of Scrutiny registered the appearance of W. On World Peace. H. Auden's New Year Letter with characteristic acerbity. The long poem from good narrative essay introductions which the volume as a whole took its title came in for particular excoriation, Auden's wit being described, somewhat condescendingly, as the sort of thing one might expect from on world a theological student at a Scottish. (The entire section is 8917 words.) James Held (essay date Winter 1992) SOURCE: Ironic Harmony: Blues Convention and Auden's 'Refugee Blues,' in Journal of Modern Literature , Vol. XVIII, No. 1, Winter, 1992, pp. 139-42. [ In the good narrative essay introductions following essay, Held discusses the significance of Auden's appropriation of blues music convention in Refugee Blues. ] All art, Walter Pater declared, aspires to the condition of music. However, Pater's oft-quoted dictum hardly anticipates its ironic implementation in W. H. Auden's Refugee Blues.
Refugee Blues adapts the conventions of the university of phoenix thesis blues to Auden's portrait of good exiles in flight from Europe on the eve of the Second World War. Yet beneath the modifications which Auden grafts to it, the poem retains a core of integrity as a blues in. (The entire section is graduate of education essays 1534 words.) Alan Jacobs (essay date Winter 1995) SOURCE: Auden's Local Culture, in Hudson Review , Vol. 47, No. 4, Winter, 1995, pp. 543-68. [ In the following essay, Jacobs examines Auden's communitarian sympathies and good essay moral vision. According to presidential essay Jacobs, Auden understood both the costs and benefits of choosing to cultivate local knowledge and local attachments better than almost any political thinker writing about such issues today. Essay Introductions. ] One of the more interesting developments in American political and social thought in the last decade or so has been the emergence of communitarianism—in large part because, though no one knows exactly what communitarianism is, people do tend to think good thoughts about the notion of. (The entire section is 8606 words.) Nicholas Jenkins (essay date 1 April 1996) SOURCE: Goodbye, 1939, in New Yorker , April 1, 1996, pp.
88, 90-4, 96-7. [ In the following essay, Jenkins provides an overview of Auden's literary career and the significance of his expatriation in the United States .] No episode in the century's English-speaking literary world came as more of a surprise than the poet W. University. H. Auden's abrupt departure, in January of 1939, from Britain for the United States. Auden was the first major English-language poet to be born in narrative essay the twentieth century (in 1907); now, as the century drains away, it seems likely that he will turn out to be the why computer is important in our only poet of world stature born in England in the last hundred years. He is narrative more widely read than he has been for many years. (The entire section is 6334 words.) Charles Berger (essay date Fall 1997) SOURCE: Auden in Time of War, in Raritan , Vol. 17, No. 2, Fall, 1997, pp.
79-89. [ In the following essay, Berger examines the content, structure, and central themes of In Time of War. ] Auden's poetry of the thirties is suffused by a sense of diffuse crisis, or crises—economic, social, military—so there is no clear line of villanova presidential questions demarcation separating peace and war in his poetry. In fact, there is very little represented peace in good narrative the early poems; moments of refuge are always shadowed by short peace the sense of introductions what they defend against. Early on, Auden tries to imagine the role of poetry during revolution, or in a postrevolutionary society. This is the plot of A Summer Night, written in 1933. By the end of the. (The entire section is 3755 words.) Robert L. Caserio (essay date Fall 1997) SOURCE: Auden's New Citizenship, in Raritan , Vol. 17, No. 2, Fall, 1997, pp. 90-103. [ In the following essay, Caserio discusses Auden's attitudes toward civic allegiance, the significance of his emigration to the United States, and the association of homosexuality with exile .] W. Aqa Gcse. H. Auden underwent two conversions: one to Christianity, one to American citizenship. We treat the first conversion seriously.
We have no serious account of the second. Good Introductions. Is it a sign of our confused or divided attitudes towards citizenship that we gloss over the poet's manner of belonging to—or of appearing to own—one political state rather than another? Yes, we acknowledge Auden's civic voices. University Of Phoenix. But as we work out the. (The entire section is 5419 words.) Boly, John R. Auden and the Romantic Tradition in The Age of narrative introductions Anxiety. Daedalus 111, No. 2 (Spring 1982): 149-71. Examines Auden's reaction against and assimilation of romanticism as reflected in the major themes, artistic concerns, and structure of The Age of essay Anxiety . Bozorth, Richard R. Introductions. 'But Who Would Get It?': Auden and the Codes of Poetry and Desire. ELH: English Literary History 62, No. 3 (Fall 1995): 709-27. Explores the significance of private allusions, coded language, and ambiguity in Auden's poetry as an expression of development team his homosexuality.
Bryant, Marsha. Auden and narrative the 'Arctic Stare': Documentary as Public Collage in Letters from Iceland. Journal of Modern Literature XVII, No. 4 (Spring 1991): 537-65. Examines Auden's interest in documentary filmmaking and the politics of representation as reflected in Letters from Iceland . Christianson, Scott R. The Poetics and Politics of Eliot's Influence on W. H. Auden. Graduate School. Essays in Literature 19, No. 1 (Spring 1992): 98-113. Considers the genealogical and political influence of T. S. Eliot's poetry and good introductions literary criticism on the development of Auden's own poetry and critical perspective. Why Computer. Mendelson, Edward. Narrative Introductions. 'We Are Changed By What We Change': The Power of Politics of university Auden's Revisions. The Romanic Review 86, No.
3 (May 1995): 527-35. Examines the ethical significance of Auden's frequent revisions of his poetry as indicative of his respect for the politics and shaping power of language. Pascoe, David. Auden and the Aesthetics of Detection. Essays in Criticism 43, No. 1 (January 1993): 33-58. Explores Auden's interest in English detective fiction and elements of the genre in his poetry. Narrative. Riffaterre, Michael.
Textuality: W. H. Villanova Essay Questions. Auden's 'Musee des Beaux Arts.' In Textual Analysis: Some Readers Reading , edited by Mary Ann Caws, pp. Good Narrative Essay Introductions. 1-13. On World. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1986. Examines the principles and good essay introductions function of literary intertextuality through analysis of Auden's Musee des Beaux Arts. Spears, Monroe K. The Divine Comedy of why computer is important W. H. Auden.
Sewanee Review 90, No. 1 (Winter 1982): 53-72. Examines the development of Auden's poetry and artistic concerns in relation to the three books of Dante's Divine Comedy . Spiegelman, Willard. The Rake, The Don, The Flute: W. H. Auden as Librettist. Parnassus 10. No. 2 (Fall-Winter 1982): 171-87.
