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Andrew Marvell: Poems “To His Coy Mistress” Summary and Analysis
Bank Teller Job Description, Salary, and Skills. Do you want to work as a bank teller? Here’s the information you will need to get hired, including a job description, training and education requirements, salary information and essay tips for getting a job as a bank teller. Bank Teller Job Description and hinduism Salary Information. Bank Tellers are typically the first point of interaction for customers as they enter the essay analysis, bank. As such, a cordial and friendly interactive style is required to set the right customer service tone with visitors. Tellers verify the identity of customers and process requests for deposits to and withdrawals from patron accounts. They generate certified checks and money orders according to the specifications of current events essay prompts customers. To His Coy Mistress Analysis? Some tellers exchange dollars for other currencies. They answer questions about bank products and services and direct customers to other staff for more complex bank transactions.
Bank Tellers must count cash in their drawers as they begin their shift and reconcile remaining cash at the end of current events their shift to essay account accurately for deposits and hinduism salvation essay dispersals. Most tellers work in coy mistress essay analysis, the branches of community and commercial banks. Essays Cartoon? Some tellers work for credit unions. The minimum requirement for tellers is a high school degree. However, tellers with an associate#39;s or bachelor#39;s degree can advance more readily to assistant manager, personal banking, loan officer and bank manager jobs. Coursework in business, finance, accounting, and economics is helpful for prospective bank tellers who take college courses. Most training for tellers is done on the job by managers and more experienced tellers.
Workers interested in to his coy mistress essay analysis, becoming bank tellers should develop and showcase customer service and mathematics skills as well as an orientation towards detail and accuracy. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, bank tellers earned an average of $26,419 in 2015. The top 10% of bank tellers earned at least $36,870 while the bottom 10% earned less than 20,320. Definition Of Leadership? A good way to find teller jobs is to visit local banks during times when they aren#39;t busy and ask to speak with the coy mistress, manager. Start with a bank where you or your family has an account. If your interaction is successful, you will be asked to complete an current essay prompts, application. Follow through with the application process right away. Often this will involve completing an online application.
Reach out to coy mistress neighbors and friends of the family and ask if they know anyone working at a local bank and if so ask your contact for salvation an introduction. Search Google using the name of the town where you want to work and #34;bank#34; or #34;banks#34; - for example, #34;Huntington, NY banks.#34; Check the coy mistress analysis, bank#39;s website to see if you can apply online for a teller position. Check job listings . You will find advertised teller vacancies in the local newspaper classifieds, which are usually available online, and on job search engine sites like Indeed.com and SimplyHired.com. What to Wear to a Banking Job Interview. Banks are extremely image conscious so dress the part in professional business attire. A blazer or suit will strike the right tone and salvation essay show the employer that you are serious. Greet managers with a firm handshake and coy mistress essay a warm smile. Be ready to share your strong interest in banking. Essays? Detail some of your strengths which meet the job requirements. Be prepared to reference roles, courses and jobs where you used those assets. Coy Mistress Essay Analysis? For example, you might say - #34;I have always liked math and current events prompts received good grades in the subject.
I was treasurer for the entertainment club and accurately maintained the financial records of the club.#34; Practice your presentation with a friend or family member. Review these tips for how to ace an interview. Although individual banks vary in their priorities, most look for certain skills in prospective employees. To His Coy Mistress? These are the skills you must have (or develop) if you wish to get a job as a bank teller, and they are also the skills you should emphasize in both your application materials and events essay prompts your interview. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and acing your interview! This list is not exhaustive, but does explore some of the most important skills for tellers. Bank tellers handle money and therefore must be able to to his coy mistress essay keep track of dissertation numbers. To His Coy Mistress? Although most transactions are guided and tracked by computers, tellers still need to know what the figures should be so that they can recognize and respond to a problem if one occurs. Review this list of accounting skills that will help you get hired. Attention to detail is hinduism, a big part of a bank teller’s job, from handling money properly to coy mistress keeping accurate records of purpose introduction chapter transactions to following proper security protocols.
A mistake could lead to a security breach or to the appearance of irregularities in the accounts, and either could lead to a loss of public trust in the bank. Knowledge of Financial Software. Coy Mistress Analysis? Bank tellers must be able to use specialized financial software. Corruption? Training may be available on the job, but understanding the software to begin with is coy mistress, a definite advantage. Written and Verbal Communication.
Bank tellers handle money, but they also handle people. Tellers must communicate clearly with both coworkers and customers, be able to explain policies and procedures, and possibly even cope with would-be bank robbers without panicking. Bank tellers are the public face of events essay prompts their employer to the vast majority of coy mistress customers, and they must represent their employers well. Accuracy Answer Client Questions Attention to Detail Balance Allocation Banking Software Bilingual Cash Drawer Maintenance Checking Account Deposit Checking Account Withdrawal Computer Programs Communications Cross Sales of Service Customer Relations Customer Service Dedication Deposits Detail Oriented Directing Customers Establishing Procedures Excel Exercising Discretion Financial Service Recognition. High Level of Accuracy Judgment Calls Maintenance Maintenance of Petty Cash Major Attention to Detail Making Change Math Microsoft Office Microsoft Word Money Handling Monetary.
Positive Atmosphere Processing Banking Transactions Proper Handling of Transactions Proposing Transaction Problems Receiving Banking Transactions Reconciliation Record keeping Savings Account Deposits Savings Account Withdrawals.
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Resume Genius' Original Templates - Expert's Choice. By Resume Genius. This page features eight famous resume templates that you could normally only access via Resume Genius’ Resume Builder. We’ve decided to provide them to you for free. Do you want a resume that’s simple, sleek, and to coy mistress the point? Then you’ve come to the right place. Fellowships? Below, we feature our Classic resume template. To His Analysis? Feel free to purpose download it into a Microsoft Word document for analysis personalized editing. We have two reasons for calling it Classic. First, it’s our oldest resume template. Second — and more importantly it’s the most versatile one out of our entire library.
This is not a fancy resume template in the slightest. Purpose Introduction Dissertation? It’s simple, bare bones, to-the-point, easy to read, and unpretentious. Let’s get one thing straight — hiring managers aren’t going to trash a resume because it’s not fancy looking. Eventually, they would lose their job because they’d be overlooking some very good candidates who happen to to his analysis like simpler designs. The content of hinduism, your resume is far more important than its look. So long as the hiring manager can read your resume easily, you’ve done a good job.
The beauty of the Classic is that anyone can use it. Its simple nature gives it flexibility, and can be modified to suit all jobs and industries. Simply formatted resume designed for maximum clarity and readability. Header font spaced by 2.2pt creates an interesting aesthetic effect. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 2.54? Left – 2.54? Right – 2.54?
Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Classic template pack. Chicago is well known among architecture nerds for its interesting Prairie School style of architecture, which uses a lot of horizontal lines to better integrate its and to his coy mistress essay, mesh its buildings with the flat mid-western landscape. Long story short, our resident resume expert and architecture nerd associated the Chicago template’s use of hinduism, page long horizontal underlines beneath each major heading with the Prairie School architecture style, and the rest is to his essay history. Like the Classic, the Chicago resume format is another crowd-pleaser among all industries and hinduism salvation essay, types of employment. Once again, it emphasizes clarity over fanciness. The major question you need to coy mistress essay decide is if you like your resume sections to be sectioned off by hinduism essay page-wide underlines (choose Chicago), or if you feel like that’s excessive (choose Classic).
Page-length underlines used to separate resume sections. City, state, and employment dates placed in to his, a separate column on the right. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03? Font: Time New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Chicago template pack. This one’s pretty simple – initially we only had one version of wiki dissertation fellowships, this resume template, one with green headings. Naturally, we associated green with the Irish.
Since we’d named the Chicago template after a city, we felt it was best to continue on with the city name formula. Thus, Dublin! Now, as you can see, we’ve added more colors than just green, because people liked the styling so much and demanded more choices. Essay? But, we still call it Dublin due to purpose chapter its roots. Obviously if you’re Irish, it comes highly recommended! However, this is to his yet another resume template that is so simple, clear, and easy to read that we can easily recommend it to dissertation anyone looking for a job. The Dublin font styling looks much more airy and less blocky, so if that suits your taste, go ahead and download it. No horizontal lines anywhere Text in headers expanded by 1.05pt for an interesting effect. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt.
Click here to to his coy mistress download. The Dublin template pack. Once you look at this resume template, you immediately know why it’s called Elegant. It just is. This resume is so light on the eyes it seems like it could float away. Every small detail is infused with a soft and gentle touch, and stands out as being particularly well crafted. That’s why it’s one of our most popularly downloaded resumes.
Those of in pakistan, you with a flair for the abstract, and who would prefer a resume that is analysis less blocky, solid, and introduction, rigidly organized should download this template. Any hiring manager would be able to appreciate the to his coy mistress Elegant template’s style and formatting. It’s easy to read, clear, and makes great use of white space. It’s tough to generalize, but those of you applying for positions that require more rigidity and strictness, such as accounting or logistics, may want to consider a more tightly organized resume, such as Harvard. Headings are centered throughout entire template, with job descriptions left aligned.
Text in headers expanded by 2.8pt, and name by 4.8, giving the “elegant” feel. Top – 2.54? Bottom – 2.54? Left – 1.9? Right – 1.9? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Elegant template pack. Making the cartoon Harvard resume template required some serious MS Word skills by our resident expert. We tasked her with creating a template that would help save space on the resume without losing clarity and readability.
She came up with this columned approach — headings are left aligned to help save space, and have large enough text to be very clear. Due to coy mistress essay analysis this complicated and ingenious approach, we dubbed the template Harvard, as everyone knows the reputation of that university. Those of you who have a resume that extends JUST over one or two pages will find this template especially useful. The left-aligned headings allow you to cut down wasted space to current events prompts reach one or two pages exactly, which will make hiring managers happy. If you lack experience and have a short resume, we recommend avoiding this template, as it will make your experience look minimal and to his, paltry. Headings are left aligned, saving a lot of vertical space and prompts, allowing for analysis more job descriptions to wiki fellowships be written. Resume looks highly organized and rigidly designed, appealing to those who prefer straight lines and coy mistress analysis, boxes. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 1.27? Right – 1.27?
Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to corruption essay in pakistan download. The Harvard template pack. Many jobs are considered more “modern” than others. To His Essay? These are usually not age old industries but instead professions that have only come into existence within the last 20-30 years. Professions like Software Engineers, Computer Technicians and Social Media Managers are all relatively new when compared to those like Nursing, Teaching, and Law etc. For this new breed of professional comes a new breed of essay definition, resume template: the to his coy mistress analysis Modern. Hinduism Essay? Sporting a very “flat” design, the Modern template uses styling that classical resume experts will recognize, but altered subtly in terms of formatting and to his essay, style to produce a template that is anything but “classic”. The modern is all about efficiency and simplicity.
The contact details, job headings and current events essay, skills headings are all centered, producing a logical and aesthetically appealing form. Analysis? This resume template looks equally good in printed form or on essay on the an iPad or desktop. Modern is perfect for those who don’t feel like our other more classically styled resume templates work well for to his essay their personality type or the position they are applying to. For example, a developer using a “Classic” resume template not only is a bit misdirected style-wise, but may also be holding himself back as compared to other tech-industry resume styles, he or she will appear a little dated. As mentioned, industries that are relatively new are a perfect match for the Modern template. Modern color variations One horizontal line Centered Contact Information Centered Headings Two-tone color styling. Click here to download. The Modern template pack. Milano is how Italians refer to their beloved 2 nd largest city, Milan. Milano is famed for it’s rich cultural heritage, cuisine and events, of course, it’s fashion industry. The Milano resume template encapsulates all of these characteristics to one degree or another.
This template was not built from scratch, but instead has been built upon an older, more long-standing classic resume format. Things were then “spiced up” so to coy mistress speak with subtle use of formatting and colors to produce a very fashionable resume template if there ever was such a thing. Balancing professional tradition with new, contemporary colors is a balancing act that the Milano pulls off well. Similar to how a cup of coffee with just the right amount of cream is not too rich but not to bitter is perfectly balances, so is this resume template. The Milano template’s style and formatting is cartoon eye catching without being excessive, and for essay this reason it is suitable for many different professionals across many different industries. Dissertation? According to Resume Genius stats, the coy mistress essay Milano seems to be most popular with Marketers, Sales professionals and corruption, Educators. Regardless of industry, if you are looking for a way to stand out to his essay analysis amongst the other applicants without calling too much attention to yourself, consider downloading the Milano and customizing it with your own information for your next job application. Subtle color usage A single horizontal line Left Aligned Contact Details. Job Description Font Size: 9. Click here to download.
The Milano template pack. Do you want a resume that is cartoon network refined, sophisticated but not pretentious? If that’s the case, then the Park template below is the perfect option for to his coy mistress essay analysis you. Download this subtle and purpose introduction chapter dissertation, classy resume template and edit it to suit your own circumstance. Image you are walking down Park Avenue on the Upper East Side. It’s fall, the coy mistress smell of leaves lingers on essay the breeze as you walk back from you favorite coffee shop. You pass a well-dressed businessman in slacks, brown oxfords and to his, a grey cardigan. Current Events? Sitting next to him on essay analysis the bench is a leather folio with a resume on introduction chapter top, held in place by the weight of coy mistress analysis, a black Mont Blanc pen. The atmosphere, the season, the resume; they all seem to be in perfect harmony. Now open your eyes, and realize it is in fact you who are sitting on cartoon network the bench, and the resume that caught your attention is none other than The Park.
Whether in its original “accountant lamp green” or one of the to his coy mistress essay analysis other four other carefully selected understated colors, the Park conducts business with class, a perfect match for your personality. Different from our other templates in essays cartoon network, that it harmonious blends just the right amount of coy mistress essay, styling with simple and purpose introduction, refreshingly neat formatting to produce a resume that would look perfectly at home on any prestigious New York Office mahogany desk. The Park is for the job applicant who knows the to his coy mistress essay analysis difference between a Windsor and a Half Windsor, who knows the difference between Thelonious Monk and John Coltrane, and for the person who knows that even the smallest of details can make all the difference. The Park is not just a resume template; it is an essay accompaniment to your refined, metropolitan lifestyle. The park makes a statement with clever use of space right away in the header of the resume, with a large margin between the top of the page and the applicant’s name. To His Coy Mistress Analysis? There are no unnecessary frills or decorations on The Park; it makes a statement with only practical applications of essay on the of leadership, sensible color palettes, logical spacing and formatting and measured use of breaks and to his, lines. No unnecessary frills or decorations One horizontal line Center aligned contact information. Left aligned text.
Download The Park today to secure your job tomorrow. Click here to download. The Park template pack. resume tools and coach support and great templates. Glad you like them! Anything Specific for the trades ?? I am a machinist..Thanks. Any of the introduction chapter dissertation above are suitable for your industry, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago’ or the ‘Modern.’ Good luck on the job hunt!
Great thanks for your help … We would recommend the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! I am trying to decide what to use as a professional massage therapist. Thanks. Check out our ‘Elegant’ templates. To His Analysis? Good luck on essay definition of leadership the job hunt! Hi, which template is good for the pharmaceutical industry or biology? Thanks! The ‘Harvard’ should be suitable. Good luck! Thanks!
I appreciate it. What if I already started using one of the coy mistress advanced templates – dark blue contemporary? Should I switch to Harvard? I recently graduated, about wiki, a year and a half ago and I am looking to coy mistress analysis break into events essay prompts, the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and pharmacy background. Let me know what you think! #128578; Contemporary should work just fine. Which one would be good for a television producer? Or someone in the media industry? Thanks!
The ‘Milano’ sounds like the right way to to his coy mistress go. Best of luck! which template would be good for a high school student? which template would be great for executive. Which template is good for fresher seeking job in IT industry. I’m BCA graduate.
Try the ‘Chicago’ on for size. Good luck on essay the job hunt! which template suitable for coy mistress analysis internship? which template is on the suitable for a project manager. Which template is analysis suitable for a job at hinduism a bank? which Template is better for a job of medical field? You might want to check out our internship and to his coy mistress analysis, engineering resume samples: Good luck on the job hunt! What resume is most suitable for a Professional Sales Manager that is hinduism salvation essay hoping to coy mistress analysis change careers to an Executive Asst. HI, what resume is suitable for a management consultant? or an auditor?
The ‘Milano’ would suit either of those professions. Good luck! The decision is really a matter of preference. Essay? We suggest you try a few and see which one you like best. Good luck! Thank you very much for sharing!!
Very helpful!! Hi what would you recommend for a recent master graduate wanting to to his coy mistress analysis get into the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field? Try out the ‘Elegant’ Template. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for purpose introduction a school district instructional assistant? Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)? Recommendation for something in the legal profession? Specifically pretrial services assessor?
Didn’t see anything for paralegals, either… The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for samples. To His Coy Mistress Analysis? Check out current events essay prompts our paralegal resume sample, here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/paralegal-resume-example. Good luck on to his coy mistress analysis the job hunt, Hi what would be a good resume for someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier) We suggest trying the ‘Park’ template. It offers plenty of space for you to include all of your skills. what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and you don’t know which template to use for a beginner.
For a beginner, our ‘Classic’ is always a solid choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Any of the resumes above could be used for someone with a criminal history, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago.’ Also, you should check out our tips on how to address criminal history in a cover letter: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions#Red-flag-8:-Criminal-history. Try using the ‘Park’ template. Good luck with finding an essays network internship! We suggest the ‘Milano.’ Don’t forget to coy mistress check out chapter dissertation our Pharmacist resume: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/pharmacist-resume-example Good luck on the internship. What resume would you recommend for a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of to his coy mistress analysis, experience.
What kind of resume would you recommend for someone changing careers from a lower tier job to a more career building one? The ‘Park’ template would be an appropriate choice. Good luck with the hinduism salvation career change. which template wouldb good for construction,HVAC? We’d suggest going with the ‘Modern’ template.
Best of luck finding an HVAC job. which template would i use? I was recently fired and need a job asap, i worked in customer service for a department store and then moved into a supervisor position but for only 7months. My previuos jobs were a ups helper and a busser at a resturaunt. Go with the ‘Milano’ template.
Good luck! What template would you suggest to use? I am changing careers from a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to CDL Truck Driver either over the road or Local? Try going with the ‘Milano’ template. Essay? Good Luck! What template do you recommend for a middle aged person with plenty of related experience including being a small business owner, applying for salvation a flight attendant position? You should visit our nurse resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/nursing-resume-example. You can download the example and fill in your own information.
Hi, what kind of to his essay analysis, resume template you recommend for a engineer with 4 years of experience?. which resume would you recommend for college student applying for jobs with no experience. Hi, what kind of resume will you recommend for a college student, applying for network a job. which resume would you recommend for a fashion merchandiser/executive assistant stay at home mom returning to work? Good luck on the job hunt!
which resume do you recommend for an budding flight attendant career? Thanks for this! I’ll use the to his essay analysis Harvard Resume Template. #128578; Hey there Rayhan, The key to writing a resume fresh out of college without work experience is to:
2. Make your education section strong, and include key relevant projects/leadership experiences from college that pertain to cartoon the position to which you’re applying. Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya, I’d recommend the Classic B W template for your resume. To His Analysis? It’s a nice standard look — nothing too fancy, but it gets the job done. Good luck! With all of network, that experience, you have some flexibility! When in doubt, the essay reverse-chronological is fellowships a good choice. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/chronological-samples-writing-guide. Enjoy the fresh start, and coy mistress essay, best of luck with the job application!
Which resume would your recommend for applying for a position in a company that you currently work in that is merging? All staff must re-apply. All of these resume templates are perfect for someone in your situation – it just depends on corruption essay in pakistan your preference. Since your goal is to prove the to his coy mistress analysis value you bring to the table to salvation your new employers, you want your resume to stand out for its content even more than its format. Things that are quantifiable (think numbers, dollar signs, etc.) give your resume weight – check out the following link for essay analysis some ideas to in pakistan make the content of to his coy mistress, your resume stand out: https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/accomplishments-on-resume-quantify-achievements. Good luck, and fellowships, please feel free to to his coy mistress comment again if you have further questions! I would suggest that you first decide which type of resume best suits your situation, then choose a matching template. Check out this link and see if one jumps out at you: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/ Good luck with your career! I’d first recommend checking out cartoon network this page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example.
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Analysis of To His Coy Mistress Essay - 123HelpMe com
Affirmative action essay pros and cons. But as long as you have this paradigm where people seem to be using race and gender as a means of to his coy mistress essay analysis, making hiring decisions, as long as they keep uttering this mindless blather about on the definition of leadership #8216;we#8217;ve got to achieve diversity,#8217; it kind of taints the whole process. To His Coy Mistress Analysis? A Short Discussion of Affirmative Action Pros and Cons. Network? But we don#8217;t even look at that. To His Coy Mistress? Affirmative action leads to current events essay, reverse discrimination. Fortunately, there was no affirmative action at coy mistress essay, the turn of the in pakistan, 20th century to give members of #8216;beaten races#8217; a leg up in the competition for education and jobs. The unwillingness of corporate leaders to choose candidates outside of their demographic ranks is coy mistress, known as a hire-like-me bias.
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The issue of affirmative action continues to be a hotly debated issue in the college selection process and higher education. In other words, it is policy that was established to hopefully eliminate racial preference and equalize the United States. Personal Credibility: I myself am a licensed motorcyclist with 3 years of. It helped to correct a history of racial discrimination propagated by whites, but it’s a new day in America. Current Events Essay Prompts? Popular Essays Excellent Essays Free Essays A-F Free Essays G-L Free Essays M-Q Free Essays R-Z Essay Topics Plagiarism Donate a Paper Copyright © 2000-2016 123HelpMe.
This consists of preferential access to education, employment, health care, or social welfare. If we really wanted to help black people #8212; let#8217;s just take black people for an example #8212; we would not be putting so much emphasis on getting them into Berkeley as we would giving them the equivalent money to go out and buy their own cabs, or get the tools to become an electrician or a plumber, or the money to essay analysis, take a vocational course. The unwillingness of corporate leaders to choose candidates outside of their demographic ranks is known as a hire-like-me bias. PRO (yes) CON (no) The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) stated the essays network, following in its Mar. Debates have been roaring in the social and political sphere of the coy mistress, United States on the contentious issue of affirmative action. Affirmative action involves showing a preference for selecting and/or promoting members of a demographic or minority group with a history of discrimination. I think that when you apply different standards to people, that#8217;s discriminatory, no matter what you want to call it. It is the practice of giving preference to racial minorities or women when hiring employees, giving awards or deciding whom to admit.
19, 2009 National Organization for Women (NOW)? John A. This paper will discuss the purpose behind affirmative action, as well as, its various strengths and weaknesses. Can it contribute to more cohesive and corruption essay inclusive societies. It is time for liberal black leaders to stop hiding behind racism and admit that our priorities as a community have become our greatest hurdle to to his coy mistress essay analysis, achieving long-term success. Affirmative action programs – including targeted outreach and recruitment efforts, the use of non-traditional criteria for hiring and admissions, after-school and mentorship programs, and training and apprenticeship opportunities – are tailored to fit specific instances where race and gender must be taken into essay, account in order to provide fair and equal access to minorities and women. The main issue that affirmative action was to address is the issue of discrimination among minorities. Opportunities for women and to his coy mistress essay analysis people of color have expanded, and many believe that the corruption essay, unequal conditions that once justified affirmative action no longer exist. Affirmative action helps the children and the grandchildren of Jesse Jackson, John Conyers and to his essay analysis Al Sharpton who have the money for the SAT prep courses, private schools and the clout to call the deans of fellowships, admission should something go awry. To His Coy Mistress? This discrimination continued to take place regardless of the civil laws and hinduism salvation constitutional promises to prevent it.
Affirmative Action can be seen throughout United States History as a leading fighter for coy mistress essay analysis equal opportunity. The concept behind affirmative action is hinduism salvation essay, prevalent in to his coy mistress essay, most democratic countries. Purpose? The fight against discrimination has been a long lasting one that started with the to his coy mistress essay analysis, case of Plessy vs. Despite the enormous gains made by the civil rights and women#8217;s rights movements, women and people of color still face unfair obstacles in business and education. What are the pros/cons of these programs. The nature of policy and terminology used vary from country to country. In weighing the pros and cons of affirmative action.
Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. Introduction Chapter? White men hold 95% to 97% of the high-level corporate jobs. Analysis? It is essays cartoon, time we do away with preferences and recognize people, as Martin Luther King urged us, by the content of their character. But when it gets to the point where you are making a selection for someone to be admitted to the university or someone to be hired for a job, and to analysis, have one standard for someone who is hinduism essay, black and another standard for someone who is white. Both Presidents Nixon and Carter issued their own executive affirmative action orders, which built upon Kennedy#8217;s original guidelines and to his coy mistress essay provided additional opportunities and protection for definition of leadership women. There are those who feel that AA has exceeded its usefulness, and. Additional info about affirmative action essay pros and cons.
Black people continue to have twice the unemployment rate of White people, twice the coy mistress, rate of infant mortality, and purpose introduction just over half the proportion of people who attend four years or more of college. While Obama’s election qualifies as a down payment on equality, much more remains to be done. They believe that affirmative action is needed to counteract these negative effects (Timmons, 2009). Second, proponents of affirmative action argue its role in overcoming deeply ingrained corporate biases. More than one million students will not graduate from high school this year, and a disproportionate number of them will be African-American, Latino, or Native American. Affirmative action is a way to help compensate for the.
This is the total cost there are NO other charges. #8220;Rationality can go through the to his essay, window. Lastly, qualified candidates may feel they#8217;re victims of employment quotas and historical advantages, or reverse discrimination, which gives members of the majority a taste of the minority experience. The fight against discrimination has been a long lasting one that started with the case of Plessy vs. Current Essay? No one knew precisely when the tipping point would be reached, O#8217;Connor wrote, but #8216;the court expects that 25 years from now the to his essay analysis, use of racial preferences will no longer be necessary. Ever since many countries such as Brazil, Canada, India, Malay, and South Africa, have adopted policies against discrimination in employment or to facilitate access to certain education institutions. Events Essay Prompts? Let#8217;s take a look at some of the to his, arguments both for and against essay on the definition affirmative action. Affirmative action leads to reverse discrimination. Affirmative action programs – including targeted outreach and recruitment efforts, the use of non-traditional criteria for hiring and admissions, after-school and mentorship programs, and training and apprenticeship opportunities – are tailored to fit specific instances where race and gender must be taken into account in order to to his coy mistress, provide fair and equal access to minorities and women.
But they do no favors for minority groups as a whole. Many students live very segregated lives up until the time they start college. Kennedy when he wrote the Executive Order 10925 in which he included a provision according to which public contractors should #8220;take affirmative action to cartoon network, ensure that applicants are employed and that employees are treated during employment without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin#8221;. Affirmative action refers to to his coy mistress analysis, the policies and essay laws that attempt to essay analysis, redress a situation of discrimination and dissertation promote equal opportunity. Individuals who are pro essay, affirmative action state that minorities may come from neighborhoods that are high in crime, violence, and drugs.
While some minority students are just as, if not more qualified than the majority of students, it is quite possible that a minority student will be accepted into a school in which they will not be able to succeed to the best of their capabilities. Hinduism? However, opponents argue that gender has nothing to do with how well someone can perform as a dean, professor, or provost. Black and Hispanic Americans would rise and to his coy mistress essay overcome as well if only they could be liberated from the condescending mind-set that thinks it#8217;s a compliment to tell a group of salvation, college seniors that they show great promise #8212; for minorities. It has been controversial because it has been said to be a form of essay, reverse discrimination. In weighing the purpose chapter dissertation, pros and to his essay cons of affirmative action, we must also answer the question #8216;What constitutes a history of discrimination. The famous Bakke case in 1978 showed the limitations of this approach to fighting inequality. Arguments For and Against Affirmative Action. Faiths and Values Paper #1 March 4, 2010 Affirmative action was introduced in 1965 as a method of addressing the essay definition, discrimination of to his essay analysis, minorities that continued to happen in the United States. Too many blacks do remain oppressed, but not by white Americans.
For example, some universities may hire more women because, as of fall 2009, very few women had advanced to essay in pakistan, the top levels of academia. Diversity is desirable and essay analysis won#8217;t always occur if left to chance, meaning, part of the education process is learning to interact with other races and nationalities. And that#8217;s with affirmative action programs in place. He was once a recipient of affirmative action, and he feels the frustration that people think he is a member of the court just because he#8217;s black. Arguments For and Against Affirmative Action. Corruption Essay? Com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and analysis career path that can help you find the school that#8217;s right for you. #8220;It includes everything from enhanced recruitment of minorities to retention policies that encourage minority success in school and employment. Popular Essays Excellent Essays Free Essays A-F Free Essays G-L Free Essays M-Q Free Essays R-Z Essay Topics Plagiarism Donate a Paper Copyright © 2000-2016 123HelpMe. Essays? Imagine how low figures would be without affirmative action. ) and coy mistress essay the impact on employment law (what documents back up affirmative action. On The Definition Of Leadership? Once enacted, affirmative actions are tough to remove. (1998) International Perspectives on Affirmative Action in the 1990s Educational Researcher, Vol.
These groups can include those based on ethnicity, gender, or race. To His Coy Mistress Analysis? Com Affirmative Action Pros and Cons Affirmative Action and corruption essay in pakistan Diversity Project. Affirmative Action purports to to his essay, be a method for achieving equal employment opportunity for minorities normally discriminated against in current events, hiring based on race, ethnicity, gender, or other exclusionary criteria (Outtz 1). #8220;My sense is that it does a good job in promoting diverse student bodies and work forces and providing equal opportunity for at least some minorities,#8221; said Fliter. To His Coy Mistress? #8220;Affirmative Action levels the events essay prompts, playing field so people of coy mistress, color and all women have the essays network, chance to compete in education and in business. Affirmative action— which is to his coy mistress essay analysis, just one of current events, many effective tools for expanding opportunity— remains essential for the full inclusion of all of those who historically have been and continue to be structurally relegated to the margins of society, and who are increasingly left further behind in the race to achieve the American Dream. Congress and the Executive Branch soon followed by adopting a panoply of laws and to his coy mistress analysis regulations authorizing, either directly or by judicial or administrative interpretation, #8216;race-conscious#8217; strategies to promote minority opportunity in jobs, education, and governmental contracting. Tummala said it is the primary legal tool to promote minorities who have been historically discriminated against, and there is a lot of evidence that minorities have been brought into the mainstream and accepted. The Pros and purpose introduction dissertation Cons of Drones. Coy Mistress Essay? Rather, it is by blacks who relish a perverse sub-culture of events essay, low standards and perpetual victimization. Affirmative action arose out of a desire to bring minority groups into coy mistress, institutions and professions that had traditionally been dominated by white males.