Discusses Auden's interest in good narrative essay introductions operatic forms and aqa gcse german the artistic principles applied to his adaptations of The Rake's Progress, Don Giovanni , and The Magic Flute . Additional coverage of Auden's life and career is contained in the following sources published by good narrative essay Gale: Authors and Artists for Young Adults , Vol. 18; Concise Dictionary of British Literary Biography , 1914–1945; Contemporary Authors , Vols. 9-12R, 45-48; Contemporary Authors New Revision Series , Vol. 5; Dictionary of presidential scholarship essay questions Literary Biography , Vols. 10, 12; DISCovering Authors; DISCovering Authors: British; DISCovering Authors: Canadian; DISCovering Authors Modules: Dramatists, Most-Studied, and Poets; Major Twentieth Century Writers; Poetry Criticism , Vol. 1; and World Literature Criticism . W. H. Auden Homework Help Questions. W. Introductions. H. University Thesis. Auden's Musee des Beaux Arts is a poem that exemplifies the literary technique of ekphrasis, the embedding of one type of art form inside another. Thus, in this verse of lyrical rhyme. The poem The Average, by W. H. Auden, depicts the sad story of a boy who was raised up by his parents to be more than they were.
Lost and having failed to essay find the success his parents desired for. In W.H. Auden's Funeral Blues, the speaker is preparing for villanova presidential scholarship essay questions the last line of the first stanza, which introduces the theme of death, as found with the words coffin and mourners. Narrative Essay Introductions. All poetry. In my mind, a critical analysis of the theme in Auden's poem would center on aqa gcse german coursework, the idea of how death is introductions experienced by those left behind. The poem takes the point of view that death's impact is.
Auden's line that opens the third stanza of the poem goes very far in graduate school explaining the importance of the deceased on good narrative essay introductions, the life of the speaker. After using the second stanza to explain the social.
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love poetry essay © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the essay, most difficult aspect of the English course. Villanova Presidential Essay! But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Read on! Find time to give the narrative introductions, English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below. Graduate School Essays! If you're truly stuck you can also email the essay, teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and villanova presidential essay exam answers? At the core of any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about.
It is this alone that attracts the majority of marks. In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for narrative essay introductions your interpretation - the higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at face value. It is presidential scholarship essay questions never the good narrative essay introductions, literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. It is the poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of project development, language. This is because poets have so little space in good narrative introductions, which to condense as much meaning as possible. This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating.
Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in project development, facts . An interpretation is good essay introductions always an opinion - an insight into what the poem might mean. This is why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in a study guide, for graduate school of education essays example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the most marks to good narrative essay a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by close and university thesis careful reference to introductions the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to uncover the layers of meaning in why computer is important in our, a poem by discussing it with others . Good Narrative Essay Introductions! Somehow an interaction of minds brings about clearer meaning and a moment when the penny drops. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to essay develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at stake . The exam is not a practice and good introductions you need to get the highest grade you can. So, what to do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines?
Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to help show you. Presidential Scholarship Questions! It is based on a just a couple of good narrative essay, lines from the short on world, opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the same ideas to any poem you are studying. You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from narrative introductions only two lines of a poem.
This is school of education a key thing for you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on good narrative one leg I’m half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the standard English of the opening line of the poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. Thesis! This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the good essay, dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to aqa gcse german coursework consider and reflect upon what is thought of essay, as acceptable and what is looked down upon in British society. He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is capable of short peace, communicating its message well.
Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of 'saying the narrative essay introductions, unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult. One of the difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and feeling into them. Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out just what the poet is trying to essay peace say, how the good narrative, poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the poet's purpose . Oh, and finally, you'll find out school, what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the narrative essay introductions, subtleties of a complex poem in classroom conditions is far from ideal.
This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and time at short on world home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again. Essay Introductions! It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings. Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. School! forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to narrative be sure you've understood the essay on world, poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. Introductions! This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in villanova presidential questions, your essay that this will be one of things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for good narrative essay introductions meaning . These questions will get you on your way: Make a note of who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in what kind of state or mood?
By the way, never assume it's the aqa gcse coursework, poet: instead, think of good essay, it as an is important life essay, imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to explore all kinds of aspects of introductions, life in their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to aqa gcse german coursework be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about just what is good narrative essay introductions being spoken about? (What is the essays, subject matter being discussed?). Now - and this is crucial to good narrative a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the team, speaking voice? (Is the good narrative essay introductions, speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the tone of in our essay, voice change during the poem?
Make a note of where this occurs. Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of good narrative essay, sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the end of each sentence (i.e. Development Team! stop reading at each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out good narrative essay introductions, what the meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about this and perhaps note the idea down on the poem itself at the side of that part of the poem (this is called annotating the text). This is often the easiest and surest way to find out what the poet is trying to say. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the university, poet has used, such as the introductions, way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and development team rhyme , alliteration and so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for help.
If you are still struggling to get to essay grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is why computer is important in our life essay not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the good narrative, poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to university of phoenix thesis do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to listen to a clip of the narrative essay, GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'.
You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in university of phoenix thesis, a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Narrative Introductions! Do always try to capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'. And they are always consistent with the university thesis, whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to narrative essay introductions find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included.
It means that the meanings in the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the poem progresses . The first line always contributes to the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to of education essays listen to good narrative introductions John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the project team, slow and good narrative essay emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and read your poems slowly and essay on world dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing. The english biz essay writing guide is full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this. What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of essay introductions, its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is short developed across the whole poem - as each idea is narrative essay explored and builds up into a coherent whole. How to do this to gain high marks. Read the graduate essays, essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked.
Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to essay show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to development team familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and good narrative essay introductions your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the coursework, essay question and be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an good narrative, exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the questions, exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is required of you. Discussing the poet's life and good narrative essay times, i.e. Short Peace! their context , rarely gains marks.
It is often better to narrative get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of any significant changes in emphasis and the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the poem unfolds. Work out how and why these tones and changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of short, language or form . This is important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the poem and this gains many marks. Be especially alert to the use of an ironic tone of voice. Irony is an introductions, important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an effective means of engaging the university thesis, reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and narrative essay develops layers of meaning within the is important, poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is good called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is used, the development team, effect it creates and the purpose intended.
Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in good essay, the mind's eye. It is the use of scholarship essay questions, description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the narrative essay introductions, poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in in our life, the mind - and as the old saying goes, 'a picture is good introductions worth a thousand words. '. Look at villanova scholarship questions these opening lines and see how the good narrative, images are created and begin to work:
I’ve known rivers: I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the essay peace, rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of narrative introductions, Rivers' by Langston Hughes.
Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to it. This is your own point of view on essay on world which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in good essay, any text, but especially in a poem, is to school of education look for good essay the effects of binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at graduate school of education essays the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of meaning created in poetry - but this method is narrative introductions sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the meaning of a poem. There is project development a key aspect to every poem you need to narrative consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of on world peace, writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the poem).
Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on narrative essay introductions parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to why computer is important in our shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of good essay introductions, poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the of phoenix, form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to narrative introductions create subtle effects. Villanova Presidential Essay Questions! For example, an end-stopped line can lead to narrative essay a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the on world, technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the narrative introductions, next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an development, extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger!
B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the use of rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on essay which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to coursework work out the tone of voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the good, term used for graduate of education essays the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to good introductions the quality of the tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone.
Rhyme is when the final sounds of words are the same and are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the questions, effect rhyme creates. Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to good introductions the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the presence of villanova, discord . Repetition of important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at that sense of 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to essay exist in university, earlier days before the great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of good introductions, today. Poems with irregular line lengths and graduate school no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from essay traditional poetry.
These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at university of phoenix the way the structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the effect of this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and narrative meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and aqa gcse coursework phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and narrative introductions ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to why computer is important essay draw you deeper into the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the good narrative essay, poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. What is university thesis 'your' poem about generally (e.g. Good Narrative! 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose?
3. What motivated you to write about such a subject? Were you affected by your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to german compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and values of good introductions, your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the essay peace, style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about more than one poem and this does add an good essay, extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an why computer in our life essay, argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Narrative Essay! Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in support of the various points you are making to support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to development team compare and contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is best done as providing support for your own argument. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from good narrative essay each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in why computer in our life, your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an good introductions, 'exploring essay'.
In this kind of essay, you analyse and write about villanova scholarship questions your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to refer back to essay introductions the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast. N ever forget to compare and contrast! This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of development, question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Good Narrative Essay! Analyse closely analysis and coursework develop subtle insights.
Only a close analysis of the introductions, poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and team methods. It is the consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of your analysis and insights that will gain the highest marks. 3. Use the P.E.E. method of analysis. 4. Never look for good essay introductions and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Project Team! Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the meaning of. ) the good, whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the poet is trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to development team make about it.
Never be afraid to good introductions use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and on world over-formality like the plague.
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Writing a Personal Narrative: Writing an Introduction or Opening for
color pulse essayer This is a division, of application Ser. No. 05/559,295, filed Mar. 17, 1975, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,078,606.
A multi-color, multi-pulse laser operating at a number of wavelengths is provided with a like number of cavities to produce a like number of output pulses from a single pumping pulse. The spacing between the pulses is easily controlled by controlling the timing of Q-switches, each in a different cavity, so that information is imparted by the pulse spacing. In a two color embodiment, a beam splitting device is positioned along the good longitudinal axis of the laser medium to produce two beams which are directed into different cavity resonators, each tuned to a different wavelength. University Of Phoenix Thesis! Reflecting surfaces positioned at the end of each cavity redirect each beam back to the beam splitting device where the beams are spatially recombined and subsequently two pulses, one of good narrative essay introductions, one color and the other of the second color, are sequentially coupled out villanova presidential scholarship of the laser system. Narrative Essay Introductions! The colors may be sufficiently close in wavelength such that detection does not discriminate against the two colors, and a double pulse output is obtained at the detector. In this manner, the laser system produces two output pulses from scholarship essay questions a single laser medium and a single pumping pulse.
The pulse width of each of the pulses may also be controlled by pulse stretching means in one or more of the optical paths. FIELD OF THE INVENTION. This invention relates to laser systems, and more particularly to a laser system for providing a multiple light-pulse output in which interpulse spacing and/or pulse width are independently controlled for laser target designation. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. In military operations involving the designating and destroying of a target, laser systems are used to illuminate a target. Narrative Essay! This light is school of education essays reradiated in all directions by the target and is used by a missile for homing in on good narrative the target.
In one type of system, targets are designated by illuminating the target with a train of laser pulses from a particular laser, with the pulses having a predetermined interpulse spacing. A typical method of countermeasuring this laser target illumination is by detecting the pulses at the target, determining their pulse repetition frequency (PRF) or pulse interval modulation (PIM) and producing like laser pulses which are aimed at a reflective object removed from the short on world peace target. In an effort to prevent the countermeasuring of the narrative introductions illuminating laser, the subject invention involves a new type laser which is modulated to produce pulse pairs or doublets which cannot be easily detected and short essay on world peace reproduced by the target. In order to be effective the interpulse spacing between the pulses of the doublet must be small and the spacing must be very accurate since it is extremely difficult to detect the fact that the laser radiation is pulsed when pulse spacings are very small. Moreover, even if the double laser pulses are detected, it is extremely difficult to narrative essay introductions, generate like laser pulses because it is difficult to duplicate exactly the small interpulse spacings. Therefore the combatants who have apparatus for producing double pulse laser beams with extremely short accurately controlled interpulse spacings will have a virtually uncountermeasurable system.
This tactical situation thus requires a laser capable of varying interpulse spacing down to zero with extreme accuracy of interpulse spacing. Moreover, this tactical situation requires that pulse spacing be easily varied so that the illuminating laser can quickly change its output waveform to is important in our life essay, avoid detection. Easy variability of pulse spacings has not been easily accomplished in good essay introductions the past. Moreover, the reduction of pulse spacing down to zero is not possible with double pumping of the laser rod. In the project prior art, techniques for obtaining multiple output pulses can be divided into two classes; (1) systems in which the separation between pulses is directly proportional to the time required to restore the population inversion in the lasing medium and (2) those system which are independent of the restoration time of the lasing medium. Systems which are dependent on the population inversion include multiple pump, repetitive Q-switching and mode control systems. An example of the multiple pump system is illustrated in U.S.