In fact, without affirmative action the percentage of Black students at many selective schools would drop to corruption, only 2% of the to his coy mistress, student body. No longer do white racists tell black children books are for white people. Affirmative Action is defined as positive steps to enhance the diversity of some group, often to remedy the cumulative effect of subtle as well as gross expression of. 15, 2004 #8220;Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and definition Prospectus#8221; (315KB) ? Congressional Research Service? Does the US Need Affirmative Action. Shuford, JD? Barack Obama, JD, 44th President of the to his coy mistress analysis, United States, provided the following statement on essays network, affirmative action to the NAACP #8220;2008 Voter Action Center,#8221;(accessed Nov. An astonishing 70% of schools are not in compliance with Title IX, the federal equal education opportunity law.
The purpose of this paper is to bring to light all the issues, and then make an educated statement of whether affirmative action is coy mistress essay, a worthwhile activity or if there is a better solution. Some writers have criticized affirmative action as a superficial solution that does not address deeper societal problems by redistributing wealth and developing true educational equality. For instance, some countries have adopted quotas for women, people with disabilities or from different ethnic backgrounds. Affirmative action programs – including targeted outreach and recruitment efforts, the on the of leadership, use of non-traditional criteria for hiring and admissions, after-school and mentorship programs, and training and apprenticeship opportunities – are tailored to fit specific instances where race and gender must be taken into account in essay, order to provide fair and equal access to minorities and women. PRO (yes) CON (no) The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) stated the following in its Mar. The policies behind affirmative action encourage all deprived students to enter an advanced educational system. Shuford, JD, Senior Staff Attorney at the American Civil Liberties Union Foundation Racial Justice Program, stated the following in his May 21, 2009 article #8220;Why Affirmative Action Remains Essential in prompts, the Age of to his analysis, Obama,#8221; published in the Campbell Law Review: #8220;[W]hether in on the of leadership, the arenas of housing, employment, education, wealth, health care, or the to his essay, justice system, African- Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans continue to essay, lag way behind others. Essay Analysis? In fact, without affirmative action the percentage of Black students at many selective schools would drop to only 2% of the student body. Hinduism Essay? What community would not rather have Harvard-educated blacks and Hispanics than high-scho. #8220;People supposed the program would self-destruct as everyone would become equal. How have they benefited or hurt the . Many white students also live in poverty but tend to be disregarded simply based on the fact that they are not from a minority race. If we really wanted to to his coy mistress, help black people #8212; let#8217;s just take black people for an example #8212; we would not be putting so much emphasis on getting them into Berkeley as we would giving them the equivalent money to go out and buy their own cabs, or get the current, tools to become an electrician or a plumber, or the money to take a vocational course.
The research record suggests, unequivocally, that it does. No one knew precisely when the tipping point would be reached, O#8217;Connor wrote, but #8216;the court expects that 25 years from to his analysis now the use of racial preferences will no longer be necessary. On The Definition Of Leadership? ), the impact on women (how have their lives changed. Despite the enormous gains made by coy mistress the civil rights and women#8217;s rights movements, women and people of color still face unfair obstacles in network, business and essay analysis education. Essays Network? Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. The constitution says we must treat all people equally, but affirmative action treats some people unequally, actually more equally. Essay Analysis? Affirmative action refers to the policies and laws that attempt to redress a situation of discrimination and promote equal opportunity. Yet affirmative action was never proposed as a cure-all solution to inequality.
Those who advocate affirmative action generally believe it is a means to. The Pros and definition of leadership Cons of Affirmative Action 1 The Pros and Cons of Affirmative Action. Affirmative action was established to ensure that minorities have the essay analysis, same opportunities and options in college admission. ’s dream of a truly equal society. A Short Discussion of Affirmative Action Pros and Cons. Corruption? ³ · This lesson has been designed to provide you with an overview of affirmative action in. Affirmative Action is to his coy mistress essay analysis, defined as positive steps to enhance the diversity of some group, often to remedy the cumulative effect of subtle as well as gross expression of prejudice. Rather, it was intended only to redress discrimination in hiring and academic admissions. Existing laws help to prevent outright discrimination on essay, the basis of race and gender, but they alone are not enough to create equal opportunities for coy mistress essay analysis every American. Cartoon Network? White men hold 95% to 97% of the high-level corporate jobs. (1983) Affirmative Action in Higher Education: Is It Necessary. These quotas are a way to ensure that people from certain socio-demographic groups, which have traditionally suffered discrimination, have access to to his, schools, jobs, and / or participate in political life. Hinduism? It was also initiated in the work place to promote fairness for minorities in job placement, salary increase, and advancement of their careers (Brunner, 2001). They believe that the discrimination these minorities have faced have placed a psychological toll on them and their descendants.
If I proposed that, they#8217;d think I was a kook, because we#8217;re so hung up on the notion that you either go to college or life#8217;s a failure. #8220;This argument, however, was not accepted by the courts. In assessing the value of affirmative action, the central question is merely this: In the absence of sweeping societal reforms #8212; unlikely to take place any time soon #8212; does affirmative action help counteract the continuing injustice caused by discrimination. What are the main challenges in coy mistress analysis, the implementation of these policies and laws. It is time we do away with preferences and recognize people, as Martin Luther King urged us, by the content of their character. Preferences stigmatize them as less able than other Americans to current essay prompts, stand on their own two feet. Affirmative Action programs merely acknowledge that hundreds of years of discrimination cannot be erased in a few decades and still hold women and people of color back. Personal Credibility: I myself am a licensed motorcyclist with 3 years of. In a country that claims to offer equal opportunities to coy mistress essay, all, the Affirmative Action initiative is based on a highly desirable effort to make wrongs right and remove unfair barriers and boundaries that have kept minorities in an inferior position. (site text book) This is usually done through educational or economical benefits. Let#8217;s take a look at some of the arguments both for and against network affirmative action.
Ferguson, which ended in the desegregation of all. Third, proponents of affirmative action recognize that some demographic groups face a systematic barrier, which means they lack both the means and opportunities to enter and compete in particular fields. Affirmative action lowers standards of accountability needed to push students or employees to . In assessing the value of affirmative action, the central question is merely this: In the absence of sweeping societal reforms #8212; unlikely to take place any time soon #8212; does affirmative action help counteract the continuing injustice caused by essay discrimination. Teaser: want to decrease the money you are spending on gas by at least 500%. We support affirmative action and other race- and gender-conscious policies as vital . The primary argument against dissertation fellowships affirmative action is that it requires positions be awarded on a purely demographic basis, which may introduce an artificial bias, such as sexism. (1983) Affirmative Action in Higher Education: Is It Necessary. They believe that these individuals already start out at coy mistress analysis, a disadvantage when applying to jobs or schools because of their race or gender. #8216;Affirmative action#8217; programs that leap-frog less-qualified minorities over more-qualified non-minorities sweep those systemic problems under the salvation essay, carpet. Affirmative Action laws swept through our nation and changed a wide variety of to his essay analysis, things, including laws.
Affirmative action is a way to help compensate for the. Arguments For and hinduism salvation essay Against Affirmative Action. To His Essay Analysis? Some writers have criticized affirmative action as a superficial solution that does not address deeper societal problems by redistributing wealth and developing true educational equality. But when it gets to the point where you are making a selection for someone to corruption essay, be admitted to the university or someone to to his essay analysis, be hired for a job, and to have one standard for someone who is black and another standard for someone who is white. #8220;Affirmative action involves much more than minority set-asides,#8221; said Fliter, pictured below. You may view this document now for only . The primary argument in support of affirmative action is its potential to increase diversity in the workforce while reducing discrimination against essay on the certain demographic groups or minorities. Pros and cons of affirmative action. What community would not rather have Harvard-educated blacks and Hispanics than high-scho. #8220;Some people argue that you shouldn#8217;t extend affirmative action to an entire class of people. It has been controversial because it has been said to be a form of reverse discrimination. At the federal level, the roots of affirmative action can be found in an executive order issued by President John F. Read Affirmative Action: Pros and Cons free essay and over 84,000 other research documents. Existing laws help to coy mistress, prevent outright discrimination on the basis of race and essays gender, but they alone are not enough to create equal opportunities for essay every American. Legally, such preference may be acted upon only when candidates are comparable in quality.
The students from the ethnic minority backgrounds require a helping hand so that they can enjoy the type of privileges that are typically ignored by essay definition of leadership other races. To His Coy Mistress Essay? Students starting at a disadvantage need a boost, minority students start out at a disadvantage in their college or job application process. In other words, it is dissertation, policy that was established to hopefully eliminate racial preference and equalize the United States. Affirmative Action only opens doors, women and people of color have to walk through those doors by themselves. Org: #8220;We have come a long way since the Civil Rights Movement, and many Americans feel that the time for affirmative action is over. Is affirmative action overall positive or does it create a sort of reverse discrimination. No longer do white racists tell black children books are for white people.
The concept of #8220;affirmative action#8221; was coined in the United States by J. I think that when you apply different standards to to his coy mistress essay, people, that#8217;s discriminatory, no matter what you want to call it. I have a way to get you to your destination faster and look cool while you do it. The unwillingness of hinduism salvation, corporate leaders to to his coy mistress essay, choose candidates outside of their demographic ranks is known as a hire-like-me bias. Given the essay prompts, dearth of black and Latino Ph. #8221; May 21, 2009 Reginald T. Such barriers can only be eliminated through affirmative action, according to its proponents. (1998) International Perspectives on Affirmative Action in coy mistress essay analysis, the 1990s Educational Researcher, Vol. The Pros Cons of College Entrance Essays. Minorities tend to receive the stereotype that they are poor and are all from lower class homes. In addition to this idea, individuals for the concept of affirmative action believe that disadvantaged students, such as the minorities, need an extra boost.
Legally, such preference may be acted upon only when candidates are comparable in quality. Corruption Essay? #8220;Rationality can go through the window. #8220;Affirmative action is difficult because it stirs up a lot of emotions,#8221; said Tummala, pictured at left, a political science professor and director of the graduate program in public administration. To His Analysis? There are those who feel that AA has exceeded its usefulness, and. Definition Of Leadership? It is the practice of analysis, giving preference to essays, racial minorities or women when hiring employees, giving awards or deciding whom to admit. Therefore, this aims to increase ethnic and other types of diversity within the social sphere of the community. Those who advocate affirmative action generally believe it is a means to. Coy Mistress Essay Analysis? The primary argument against affirmative action is that it requires positions be awarded on a purely demographic basis, which may introduce an artificial bias, such as sexism. Black people continue to have twice the unemployment rate of White people, twice the rate of infant mortality, and just over half the salvation essay, proportion of people who attend four years or more of college. This lesson has been designed to to his coy mistress analysis, provide you with an overview of affirmative action in the workplace, including its pros and cons. (1978) The Effectiveness of Affirmative Action for Women The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. It is time for wiki dissertation liberal black leaders to stop hiding behind racism and admit that our priorities as a community have become our greatest hurdle to achieving long-term success.
You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. What are the pros/cons of these. Affirmative Action only opens doors, women and people of color have to walk through those doors by themselves. But when it gets to the point where you are making a selection for someone to be admitted to essay, the university or someone to be hired for a job, and to have one standard for someone who is wiki dissertation fellowships, black and another standard for someone who is white. General Reference (not clearly pro or con) The Congressional Research Service (CRS) published a report on Dec. But when it gets to the point where you are making a selection for coy mistress essay someone to be admitted to the university or someone to current essay, be hired for analysis a job, and to have one standard for someone who is essays network, black and essay another standard for someone who is white. Arguments For and Against Affirmative Action. Proponents of affirmative action plans argue that historically speaking, some fields may not be open to members of certain demographic or minority groups without some extra-legal encouragement. Despite the progress that has been made, the playing field is far from purpose chapter dissertation level.
As a way of redressing past inequalities, Affirmative Action sometimes uses preferential selection to ensure that members of the coy mistress analysis, affected minorities are guaranteed partiality over non-minority applicants. Students starting at a disadvantage need a boost, minority students start out at a disadvantage in their college or job application process. Purpose Chapter? Despite the enormous gains made by the civil rights and women#8217;s rights movements, women and people of color still face unfair obstacles in business and education. We shouldn#8217;t ignore that race continues to matter: To suggest that our racial attitudes play no part in the socio-economic disparities that we often observe turns a blind eye to both our history and essay analysis our experience and on the of leadership relieves us of the responsibility to make things right. Third, proponents of affirmative action recognize that some demographic groups face a systematic barrier, which means they lack both the means and opportunities to enter and analysis compete in particular fields. An essay or paper on Affirmative Action Pros Cons. In the 1990s, President Bill Clinton advocated a #8216;mend it, don#8217;t end it#8217; policy. It first appeared after the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s as an attempt to accompany the new legal equality gained for minorities with social and economic equality. Com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of cartoon, study and career path that can help you find the school that#8217;s right for you. Rather, it is by to his essay analysis blacks who relish a perverse sub-culture of low standards and perpetual victimization. 16, 2009 Barack Obama, JD? Scott Plous, PhD, Professor of Psychology at Wesleyan University, wrote in his article #8220;Ten Myths About Affirmative Action,#8221; posted on his website (accessed Aug.
Lastly, a discussion of affirmative action on essays cartoon network, an international scale, and what international documents have to say about the topic. Legally, such preference may be acted upon only when candidates are comparable in to his coy mistress essay analysis, quality. Corruption Essay In Pakistan? #8220;This is something that bothers Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas. Proponents argue that if affirmative action helps minorities enter or rise in coy mistress essay analysis, a field at a greater frequency, it may also increase the number of people who believe the field is open to them. In your experience, do they work. They believe that these individuals already start out at a disadvantage when applying to jobs or schools because of their race or gender. African-American women, moreover, earn only sixty-three cents per hour and events prompts Hispanic women only fiftytwo cents per hour for every dollar a white man earns for similar employment. To His Coy Mistress Analysis? Black and Hispanic Americans would rise and overcome as well if only they could be liberated from the condescending mind-set that thinks it#8217;s a compliment to tell a group of college seniors that they show great promise #8212; for minorities. However, individuals against affirmative action which is the viewpoint I tend to on the, side with, believe that affirmative action actually leads to reverse discrimination. Homosexuality is an on-going conflict in to his coy mistress essay analysis, America, as well as other countries. Fought about slavery, then segregation, then gender, and now sexual orientation#8221;-(Anon). As we have different ideas and essay in pakistan ways of coy mistress, #8220;dealing#8221; with it, so did the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome.
The history of homosexuality goes back to the ancient civilizations. Homosexuality in ancient Greece and Rome Americans endlessly recycle the old conflicts: #8220;first we. Essay In Pakistan? AP World History Comparative Essay Generic Rubric. Historical skills and to his essay knowledge required to. AP World History Comparative Essay Generic Rubric.
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Essay on Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics and other details. Here is your essay on Social Change! Change is the internal law. History and science bear ample testimony to the fact that change is the essay analysis law of life. Stagnation is death. They tell us stories of man’s rise and growth from the hinduism essay Paleolithic age to the Neolithic age, then to the Stone Age and next to the copper age etc. On the stage of the world, scenes follow scenes, acts follow acts, and drama follows drama. Nothing stands still. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/_1-xvEOICRwA/SHQeR5CcI3I/AAAAAAAAAVs/OUtRL2GLZXg/s1600-h/PontmorlaisWest_CircusParade_1948-49_CliveArthur.jpg. The wheel of time moves on and on. The old dies and the young steps into the world.
We ring out the old and ring in analysis the new. A child changes into a boy, a boy into chapter, a youth and then into a man. The bud changes into a flower. The dawn turns into morning, morning into to his, noon, noon into afternoon and afternoon into night. It is said, “Today is current events prompts, not yesterday, we ourselves change. To His Analysis! No change is permanent, it is corruption in pakistan, subject to change. This is observed in all spares of activity. To His Analysis! Change indeed is hinduism essay, painful, yet needful”. Flowing water is wholesome, and stagnant water is poisonous. Coy Mistress Essay! Only when it flows through and alters with changes, it is able to refresh and recreate. Change is an ever-present phenomenon.
It is the wiki dissertation fellowships law of nature. Essay Analysis! Society is not at all a static phenomenon, but it is a dynamic entity. It is an ongoing process. The social structure is subject to incessant changes. Individuals may strive for stability, yet the fact remains that society is an every changing phenomenon; growing, decaying, renewing and wiki, accommodating itself to changing conditions. The human composition of societies changes over time, technologies expand, ideologies and values take on new components; institutional functions and structures undergo reshaping. Hence, no society remains complete static. Incessant changeability is very inherent nature of to his human society. A social structure is a nexus of present relationships. It exists because social beings seek to maintain it.
It continues to exist because men demand its continuance. But the existing social structure is influenced by many factors and forces that inevitably cause it to change. Society is purpose dissertation, thus subject to continuous change. The change of man and society has been the to his coy mistress essay analysis central and quite dominant concern of sociology right from the time when it emerged as branch of learning. The concern for social change is essays network, of great importance not only in studying past changes but also in investigating ‘future’ developments. Meaning of Social Change : Change implies all variations in human societies. When changes occur in coy mistress essay the modes of living of individuals and social relation gets influenced, such changes are called social changes.
Social change refers to the modifications which take place in life pattern of people. It occurs because all societies are in a constant state of disequilibrium. The word ‘change’ denotes a difference in anything observed over some period of time. Hence, social change would mean observable differences in any social phenomena over any period of current prompts time. Social change is the change in society and society is a web of social relationships. Hence, social change is a change in social relationships. Social relationships are social processes, social patterns and to his coy mistress, social interactions. These include the mutual activities and relations of the various parts of the society. Thus, the term ‘social change’ is used to describe variations of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. Social change may be defined as changes in the social organization, that is, the hinduism salvation essay structure and coy mistress essay analysis, functions of the society.
Whenever one finds that a large number of persons are engaged in activities that differ from those which their immediate forefathers were engaged in some time before, one finds a social change. Whenever human behaviour is in the process of modification, one finds that social change is occurring. Human society is constituted of human beings. Social change means human change, since men are human beings. To change society, as says Davis, is to change man.
Theorists of cartoon social change agree that in essay analysis most concrete sense of the word ‘change’, every social system is changing all the time. The composition of the population changes through the life cycle and thus the occupation or roles changes; the members of society undergo physiological changes; the continuing interactions among member modify attitudes and expectations; new knowledge is constantly being gained and transmitted. The question to what social change actually means is salvation, perhaps the most difficult one within the scientific study of change. It involves the often neglected query of what ‘kind’ and degree of change in what is to be considered social change. Most analysts of social change deal with this question implicitly somewhere in their theoretical system or in to his essay analysis the context of the latter’s application to some empirical case. For the present purpose it should suffice to examine definitions that are frequently used to essay conceptualise change. According to Jones “Social change is to his analysis, a term used to describe variations in, or modifications of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization”. As Kingsley Davis says, “By Social change is meant only chapter, such alternations as occur in social organization – that is, the coy mistress essay structure and functions of society”. According to Maclver and chapter dissertation, Page, “Social change refers to a process responsive to many types of changes; to changes the man in to his coy mistress essay made condition of events prompts life; to changes in the attitudes and coy mistress essay, beliefs of chapter men, and to the changes that go beyond the human control to the biological and the physical nature of things”. Morris Ginsberg defines, “By social change, I understand a change in social structure, e.g., the to his essay size of the society, the composition or the hinduism salvation essay balance of its parts or the type of its organization”.
P. Fairchild defines social change as “variations or modifications in any aspects of social process, pattern or form. B. Kuppuswamy says, “Social change may be defined as the process in analysis which is discernible significant alternation in the structure and functioning of a particular social system”. H.M. Johnson says, “Social change is either change in wiki dissertation the structure or quasi- structural aspects of essay a system of change in the relative importance of coexisting structural pattern”. According to wiki fellowships Merrill and Eldredge, “Change means that large number of persons are engaging in activities that differ from those which they or their immediate forefathers engaged in some time before”. Anderson and Parker define, “Social change involves alternations in the structure or functioning of societal forms or processes themselves”. According to coy mistress analysis M.D. Jenson, “Social change may be defined as modification in ways of doing and thinking of people. As H.T. Mazumdar says, “Social change may be defined as a new fashion or mode, either modifying or replacing the old, in the life of people or in the operation of a society”. According Gillin and Gillin, “Social changes are variations from the accepted modes of purpose chapter dissertation life; whether due to alternation in geographical conditions, in cultural equipment, composition of the population or ideologies and brought about by diffusion, or inventions within the group.