Pat. Good Narrative Essay! No. 3,783,403. In this system double pulses are produced from a single laser by generating two successive optical pumping pulses. Is Important In Our Life Essay! However, pulse spacing cannot be decreased to good narrative introductions, zero in graduate of education essays this system. An example of good introductions, a laser system which is independent of the restoration time is described in an article by M. J. School Of Education Essays! Landry, entitled “Variably Spaced Giant Pulses for Multiple Laser Cavities In a Single Lasing Medium”, Applied Physics Letter, Vol. Narrative Essay! 18, pages 494-496. In this method, a prism is used to effectively split the laser rod longitudinally into two rods.
This requires a rod of school of education, relatively large cross section. The prism divides the beams and then each of the separated beams is independently controlled through individual Q-switches. However, in good narrative the Landry system only one wavelength or color is utilized and aqa gcse german coursework the stress birefringent effect to be described hereinafter is not used. The subject laser in one embodiment is one which lases in two or more wavelengths. The colors result from radiative transitions which can occur in two different ways: (1) from a single high energy level to multiple different lower energy levels or (2) from multiple different upper energy levels to a single low energy level. It is essay introductions also possible to scholarship questions, get different colors from multiple different upper energy levels to multiple different lower energy levels. The situation will be discussed later in connection with Er:YLF lasers.
In the subject invention the two colors are split out into different cavities, each containing a Q-switch. The Q-switches are activated sequentially with a predetermined delay such that light of one color is coupled back through the laser rod to good introductions, produce a first pulse, while the activation of the second Q-switch couples light of the other color back through the laser rod to produce a second pulse. University Thesis! Pulse spacing is controlled by the delay in activation of the good narrative second Q-switch. For transitions of the second type (and the third type) the first pulse does not completely depopulate the rod because there are electrons at the second energy level available for the second pulse. Villanova Presidential Scholarship Questions! This sytem is useable with ruby rods and good narrative introductions some Nd:YLF rods. When, however, there are two transitions both starting from the same excited level, stress birefringence induced by short on world the pumping of the rod may play a major part in permitting the production of narrative, two pulses. When two transitions start from the same excited level, it is possible that the production of the first pulse will completely depopulate the coursework laser rod making two pulse production impossible. In some instances this can be prevented by very rapid Q-switching. However, stress birefringence provides simpler, more effective way of preventing complete depopulation during the production of the good narrative introductions first pulse. Stress birefringence occurs because some of the energy pumped into the laser rod is converted to heat which changes the characteristics of the rod such that two beams are produced each having a different polarization.
In a two color laser stress birefringence results in the two colors being emitted with different polarizations. When the beams are separated into two differently polarized beams by a polarizing beam splitter then one polarized beam only partially depopulates the rod for the first pulse, thereby leaving enough of university thesis, a population inversion for the formation of the second pulse. The Q-switching of the second cavity then can couple the remaining energy out of the rod to produce the second pulse. It is a finding of the essay introductions present invention that stress birefringence when the laser is pumped produces beams having orthogonal polarizations. The beams are separated according to presidential essay questions, polarization and each are Q-switched at different times to produce multiple pulses. The multiple pulses are thus produced from a single population inversion which is the result of one pumping pulse. Each polarity beam selectively depopulates the laser host material so that only a portion of the essay rod population is depopulated with each polarization to enable the of phoenix production of two pulses when the Q-switching turn on is not rapid enough. The major problem with most known double pulse laser systems is the inability to accurately decrease interpulse spacing to zero. While, as explained later, very small pulse spacings may not be necessary in such fields as double exposure holography, the ability to achieve very small pulse spacings is extremely important in the fields of good narrative introductions, communications for increased bandwidth and in military target designation, where laser beams having extremely small pulse spacings are required. With respect to applications of multiple pulse lasers, as stated in the above mentioned patent the double pulse out why computer in our essay put may be used in double exposure holography in which two holograms are formed in rapid succession to detect any small disturbance occuring in the time between the two pulses. Good Introductions! Double exposure holography is team described in U.S.
Pat. No. 3,715,164 in which small disturbances of the subject are detected as the essay introductions difference between the two holograms formed. In the case of double exposure holography the two pulses are responsible for forming two successive holograms, with the pulse spacing providing the time internal between the why computer is important in our two exposures. Good Essay Introductions! While spacing between the pulses may not be critical in this application, it is important that the spacing be conveniently controlled. The spacing between the two pulses is, however, critical when the spacing is to school, convey information or intelligence.
Intelligence can be conveyed by the laser beam in the form of the coding of pulses in a pulse train produced when the good narrative laser is turned on and off in a predetermined manner. In one embodiment the spacing between pulses provides the code, such that transmitted information can be read out of the beam by detecting pulse spacing of received laser pulses. For instance, an aircraft can convey its altitude to a ground station over a laser-powered optical link, with the of phoenix thesis pulse spacing indicating altitude or any other desired parameter. Moreover, in laser optical communications, when pulse spacing is used as the modulation parameter, it is good narrative essay introductions important that pulse spacing be easily controlled and varied down to zero for the packing of more information into a given time interval. Additionally, if the laser is used to illuminate an object, the object can be identified as the one illuminated by a given laser through the detection of the pulse spacing of the light reflected by the object.
For example, a laser producing pulses of a known spacing may be aimed at a particular object which reflects the essay incoming radiation in all directions. If radiation from an object has this known pulse spacing then it is known that this object is the one at which the laser is good narrative essay introductions aimed. Thus any reflective object may be singled out by illuminating it with laser pulses of a known spacing. In addition to pulse spacing it is oftentimes desirable that the presidential essay questions laser illuminate an object for a considerable period of time. If one of the multiple pulses is elongated then, in addition to pulse spacing, a multiple pulse laser can be used for good narrative essay illumination as well as the transfer of information. These two aspects, e.g. minimum pulse spacing and pulse elongation, are important when in graduate of education essays a military environment a target is to be both illuminated by a laser and good essay identified by pulse spacing. In this case laser radiation projected at the target is reflected by essay on world peace the target and is then detected.
A missile, bomb or other projectile can then be directed to the illuminated and identified target. Thus in holography, optical communications and for certain military applications it is important to be able to produce double laser pulses and to control pulse spacing and pulse width. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The subject system provides these features by good narrative utilizing a laser which lases in at least two wavelengths. For purposes of discussion, only a two colored laser will be described, it being understood that the number of pulses produced depends on the number of wavelengths at which the laser material lases. The output pulse from the laser is separated into two differently colored collimated beams directed into two different cavities. Each of the villanova presidential questions two cavities is provided with a separate Q-switch. The actuation of the Q-switches is separated by a time interval or delay correlated to the information to be transmitted, such that pulses from one cavity are reflected back through the beam splitter and good out the laser prior to pulses from the other cavity. The time interval between the pulses is determined by the delay between actuation of the villanova questions Q-switches and this can be very accurately controlled by control of the Q-switches and can be made infinitely small.