By analyzing all the definitions mentioned above, we reach at coy mistress essay, the conclusion that the two type of hinduism essay changes should be treated as two facts of the same social phenomenon. Two type of changes are e.g. (i) changes in the structure of society, (ii) changes in the values and social norms which bind the people together and help to maintain social order. These two type of changes should not, however, be treated separately because a change in one automatically induces changes in the other. For example, a change in to his coy mistress analysis the attitude of the people may bring about changes in the social structure. Towards the close of the 19 century, there was a tendency in network the countries of Western Europe for families to to his coy mistress essay analysis grow smaller in size. There is a general agreement that this has been brought about mainly by wiki dissertation fellowships voluntary restriction of births”. In this case, a change in to his coy mistress essay the attitude of the people is mainly responsible for change in the social structure. On the other hand, a change in chapter dissertation the social structure may bring about attitudinal change among the members of the society. Transformation of rural society into industrial society is not simply a change in the structure of society. For example, industrialisation has destroyed domestic system of production.
The destruction of domestic system of production has brought women from home to factory and office. The employment of women gave them a new independent outlook. Essay Analysis! The attitude of definition of leadership independence instead of dependence upon men has become the trait of women’s personally. Hence, these two type of changes should not be treated separately but both of them should be studied together. The problem of social change is one of the central foci of sociological inquiry. It is so complex and so significant in the life of individual and of society that we have to explore the ‘why’ and analysis, ‘how’ of social change in all its ramifications. Characteristics of Social Change : The fact of wiki fellowships social change has fascinated the keenest minds and to his essay analysis, still poses some of the great unsolved problems in social sciences. The phenomenon of social change is not simple but complex.
It is difficult to understand this in its entirety. The unsolved problems are always pressurising us to find an in pakistan, appropriate answer. To understand social change well, we have to analyse the nature of social change which are as follows: 1. Social Change is Social: Society is a “web of social relationships” and hence social change obviously means a change in the system of social relationships. Social relationships are understood in terms of social processes and social interactions and social organizations. Thus, the term social change is used to describe variation in social interactions, processes and social organizations. Only that change can be called social change whose influence can be felt in a community form.
The changes that have significance for all or considerable segment of population can be considered as social change. 2. Coy Mistress Essay! Social Change is Universal: Change is the universal law of current essay prompts nature. Coy Mistress Analysis! The social structure, social organization and social institutions are all dynamic. Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static.
Each society, no matter how traditional and conservative, is constantly undergoing change. Just as man’s life cannot remain static, so does society of all places and times. Fellowships! Here adjustment take place and here conflict breaks down adjustment. Here there is revolution and here consent. Here men desire for achieving new goals, and here they return to old ones. 3. Social Change occurs as an Essential law: Change is the law of nature. Social change is also natural.
Change is an unavoidable and unchangeable law of nature. By nature we desire change. Our needs keep on changing to satisfy our desire for change and to satisfy these needs, social change becomes a necessity. The truth is that we are anxiously waiting for to his essay analysis, a change. According to Green, “The enthusiastic response of change has become almost way of life. 4. Social Change is Continuous: Society is an fellowships, ever-changing phenomenon. It is undergoing endless changes. It is an to his coy mistress analysis, “ongoing process”. These changes cannot be stopped. Society is subject to continuous change.
Here it grows and decays, there it finds renewal, accommodates itself to various changing conditions. Society is essays network, a system of social relationship. But these social relationships are never permanent. They are subject to change. Society cannot be preserved in a museum to save it from the ravages of time.
From the dawn of history, down to this day, society has been in flux. Social change manifests itself in analysis different stages of human history. Wiki! In ancient times when life was confined to to his essay caves (Stone Age), the social system was different from that of the computer age today. There is no fixity in human relationships. Circumstances bring about many a change in the behaviour patterns. 5. Social Change Involves No-Value Judgement:
Social change does not attach any value judgement. It is neither moral nor immoral, it is amoral. The question of “what ought to be” is beyond the nature of social change. The study of social change involves no-value judgement. It is ethically neutral. A correct decision on what is fellowships, empirically true is not the same as correct decision on what ought to be. 6. Social Change is Bound by Time Factors: Social change is temporal. It happens through time, because society exists only as a time-sequences. We know its meaning fully only by understanding it through time factors.
For example, the caste system which was a pillar of to his coy mistress analysis stability in traditional Indian society, is now undergoing considerable changes in the modern India. There was less industrialisation in definition India during 50s. But in coy mistress essay 90s, India has become more industrialized. Thus, the speed of social change differs from age to age. Current Events! The reason is that the factors which cause social change do not remain uniform with the changes in time. 7. Rate and Tempo of Social Change is Uneven: Though social change is a must for each and every society, the rate, tempo, speed and extent of change is not uniform.
It differs from society to society. Analysis! In some societies, its speed is rapid; in another it may be slow. And in some other societies it occurs so slowly that it may not be noticed by those who live in them. For example, in the modern, industrial urban society the speed and extent of change is faster than traditional, agricultural and rural society. 8. Definite Prediction of Social Change is Impossible: It is introduction chapter dissertation, very much difficult to make out any prediction on the exact forms of social change. A thousand years ago in Asia, Europe and Latin America the to his essay analysis face of hinduism salvation society was vastly different from that what exists today.
But what the society will be in thousand years from to his coy mistress analysis now, no one can tell. But a change there will be. For example, industrialisation and urbanisation has brought about a series of wiki interrelated changes in our family and marriage system. But we cannot predict the exact forms which social relationships will assume in future. Similarly, what shall be our ideas, attitudes and value in future, it is unpredictable.
9. Social Change Shows Chain-Reaction Sequences: Society is a dynamic system of interrelated parts. Changes in one aspect of life may induce a series of changes in other aspects. For example, with the analysis emancipation of women, educated young women find the traditional type of family and marriage not quite fit to their liking. They find it difficult to live with their parents-in-law, obeying the mother-in-law at every point. Fellowships! They desire separate homes. The stability of marriages can no longer be taken for granted.
The changing values of women force men to change their values also. Therefore, society is a system of interrelated parts. Change in its one aspect may lead to a series of changes in other aspects of the society. 10. Social Change takes place due to analysis Multi-Number of Factors: Social change is the consequence of a number of factors.
A special factor may trigger a change but it is always associated with other factors that make the triggering possible. Social change cannot be explained in terms of one or two factors only and that various factors actually combine and become the ’cause’ of the change. M. Ginsberg observes: “A cause is an assemblage of cartoon factors which, in interaction with each other, undergo a change”. There is no single master key by which we can unlock all the doors leading to social change. Essay Analysis! As a matter of fact, social change is the consequence of a number of factors. 11.
Social Changes are Chiefly those of Modifications or of Replacement: Social changes may be considered as modifications or replacements. It may be modification of physical goods or social relationships. For example, the corruption in pakistan form of our breakfast food has changed. Though we eat the same basic materials such as meats, eggs corn etc. which we ate earlier, their form has been changed. Ready-to-eat cornflakes, breads, omelets are substituted for coy mistress, the form in which these same materials were consumed in earlier years. Purpose Introduction Dissertation! Further, there may be modifications of social relationships.
For example, the old authoritarian family has become the small equalitarian family. Our attitudes towards women’s status and rights, religion, co-education etc. stand modified today. 12. Social Change may be Small-scale or Large-scale: A line of distinction is coy mistress, drawn between small-scale and large scale social change. Small-scale change refers to changes within groups and organizations rather than societies, culture or civilization. According W.E. Moore, by small-scale changes we shall mean changes in the characteristics of social structures that though comprised within the general system identifiable as a society, do not have any immediate and major consequences for the generalised structure (society) as such. 13. Short-term and Long-term Change:
The conceptualization of the in pakistan magnitude of change involves the next attribute of change, the time span. That is to say, a change that may be classified as ‘small-scale from a short-term perspective may turn out to have large-scale consequences when viewed over to his coy mistress analysis, a long period of time, as the decreasing death rate since the 1960 in India exemplifies. 14. Social Change may be Peaceful or Violent: At times, the attribute ‘peaceful’ has been considered as practically synonymous with ‘gradual’ and ‘violent’ with ‘rapid’. The term ‘violence’ frequently refers to the threat or use of physical force involved in attaining a given change. In certain sense, rapid change may ‘violently’ affect the emotions, values and expectations of those involved. According to W.E. Moore, “A ‘true’ revolution, a rapid and fundamental alternation in the institutions or normative codes of society and of its power distribution, is rapid and fellowships, continuous by definition and is likely to be violent, but may well be orderly as opposed to erratic”. ‘Peaceful’ has to do with the changes that take place by consent, acceptance or acquisition and that are enforced by the normative restraints of society.
15. Social Change may be Planned or Unplanned: Social change may occur in the natural course or it is coy mistress essay analysis, done by man deliberately. Unplanned change refers to change resulting from essay on the natural calamities, such as famines and floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruption etc. So social change is called as the unchangeable law of nature. To His Coy Mistress Essay! The nature is never at rest.
Planned social change occurs when social changes are conditioned by human engineering. Plans, programmes and projects are made by man in current order to determine and control the direction of social change. Besides that by nature human beings desire change. The curiosity of a man never rests; nothing checks his desire to know. There is essay analysis, always a curiosity about unknown. The needs of human beings are changing day by day. So to satisfy these needs they desire change. 16. Social Change may be Endogenous or Exogenous: Endogenous social change refers to the change caused by the factors that are generated by society or a given subsystem of society.
Conflict, communication, regionalism etc. are some of the examples of endogenous social change. On the other hand, exogenous sources of social change generally view society as a basically stable, well-integrated system that is disrupted or altered only by the impact of forces external to the system (e.g., world situation, wars, famine) or by current essay new factors introduced into the system from other societies. For example, technological transfer and brain drain, political and cultural imperialism may lead to to his coy mistress essay analysis the diffusion of current prompts cultural traits beyond the limits of single societies. 17. Change Within and Change of the coy mistress essay System: The distinction between kinds of change has been developed by definition of leadership Talcott Parsons in his analysis of change ‘within’ and change ‘of the system, i.e., the orderly process of ongoing change within the boundaries of a system, as opposed to the process resulting in to his coy mistress essay analysis changes of the dissertation structure of the system under consideration. Conflict theorists draw our attention to the fact that the cumulative effect of change ‘within’ the system may result in a change ‘of’ the system. To conclude, some of the attributes most frequently used in describing change are: magnitude of change (small-scale, large-scale changes), time pan, direction, rate of change, amount of violence involved. These dimensions should not be taken as either/or attributes but rather as varying along a continuum from to his coy mistress analysis one extreme to another (e.g., revolutionary vs evolutionary).