Moreover, multiple pulses are generated for a single optical pumping pulse. Pulse stretching is accomplished by the interposition of a non-linear absorbing element in the cavity which produces the pulse to be elongated. It will be appreciated that if the two colors are sufficiently close, detection of the two pulses is relatively simple, since if the detector has a response characteristic broad enough to detect both wavelengths then a double pulse will appear at the output of the detector. Thus the detector “sees” both pulses even though they are of different colors or wavelengths. Further with respect to the system described, coding of the multiple pulses can be accomplished not only by narrative essay introductions pulse spacing, but also by pulse width modulation. The pulse width of a laser pulse can be varied in accordance with intelligence to be transmitted on the laser beam by providing the above mentioned non-linear element and by varying the input energy to the laser medium in accordance with the intelligence to be transmitted.
The laser beam coding is therefore not only a function of pulse spacing and color but also can be a function of pulse width. Thus the graduate essays beam from the subject multi-color, multi-pulse laser system has at least three parameters which may be varied to convey a code or intelligence, e.g. Good Narrative! color, pulse spacing and pulse width. This makes this laser system uniquely suitable for increased communication bandwidth applications as well as for all applications requiring great flexibility in school essays the coding used. As to the advantages of the subject laser system in addition to good essay, pulse spacing and pulse width control there is an added advantage with respect to villanova presidential, the power requirements for the laser. While, as mentioned above, there exist multiple-pulse laser systems which either use multiple pumping or rapid Q-switching to produce multiple output pulses, the good narrative two color system described requires less input power for the same output power because waste energy in the form of fluorescence is recaptured. Is Important! All multi-color lasers have multiple radiative decay paths corresponding to the different wavelengths. In the good narrative introductions prior art it is common to tune the graduate school laser for one transition, with the result that radiation from other possible transitions meanwhile undergoes fluorescence, e.g. non-coherent light, and this energy is lost. By producing multiple cavities, one for each transition, the energy which would normally result in fluorescence is recaptured. Thus when the narrative subject system is is important in our essay used for producing multiple pulses, all of the laser input energy is utilized.
Moreover, in the case where a polarizing element is used to narrative essay introductions, permit double pulse formation there is an added advantage. If as in the above mentioned Landry laser system a prism type beam splitting element is used, polarized light induced by birefringence is lost, because it is diverted off-axis by the polarizing optics. However, in the subject system, the graduate school of education essays light which normally would be diverted off-axis is instead diverted to good narrative essay introductions, a second cavity and is thus not lost, but is rather amplified in the cavity and directed out along the output axis of the laser. Thus less power is necessary when the two color two pulse system described herein is graduate school of education used. It will be appreciated that in narrative general if the pulses are overlapping, this invention can be considered one involving the generation of a multi-color coherent light beam. Moreover, if the laser is to operate in the CW mode, the subject invention provides a multi-color CW laser. It is therefore an object of german, this invention to provide an improved double pulse laser system in which pulse spacing is easily controlled. It is another object of this invention to provide a multi-color laser, whether pulsed or not. It is a further object of this invention to essay, provide a multiple pulse laser, with the number of cavities and pulses depending on the number of colored beam components generated as a result of university of phoenix thesis, a single optical pumping pulse. It is still further object of this invention to provide an improved method of introductions, producing multiple monochromatic light pulses in which each pulse is of a different color and in which the spacing of each pulse from an adjacent pulse is readily controlled.
It is yet another object of project development, this invention to provide an improved laser system in which different colored light components from a laser medium are channeled into narrative essay different cavities and in which each cavity is scholarship essay provided with a Q-switching device whose switching function is in timed relationship with the Q-switching devices in other cavities thereby to produce a multiple pulse output from the good narrative essay introductions laser. It is still a further object of this invention to provide a method of, and apparatus for, producing multiple monochromic pulses in which one of the pulses is elongated for illuminating an object. It is yet another object of this invention to provide improved color separation for monochromatic light generated from different radiative decay transitions within a laser medium. It is still further object of this invention to provide a laser system in which intelligence is communicated by varying the width of the laser pulse in accordance with the intelligence to be communicated. It is yet another object of why computer, this invention to narrative, provide a laser system and modulation which permits information to be read out as a function of color, pulse spacing or pulse width or any combination of same. It is a still further object of aqa gcse coursework, this invention to provide an improved laser target designator. These and narrative essay introductions other objects of this invention will be better understood in connection with the following description in view of the appended drawings in which: BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one embodiment of the multi-pulse multi-color laser system; FIGS.
2 a and 2 b are energy level diagrams illustrating possible radiative decay paths for two color lasers; FIG. 3 is a block diagram of the short on world subject laser system in which birefringently induced polarization is utilized in multiple pulse generations; FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating a laser system in narrative essay which a non-linear element is interposed between the laser medium and a Q-switch in the laser cavity, illustrating the why computer in our essay change in pulse width with a change in energy delivered to the laser medium; FIG. Good Introductions! 5 is a graph illustrating the relationship between input power and pulse width for the system illustrated in essay questions FIG.
4; FIG. 6 is good narrative essay a block diagram illustrating a multiple pulse laser system in which both pulse spacing and pulse width are controlled, also indicating the utilization of a polarizing element for coursework more complete color separation in the system; and. FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate an in-line embodiment of the subject invention. DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. Referring now to FIG. Narrative Essay Introductions! 1, one embodiment of the subject laser system is illustrated in which laser transitions occur from different energy levels to a single lower energy level as illustrated in FIG. 2 a . This system utilizes a laser medium 10 energized by development team a flash lamp 12 driven by a laser excitation driver 14 . Two partially overlapping and good narrative essay orthogonally oriented laser cavities are defined by optical paths 15 , 16 and 17 . One cavity is defined as the development team optical path between mirrors 20 and 24 of FIG.
1, while a second cavity is introductions defined by the optical path between mirrors 20 and 26 . These cavities partially overlap along the optical path between mirror 20 and a beam splitting device 22 . Each cavity is tuned to on world peace, a different wavelength (color) of the radiation from the laser medium such that one cavity is tuned to a wavelength ? 1 , and the other tuned to essay, a wavelength ? 2 . Optical path 15 defines the major optical axis of the system along which laser radiation is projected. At one end of development team, optical axis 15 mirror 20 is partially reflective at wavelengths ? 1 and ? 2 . Beam splitting device 22 is situated at an angle of 45° and is coated to transmit and reflect light at the ? 1 and ? 2 wavelengths respectively. With respect to the present invention a laser cavity is one which is bounded by reflective means at each end, with the reflective means oriented to establish an optical path between them, the spacing between the reflective means being set so as to establish standing waves of electromagnetic energy at good essay introductions, one particular wavelength in the cavity. The regions of the electromagnetic spectrum usually associated with laser radiation include the visible, the infrared and the ultraviolet regions. However, coherent radiation generated by villanova presidential questions stimulating emission from a laser rod or other medium can be achieved at microwave frequencies with a maser utilizing a lasing medium of ruby and introductions also in school the X-ray region of the spectrum with a UV laser and multiple doubling steps. While it is convenient in describing the subject laser in terms of narrative, “light” amplification, it will be understood that the term “light” as used herein includes all of the above regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Initially the beam from the laser medium carries light of aqa gcse german, both wavelengths or colors. However, due to the length of the cavities and the coating of mirrors 24 and 26 , only light of one color ends up propagating in a given cavity. Introductions! Thus a beam of wavelength ? 1 propagates along optical path 16 and a beam having a wavelength ? 2 propagates along optical path 17 . Mirror 24 has a coating which permits the mirror to be reflective at wavelength ? 1 and is positioned at the end of optical path 16 and mirror 26 , reflective at wavelength ? 2 is positions at the end of optical path 17 . Interposed in essay optical path 16 is a Q-switch device 30 and interposed in optical path 17 is the second Q-switching device 30 . The laser excitation driver 14 drives a trigger generator 32 which actuates Q-switch 28 . Alternatively, the driver and introductions trigger may be the same unit.
The output from trigger generator 32 is applied to a variable delay unit 34 which delays the trigger pulse from the trigger generator 32 by an amount ?. The amount, ?, by which the trigger pulse is delayed is controlled by a control unit 38 . The output of the variable delay unit 34 is team applied to Q-switch 30 . The delay may be arbitrary in length, from “0” to approximately 250 milliseconds or longer depending on the population inversion and inversion and energy pumped into the laser host material. In operation, the laser excitation driver initiates a flash lamp pulse which is coupled into the laser medium causing a population inversion. Simultaneously, trigger generator 32 is actuated to provide a trigger pulse to Q-switch 28 . Good Narrative Essay! Medium 10 lases in at least two different colors which energy propagates towards beam splitter 22 . At this point, the beam is directed into different cavity portions. When triggered, Q-switch 28 permits the passage of the energy to mirror 24 . This energy is reflected back through Q-switch 28 through beam splitter 22 through the laser medium and out through mirror 20 to aqa gcse german, form a first spiked pulse, illustrated by pulse 40 . After a predetermined time delay, ?, the trigger pulse from trigger generator 32 is good applied to Q-switch 30 which permits light of the second color to propagate down this section of the laser cavity. Light impinges upon mirror 26 and is reflected back through Q-switch 30 , through beam splitter 22 , through laser medium 10 and out through mirror 20 for the production of the second spiked pulse illustrated by pulse 42 . Aqa Gcse German! These pulses may be detected by good introductions a conventional detector 43 responsive to light at both ? 1 and ? 2 to school, produce the double pulse output shown. This system may also be used for lasers having the FIG.
2 b transition characteristic where Q-switching is sufficiently rapid to prohibit complete depopulation with the generation of the narrative essay introductions first pulse. The laser system thus described is defined by two cavities with the first cavity being defined as the in our life optical path between mirror 20 and mirror 24 and with the second optical cavity being defined by the path between mirror 20 and mirror 26 . It will be appreciated that the number of pulses which can be generated is determined by the number of colors produced by the laser and by the number of optical cavities which are provided. Thus the number of essay introductions, pulses which can be produced for each laser pumping pulse is dependent on the number of presidential essay, radiative transitions within the good narrative introductions laser host material. Referring to FIG. 3, a laser system is illustrated in which the laser host material lases in at least two wavelengths, with transitions from school of education essays a single high energy level to different lower energy levels. This laser host material thus has the transition characteristic illustrated in FIG. Narrative Essay Introductions! 2 b. As mentioned hereinbefore, the use of coursework, a conventional beam splitting device to direct the narrative essay introductions output from the laser material into the two laser cavities may result in essays the generation of only the pulse when the Q-switching is not sufficiently rapid. The reason for essay this is that all energy stored in the laser host material may be coupled out of the development team system with the introductions generation of the first pulse. For most laser material, the introduction of short on world, energy via a flash lamp results in the heating of the introductions laser material which results in stress induced birefringence.
This in turn results in the production of light which is orthogonally polarized. In the case of scholarship essay, two transitions it has been found that light of one color will be polarized in one direction as indicated by arrows 27 , while light of the other color will be polarized in an orthogonal direction as indicated by essay arrows 29 . Thus in the case of single-to-multiple energy level decay, the conventional beam splitting device may be replaced by a polarizing beam splitting device 31 which includes two back-to-back prisms. The prisms may preferably be made of calcite which, as is the case for most transparent material, has an villanova presidential scholarship questions, index of refraction which not only varies as a function of wavelength but also as a function of polarization direction. Where the difference in the wavelengths of the good light produced by a laser rod is on world great, color separation can be accomplished by the difference in refractive index for the two wavelengths. Thus light having one color and polarization will be reflected away from the optical axis while light of the other color and polarization will be refracted and directed along the good essay introductions same optical path. This, for instance, could be the case for a laser material which lases both at 0.85 microns and 1.73 microns. Color separation is therefore based on the change in essay questions refractive index with wavelength. However, for a laser rod which lases at 1.06 and essay introductions 1.31 microns, the change in the index of why computer is important in our essay, refraction is very slight and in most cases prevents complete color separation by refractive techniques alone. On the other hand, the change in refractive index for beams which are orthogonally polarized is good introductions great which permits separation of the two colored components on development account of their polarization alone. Taking as an example the system of narrative essay, FIG. 3, it will be appreciated that the beam which is horizontally polarized, e.g. as shown by arrows 29 , enters the beam splitter 31 at an angle which exceeds Brewster's angle for this polarization and is therefore internally reflected.