Other categorization that have been devised involve division of changes on the basis of such characteristics as continuous vs spasmodic, orderly vs erratic and essay in pakistan, the number of people (or roles) affected by or involved in change. Although no hard and fast categories have yet been developed into which we can fit different types of change, the use of the foregoing distinctions, may be helpful in clarifying one’s conceptualization of any type of change or at least, they can help one to understand the complexities involved in developing a definition of the subject of social change. In explaining the concept of to his essay social change, sociologists from time to time used words and expressions like evolution, growth, progress, development, revolution, adaptation etc. discarding one in preference to the other. Though the salvation essay concept of evolution was known to the generation preceding the publication of Darwin’s “Origin of Species”, the notion of social evolution was taken directly from the coy mistress essay analysis theories of biological evolution. Evolution in biological science means the developing of an organism.
It is a process by which a thing continuously adopts itself to its environment and manifests its own nature. Consequently it is a change which permeates the whole character of the object. Many social theorists from Herbert Spencer to purpose introduction chapter dissertation Sumner applied this conception of ‘organic evolution’ in various ways to the explanation of social change. The term ‘evolution’ is borrowed from biological sciences to Sociology. The term ‘organic evolution’ is replaced by ‘social evolution’ in sociology. Whereas the term ‘organic evolution’ is used to denote the evolution of organism, the expression of ‘social evolution is used to to his coy mistress essay explain the evolution of human society. It was hoped that the theory of social evolution would explain the origin and development of man. Anthropologists and Sociologists wanted to essays cartoon network find a satisfactory and significant explanation of to his coy mistress essay analysis how our society evolved. They were very much impressed by the idea of organic evolution which explain how one species evolves into hinduism salvation, another, and wanted to apply the same to the social world. Hence, the concept of social evolution is to his, quite popular in sociological discussion. Sociologists adopted the word ‘evolution’ to convey the sense of of leadership growth and essay, change in social institutions.
Social institutions are the result of on the of leadership evolution. Coy Mistress Analysis! They began to work to trace the origin of the purpose chapter ideas, institutions and to his coy mistress essay, of the developments. The term ‘evolution’ is derived from the Latin word ‘evolvere’ which means to ‘develop’ or ‘to unfold’. It is introduction, equivalent to the Sanskrit word ‘Vikas’. Evolution literally means gradually ‘unfolding’ or ‘unrolling’. It indicates changes from ‘within’ and not from ‘without’. The concept of evolution applies more precisely to the internal growth of an organism.
Evolution means more than growth. The word ‘growth’ connotes a direction of change but only of quantitative character e.g., we say population grows, town grows etc. But evolution involves something more intrinsic; change not merely in size but also in structure. According to to his coy mistress analysis Maclver and Page, “Evolution involves something more intrinsic, a change not merely in size but at least in hinduism structure also”. Ogburn and Nimkoff write, “Evolution is merely a change in a given direction”.
Ginsberg says, “Evolution is defined as a process of change which results in the production of something new but revealing “an orderly continuity in transition”. That is to say, we have evolution when” the series of changes that occur during a period of time appear to be, not a mere succession of changes, but a ‘continuous process’, through which a clear ‘thread of identity runs’. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of coy mistress essay some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It is a principle of internal growth. Hinduism Salvation! It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. “What is latent becomes manifest in it and what is potential is made actual.” Evolution is an order to change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. To His Essay Analysis! We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from without. The change must occur within the changing unity. Characteristics of Social Evolution : According to Spencer, “Evolution is the integration of introduction chapter dissertation matter and concomitant dissipation of motion during which matter passes from an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to coy mistress essay a definite, coherent heterogeneity.” Society, according to his view, is also subject to a similar process of fellowships evolution; that is, changing from a state of ‘incoherent homogeneity’ to a state of ‘coherent heterogeneity.’
Evolution is, thus, a gradual growth or development from simple to complex existence. The laws of evolution which were initially fashioned after the findings of charters. Darwin, came to be known as social Darwinism during the nineteenth century. Spencer’s point of view can best be illustrated by to his coy mistress an example. In the beginning, the most primitive stage, every individual lived an individualistic life, trying to know and corruption in pakistan, do things about himself alone. Every man was more or less similar, in so far as his ignorance about organized social life was concerned.
In this sense, the people were homogenous. At that stage, neither they were able to organize their social life, nor could they work together. There was no system; nothing definite, expect their incoherent or loose-group-formations. Thus, they formed “an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity,” But gradually, their experiences, realizations and analysis, knowledge increased. They learnt to live and to work together. The task of social organisation was taken on, division of labour was elaborated; and each found a particular type of work which he could do best. All worked in an organized and definite way towards a definite goal. Thus, a state of “definite, coherent heterogeneity” was reached. Herbert Spencer has prescribed four important principles of evolution. These principles are:
1. Social evolution is on cultural or human aspect of the law of change of cosmic evolution. 2. Hence, social evolution take place in the same way at all places and progress through some definite and inevitable stages. 3. Social evolution is on the of leadership, gradual. 4. Social evolution is progressive. In addition to coy mistress this characteristics, other features of social evolution are clearly evident which are discussed below. Evolution is a Process of Differentiation and Integration: The concept of hinduism salvation essay evolution as a process of differentiation cum-integration was first developed by the German Sociologists Von Baer and subsequently by Spencer and many others.
(i) In order to understand this statement, i.e. evolution takes place through differentiation and Integration; we have to study the history of a society over a long, period of time. To His Analysis! Then we shall find that its associations, institutions, etc” are constantly evolving or developing. In social evolution, new and ever newer circumstances and problems are constantly appearing. In order to cope with them, new associations and institutions are evolved. For example, a community in a town previously. When the introduction dissertation town had been a small community, its management was the responsibility of a Panchayat or a town area committee. Now that the town has become a big commercial centre, its management is in the hands of a dozer different committees. One of them looks after the analysis educational facilities, another looks after the sanitation, a third is deputed to look after the octroi, while a fourth manages the markets and so on. In this way, this differentiation increases with the evolution of the town. (ii) But without Integration, this differentiation cannot take one anywhere.
Hence, synthesis along with differentiation is necessary. In urban areas one can find various sectarian associations such as Khandayat Kshatriya Mahasabha, Kayastha society, Brahman Samiti, Napita associations etc. At the same time, one also can find institutions: ‘Arya Samaj’,” etc. which synthesize and salvation essay, compromise associations based on various caste and class distinctions. Today, while new nations are coming into being in the human society, equally strong efforts are being made to to his coy mistress analysis create a world society by compromising these nations. (iii) By virtue of this double processes of hinduism essay differentiation and integration, the efficiency of the society is being constantly increased. Division of labour is the magic word of modern economic evolution. By an increase in the number of associations and institutions in society, work in various spheres is performed more successfully. And because of the process of synthesis, various spheres take advantage of each other’s efficiency also. Maclver points it out in a very systematic manner. According to him, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of to his coy mistress essay analysis society by labour, so that thereby a more elaborate system of cooperation, because the energy of more individuals is concentrated on more specific tasks, a more intricate nexus of functional relationships, is sustained within the group; (b) an salvation, increase in the number and the variety of functional associations and to his analysis, institutions, so that each is more defined or more limited in the range or character of its service; and (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the instruments of dissertation social communication, perhaps above all in the medium of language.
Various sociologists have laid stress on one or another of these aspect of evolution. Thus, Emile Durkheim has insisted on to his coy mistress essay the preeminent importance of the social division of labour as a criterion of social development. Other writers have taken the essay various aspects together and sought to show that society passes through a definite series of evolutionary stages. Social Evolution does not always proceed by Differentiation: Morris Ginsberg writes, “The notion that evolution is a movement from the coy mistress essay simple to the complex can be and has been seriously disputed.” In every field where we find the forces of differentiation at work, there the opposite trends are also manifested. For example in the development of languages, where the process of purpose introduction chapter differentiation has been stressed, we have many disconnecting facts. The modern languages derived from to his Sanskrit Like Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu and Tamil cannot be compared in their structure with the richness and essays cartoon, diversity of their origin. Here the process is not towards differentiation but towards simplification. In the development of religion too, the transition from coy mistress essay fusion to differentiation is hinduism salvation essay, difficult to see. On the whole we find that social evolution does not always proceed by differentiation.
However in spite of the to his various difficulties, the concept of evolution still retains its usefulness. Essays! Maclver has strongly supported the principle of social evolution. He has criticised the coy mistress essay analysis practice of believing social evolution to be imaginary. Essay! Social evolution is a reality. Maclver has given some arguments in favour of the reality of social evolution. He emphasizes, if we open the pages of History, we find that in to his the beginning there was no differentiation of institutions within human society or the performance of diverse functions. But latter on, as culture and civilization progressed, differentiation increased and it is even now increasing. This historical fact is an evidence of the extent and element of reality in essay prompts the principle of social evolution. Social Evolution and Organic Evolution : Though ‘social evolution’ is borrowed from the biological concept of ‘organic evolution’, still then these two terms are not one and the same. There are some basic differences between the two which are as follows: Firstly, organic evolution implies the differentiation in to his coy mistress essay the bodily structure, which is generally in the form of new organs to use for different purpose.
But social evolution does not imply this. Man is the centre of network social evolution. He need not have to to his analysis develop new organ to adjust himself with changed conditions of wiki dissertation life. Because man has the capacity of inventing tools, making instruments and devising techniques to coy mistress analysis control the forces of nature and to adjust himself with the natural conditions. He can look before and after. Secondly, in purpose introduction dissertation organic evolution, the transmission of qualities takes place through biological heredity, i.e. through ‘genes’. But social evolution takes place through ideas, discoveries, inventions and experiences.
Here the changes are transmitted mostly through the mental ability and genius of man. Thirdly, in case of organic evolution only the descending generation is affected by coy mistress analysis the structural modification, alterations. But in social evolution even the old as well as the new generations are affected by it. For example, invention of new techniques and hinduism salvation essay, devices is to his coy mistress essay, influencing the present as well as the future generations. Lastly, the organic evolution is continuous. There can be no break in it. It is essays, continuous because of the irresistible pressure within the organisation and of environment or natural forces. But such a continuity may not be observed in to his essay the case of social evolution.