This occurs because as far as a beam having horizontal polarization light is concerned, the refractive index of the material is essay much higher than that which is good introductions “seen” by vertically polarized light. As a result, vertically polarized light enters beam splitter 31 and is refracted rather than being reflected. Thus, the horizontally polarized beam effectively enters the graduate of education essays prism at less than Brewster's angle and is reflected while the vertically polarized beam is refracted. Narrative Introductions! This is graduate of education essays illustrated by the horizontally polarized beam of one color projected along optical path 17 , while vertical polarized light of the good narrative introductions other color is directed down optical path 16 . Beam splitting device 31 may be provided with anti-reflective coatings 33 , 35 and 37 on the face of the school prisms as denoted in FIG. 3, for the purpose of eliminating surface reflections. Good Narrative Introductions! Assuming that the wavelength of university, light projected along optical path 16 is 1.06 microns and assuming that the wavelength of the light projecting down optical path 17 is 1.31 microns, then optical coatings 35 and 37 are narrow band “V” coatings at good essay introductions, 1.31 microns and 1.06 microns, respectively. Optical coating 33 is a broadband anti-reflective coating which encompasses the 1.06 and project development 1.31 wavelengths. It will be appreciated that as before mirrors 24 and 26 are provided with reflective coatings at ? 1 and ? 2 respectively. Thus, a multi-color laser system of the single-to-multiple energy level transition has been provided in which the color components are orthogonally polarized so that it is possible to generate two or more pulses from a single optical pumping pulse. The system of FIG. 3 may also be utilized for lasers having the FIG.
2 a transition characteristic for more complete color separation, since stress birefringent polarization is not limited to lasers of the FIG. Narrative Essay! 2 b transition configuration. By way of example, rod materials including ruby, Nd +3 :YAG and Nd:YLF have radiative transitions as illustrated in FIG. Essay! 2 b . Additionally, so called “dye” lasers have radiative transitions of both types. The double pulse laser systems illustrated in FIGS. Essay! 1 and 3 are set forth by way of example only, and no limitation to any two colors or any two color lasers is project development intended thereby. In the following table are listed a number of good narrative introductions, laser host materials along with the transitions for the laser host materials. This list is not exhaustive but is merely indicative of the number of laser mediums adaptable to the subject invention. It will be appreciated that all of the elements which individually make up the why computer is important life essay system thus described are available commercially. For instance, beam splitting device 22 or 31 may be obtained from the Carl Lambrecht Corp. of Chicago, Ill. with any of the conventional narrow band anti-reflective “V” coatings. The trigger may be obtained as model TR-179 from EGG of Boston, Mass. the Q-switches may take the form of bleachable dyes, Kerrcells, mirrors, acousto-optic grating spoilers or electro-optical Q-switches such as lithium niobate units.
In one embodiment the Q-switch is of the KD*P (potassium dideuteron phosphate) type available as model EO 514 from Isomet Corp. of good narrative, Pallisades Park, N.J. Graduate School Of Education! In these Q-switches an good essay, applied relative field changes the development team polarization of the device to gate the light. The quality of the Q-switch that is most important is that it go off quickly as well as go on quickly. Several of the Kappa-Scientific Corp. of Santa Barbara, Calif. Q-switches have the appropriate switching parameters (of the good narrative KERRMAN 550 series). Moreover the variable delay unit may be obtained from Kappa Scientific Corp. Aqa Gcse German! as model KD1000 or KD2000. With respect to narrative, the range of university of phoenix thesis, pulse spacings available it will be appreciated that the pulses can be made to overlap by simultaneous triggering of Q-switches.
The length of the interpulse spacing depends on the energy coupled into essay introductions the laser host material and by the decay time of the excited electrons after the optical pumping pulse has been delivered. At the present there are statistically very few excited electrons left after 230 microseconds and this may be the practical upper limit to the pulse spacing at presidential scholarship essay questions, least for the common host materials. The pulse repetition rate for narrative typical optically pulse pumped lasers is generally within a range of 10-100 pulses per second. Thus 10-100 double, triple, etc. pulses per second can be generated by graduate essays the subject system. With respect to the power requirements of the subject system it will be appreciated that cavities are provided for all transitions such that little, if any, energy will be lost to fluorescence. Referring now to FIG. 4, a typical laser system is good narrative essay illustrated comprising a laser medium 50 , energizing means 52 , reflecting and short essay on world peace partially reflecting mirrors 54 and 56 , a Q-switching device 58 , an associated trigger 60 , a variable power source 62 connected to the energizing means and a non-linear element 64 situated in the optical cavity along the optical axis thereof. Good Narrative Essay! This non-linear element is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,829,791 entitled “Variable Pulse Laser” issued to Jack Schwartz on Aug.
13, 1974 and assigned to the assignee hereof. Villanova Presidential Scholarship Essay! The patent is incorporated herein by reference. The element in one embodiment is CdS or CdSe and acts as an good narrative essay introductions, energy absorber and reradiator which in effect stretches the pulses in accordance with the of phoenix input energy coupled into good essay introductions the laser host material. The pulse width is thus readily varied by villanova scholarship essay changing the power pumped into the laser host material. Good Essay! The relationship of pulse width to pumping power is illustrated by the graph of FIG. 5 . It can thus be seen that pulse width modulation can be readily achieved by modulation of the power supply voltage. Moreover, as mentioned hereinbefore, by stretching the output pulse a longer period of illumination is is important in our essay achieved. Thus, when the non-linear element is incorporated into one or more of the laser cavities of the system illustrated in FIG. 1, three parameters may be utilized to convey information, e.g. color pulse spacing and pulse width.
Moreover, when the non-linear device is positioned in one cavity, one of the pulses will be elongated so as to perform both an information conveying function and an illumination function. Referring now to FIG. Narrative Essay Introductions! 6, a laser system 70 is illustrated in university thesis which color difference is accomplished by polarizing beam splitter 31 with anti-reflective coatings 31 , 33 and 35 as described in narrative introductions connection with FIG. 3 . In this system a laser medium 75 is provided which produces radiation at two wavelengths in accordance with the transitions of FIG. 2 b . In addition to the production of laser radiation at two wavelengths, it is a property of the radiation produced by the host material that radiation of one color is polarized in one direction, generally indicated by arrows 76 , while radiation of the other wavelength is polarized in an orthogonal direction as illustrated by arrows 78 . School! The other elements of the laser system illustrated in narrative FIG. Is Important Life Essay! 6 are similar to those in FIGS. 3 and 4 with like elements being assigned like reference characters.
In this embodiment, the non-linear element 64 of FIG. Narrative Introductions! 3 is inserted into optical path 17 to provide a stretched pulse 80 which occurs after a spiked pulse 82 produced when Q-switch 28 is activated by trigger generator 32 . The pulse width of pulse 80 is controlled by the variable driver power source 62 , since the essays nonlinear element 64 is positioned in essay the cavity tuned to the ? 1 transition of the host material. The variable power source may be made to vary the power to the flash lamp in accordance with any intelligence to be transmitted. In operation, upon optical pumping the laser host material lases producing an output at ? 1 and ? 2 with the ? 1 output being polarized for instance in a vertical direction, and the ? 2 output being polarized orthogonally as illustrated in a horizontal direction. These two components are separated and transmitted along optical paths 16 and 17 respectively and are recombined again along optical path 15 as illustrated. The placement of a nonlinear element 64 in optical path 17 results in the aforementioned stretched pulse 80 while the radiation from optical path 16 results in the spiked pulse 82 . Thus the output from the laser system is composed of two-colored light with each color in its original polarized orientation.
In a still further embodiment an in-line multicolor, multipulse laser is illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 8. Referring to villanova presidential essay, FIG. 7, in good narrative introductions this embodiment a laser medium 100 is illuminated with a flash lamp 102 driven by a suitable driver 104 . Peace! This laser medium is located in narrative introductions a cavity tuned to the ? 1 transition of the project team laser which is defined by a partially reflecting mirror 106 at wavelengths ? 1 and ? 2 and a mirror 108 which is reflective at ? 1 . Good Narrative Essay! A first Q-switch 110 is villanova presidential scholarship questions located between mirror 108 and laser medium 100 and is operated by driver 104 in accordance with the optical pumping of the laser medium. In one embodiment this Q-switch only gates ? 1 radiation because of the unique polarization of this wavelength due to the aforementioned birefringent effect. A Pockel's cell is essay such a Q-switch. Thus, in a preferred embodiment this Q-switch is a Pockel's cell polarized in the direction of the university polarization of the good essay introductions ? 1 output from the laser medium.
It will be appreciated that this type of Q-switch has very little, if any, effect on the ? 2 radiation from the laser medium. Thus, the Q-switch 110 influences light of one polarization as indicated by arrows 112 and does not affect orthogonally polarized light as indicated by arrows 114 . In this embodiment, ? 1 is short on world peace chosen to be shorter than ? 2 . The second laser cavity for the ? 2 wavelength of the introductions laser is defined by mirror 106 and a mirror 116 reflective at the ? 2 wavelength of the laser, with a second Q-switch 118 interposed between mirror 116 and mirror 108 . A variable delay unit 120 is provided to control Q-switch 118 , with the delay being controlled by a control circuit 122 as described hereinbefore. It will be appreciated that mirror 108 , while being substantially reflective at ? 1 , is substantially transmissive at ? 2 . Graduate School Essays! Thus, Q-switch 110 and mirror 108 permit the in-line configuration by effectively being nonresponsive to the ? 2 wavelength. In operation, driver 104 provides a pumping pulse to flashlamp 112 which causes laser medium 100 to be excited, thereby to emit radiation at both wavelengths. Good Narrative! Responsive to the pumping of the aqa gcse german laser medium Q-switch 110 is actuated to gate ? 1 wavelength light to mirror 108 and then to block ? 1 radiation in the cavity tuned to ? 1 such that a first pulse having one polarization and one color, ? 1 , is good narrative coupled out of the system through mirror 106 . Thereafter, variable delay unit 120 actuates Q-switch 118 such that light at the ? 2 wavelength is gated to mirror 116 and then blocked. This produces a second pulse having a different polarization and color, ? 2 , which is coupled out of the system through mirror 106 . During this second Q-switching operation, Q-switch 110 and mirror 108 are effectively removed from the system and the effective cavity length is the why computer in our life distance between mirrors 106 and 116 . Narrative Introductions! Thus there is a common cavity portion for both wavelengths, the common cavity being the cavity defined by mirrors 106 and 108 . Alternatively, Q-switch 110 may be gated on again with the of education essays gating on introductions of Q-switch 118 such that any residual effect of is important in our life, Q-switch 110 on the ? 2 wavelength pulse is eliminated. This permits Q-switch 110 to be any of a variety of Q-switches. Referring now to FIG. 8, a polarizing element 130 may be interposed between Q-switch 118 and mirror 108 . This element is good narrative introductions polarized in a direction to reject the ? 1 wavelength radiation while transmitting the ? 2 wavelength radiation to provide an added measure of isolation between the ? 2 and ? 1 wavelengths. What has therefore been accomplished is the provision of a laser system which by university of phoenix virtue of good narrative, its multicolor, multicavity configuration is able to produce multiple pulses with a high degree of control of both pulse spacing and pulse width.
The number of pulses per development team individual flash lamp pulse is limited only by the number of wavelengths at which the laser host material lases and the number of cavities which are provided. Introductions! Thus, any combination of color, pulse spacings and pulse width modulation is possible with the system described. Graduate Essays! Moreover, because of the discovery that the light produced with a two color laser is introductions polarized and orthogonally oriented, multiple pulses can be produced from development team lasers having the FIG. 2 b transition configuration when rapid Q-switching is not available. Moreover, since all transitions of the laser are utilized no energy is lost to fluorescence and the energy requirements for the laser system are minimized. The versatility of the narrative subject system is manifest in the type of graduate school, control over the output of the laser and the unique ease with which the pulse parameters can be varied. One of the most attractive features of the subject invention is the degree of control over the interpulse spacing. The control is accomplished through the good essay accurate control of the Q-switches. Since currently available Q-switching devices now exist with extremely sharp rise and decay characteristics, the accuracy of the interpulse spacing depends on on world peace the accuracy of the control pulses which can conventionally be quite accurately controlled.
Thus, interpulse jitter can be held low. Although a specific embodiment to the invention has been described in good considerable detail for illustrative purposes, many modifications will occur to those skilled in the art. It is therefore desired that the aqa gcse coursework protection afforded by Letters Patent be limited only by the true scope of the appended claims.