It is subject to disruption. It is an intermittent. It lacks continuity. Social Change and hinduism essay, Social Evolution : Social change is an ever-present phenomenon everywhere. When we speak of social change, we suggest so far no law, no theory, no direction, even no continuity. Social change occurs in coy mistress essay all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static.
The term ‘social change’ itself is wholly neutral, implying nothing but differences that take place in human interactions and corruption in pakistan, interrelations. In explaining this concept of social change, modern sociologists from time to time used different words and expressions. To His Coy Mistress Analysis! Evolution is one of them. Many social theorists form Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of evolution in various ways to the interpretation of social change. But many modern theorists, particularly American, have abandoned the idea that social change takes place by evolutionary stages. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it.
Evolution is an order of change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon chapter, it from coy mistress analysis without. The change must occur within the changing unity. Evolution is a process involving a changing adaptation of the object to its environment and a further manifestation of its own nature. Consequently, it is essay in pakistan, a change permeating the whole character of the to his object, a sequence in which the corruption essay in pakistan equilibrium of its entire structure undergoes modification. According to Maclver, evolution is not mere change. It is an immanent process resulting in increased complexity and differentiation. He writes, “the Kernel of organic evolution is differentiation, a process in essay analysis which latent or rudimentary characters take a distinct and variable form within the unity of the organism.” Maclver further says, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of labour resulting in essay on the great specialization (b) an increase in the number and coy mistress, variety of essays network functional associations, (c) a greater diversity and refinement in to his coy mistress essay the means of social communication. “When these changes are proceeding, society is evolving”, concludes Maclver. The concept of progress found notable expression in the writings of the French Philosophers such as Turgot, Condorcent and Fancis Bacon of the 18th century and has been a dynamic agent in essay in pakistan the social activity of modern man. Sociologists such as Saint Simon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer were the earlier exponents of the essay idea of progress.
According Comte, it was the intellectual elite who could bring about an era of progress. Etymologically, the word progress means “moving forward.” But moving forward or backward, progress or regress are relative terms. If it be remarked that such and such country has progressed, no meaningful information can be extracted from such a statement unless the direction towards which progress has been made be known. In this way, progress is not mere change. It is a change in particular direction. The word progress cannot be appended to change in every direction. For example, if the condition of agriculture in a particular country worsens and a famine results, it is undeniably a change, but it will not be called progress. Progress means moving forward in the direction of corruption essay in pakistan achievement of some aim. Different thinkers have defined progress in different ways.
The important definitions are as follows: Maclver writes, “By progress we imply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal, some destination determined ideally not simply by to his coy mistress essay the objective consideration at work. Lumely defines, “Progress is introduction, a change, but it is a change in a desired or approved direction, not in any direction.” Ginsberg defines progress as “A development or evolution in a direction which satisfies rational criterion of value”. According to Ogburn, “Progress is a movement towards an objective thought to be desirable by the general group for the visible future. Burgess writes, “Any change or adoption to coy mistress an existent environment that makes it easier for a person or group of persons or other organized from of life to live may be said to represent progress”. Progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end.
Since progress means change for the better it definitely implies a value judgement of highly subjective character. For value, like taste, has no measuring rod. A particular social change may seem to be progressive to one person to another it may seem retrogression, because they have different values. The concept of social progress is, therefore, subjective but it has reference to an objective condition. It is difficult to explain the criteria of introduction progress which are relative to their temporal context. Social values determine progress. Whether any change will be considered as progress or not depends upon the social values. Coy Mistress Essay! Social values change with time and place.
The criteria of progress change with the change of social values. Hence, it is difficult to formulate a universally acceptable criterion of progress. However, the following can be tentatively suggested. Health and Longevity of hinduism salvation essay Life: Average length of life is one index of progress whether the world is growing better. But it does not necessarily follow from this that a longer life must be more pleasurable and better. In the opinion of some persons, wealth or economic progress is a criterion of progress. Some people are of the view that an increase in population is a sign of progress. But over-population cannot be a sign of progress. According to some thinkers, moral conduct is the criterion of progress. Since life has many facets, it is not possible to formulate any one criterion of progress.
But is to his essay, stated that the integrated development of society is the criterion of progress. Integrated development comprehends all mental, physical and spiritual aspects including above criteria. By analysing above definitions, we find that progress is a change, a change for the better. When we speak of progress, we simply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal. The nature of the in pakistan progress depends upon to his, two factors, the nature of the events essay end and the distance of to his coy mistress which we are from it. The modern writers today speak of corruption essay social progress though they do not have a single satisfactory explanation of the concept. In order to have a better understanding of the meaning of progress, we have to analyse the following attributes. 1. Progress is Dependent upon Social Values:
Progress dependent upon and is determined by social values. It means that progress does not have precisely the to his essay same meaning at all times and places, because values change from time to time. There is no object which can uniformly or eternally be considered valuable irrespective of time and on the definition, place. Due to this reason, Maclver and to his essay analysis, Page have written, “The concept of progress is a chameleon that take on the colour of the environment when we feel adjusted to that environment, and some contrasting colour when we feel maladjusted. 2. There is cartoon, a Change in Progress:
Change is to his analysis, one of its essential attributes. The concept of progress presupposes the presence of change. Without change, there can be no progress. 3. In Progress the Desired End is Achieved: The progress is not mere change. It is a change in a particular direction.
Broadly speaking, progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end. It always refers to the changes that leads to human happiness. Not all changes imply progress. Progress from its ethical point of view, may be personal but from the sociological point of wiki fellowships view, is communal since sociology is that science of society. In it, the individual is taken into consideration only as a part of coy mistress essay society. Only that change, whose influence can be felt on entire community or society for its betterment or welfare, can be called social progress.
5. Progress is Volitional: Progress does not come about network, through inactivity. Desire and volition are needed for essay analysis, progress. Efforts have to be made and when these efforts are successful it is called progress. It is an uphill task. It must be remembered that every effort is not progressive. The concept of progress varies from society to society, place to place and from time to time.
It does not remain constant in all times and of all places. That which is today considered as the symbol or progress may tomorrow be considered and treated as a sign of regress. For example, in introduction chapter dissertation India, free mixing of young boys and girls may be interpreted as an indication of to his coy mistress essay analysis regress, whereas the same may symbolise progress in the Western Countries. 7. Criteria of Progress are Variable: As stated earlier criteria of progress are relative to their temporal context.
Social values determine progress. On The! But social values change with time and place. Therefore, criteria of progress vary from essay analysis place to essay place. Further, different scholars have prescribed different criteria of progress. For example, health and longevity have been considered as criteria of progress by some, while other have taken economic security, moral conduct as the criteria of progress. 8. Progress does not have a Measuring Rod:
The term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded. It is not demonstrable with a degree of to his coy mistress essay certainty. We cannot show it to others unless they first accept our evaluations. Corruption Essay In Pakistan! We may or may not agree that there is progress, but we cannot prove it. Coy Mistress Analysis! Progress is a reality which is immeasurable and undemonstrable. Hinduism! Anything that cannot be demonstrated and to his coy mistress, measured scientifically cannot be rejected socially. Essay! It is especially true in the case of progress.
To conclude, progress conveys the sense of something better and improved. The advancement in coy mistress essay analysis technology was opposed to events contribute to progress. But, these developments did not carry the sense of progress. It was advancement only in a particular direction. The comprehensiveness of progress was missing. The extremes of to his coy mistress essay poverty and health, of ignorance and on the definition, enlightenment had continued to coexist as ever before. Progress as conceived over the ages past, is now considered to be illusive. The end of progress, it has come to be accepted, cannot be determined. The ‘progress’ in analysis the West did not meet all its ends. Purpose Introduction Dissertation! It did not bring the fulfillment, that was taken to be its true aim.
For this, the to his use of the term progress was considered inappropriate. The application of the term fell into disfavour. Hinduism Salvation! More so, the growing belief that sociology should be value-free also discouraged the use of this expression. Social Change and Social Progress : Change is the basic content of both evolution and progress. But the term change is wholly neutral, only suggesting variation in a phenomena over, a period of analysis time. The moment the specifications like direction, desirability, and value-judgement are added to change, another terminology ‘progress’ becomes necessary to describe the process of change. Progress is not mere change. It is a change in particular direction. It cannot be appended to change in wiki fellowships every direction. The word progress means moving forward in the direction and coy mistress analysis, achievement of some desired goal.
It is certainly a change, a change for the better not for the worse. The concept of progress always involves and implies value judgement. It is not possible to speak of progress without reference to standards. Not all changes imply progress. But social change is a generic term, an objective term describing one of the fundamental processes. There is no value-judgement attached to it. It is true that some changes are beneficial to mankind and some are harmful.
But social change is neither moral nor immoral, but amoral. The study of social change involves no value-judgement, while the concept of social progress implies values judgement. Social progress means improvement, betterment, moving to a higher level from a lower level. Social Evolution and Social Progress : In the earlier theories of biological evolution, the concept of social evolution was intimately connected with social progress. For the social evolutionists of the nineteenth century from Auguste Comte to Herbert Spencer and Lester F. Ward, social evolution was, in effect, social progress. Corruption In Pakistan! Modern sociologists, particularly Americans, do not hold this proposition. They point out that evolution does not mean progress, because when a society is more evolved it does not necessarily follow that it is more progressive.
If it would have been progressive, Maclver and Page remark that people in the more evolved society are better or better fitted to survive or more moral or more healthy than those we call primitive. Even if the opposite were true, it would not refute the fact that their society is more evolved.” Social evolution should also be distinguished from social progress. Firstly L.T. Hobhouse says, evolution means a sort of growth while .social progress means the growth of social life in respect of those qualities to which human beings attach or can rationally attach value. The relation between the two is coy mistress analysis, thus a ‘genus-species’ relation. Social progress is only one among many possibilities of social evolution; any or every form of social evolution is not a form of social progress. For example, caste system in India is a product of social evolution. Cartoon! But it does not signify progress. Hobhouse concludes, “that it is good, the fact that society has evolved is essay analysis, no proof that it progressed. Secondly, evolution is merely change in a given direction.
It describes a series of corruption in pakistan interrelated changes in a system of some kind. To His Essay! It refers to an objective condition which is wiki dissertation, not evaluated as good or bad. On the contrary, progress means change in a direction determined ideally. In other words, it can be said, progress means change for the better not for the worse. It implies a value-judgement.
The evolutionary process may move in accordance with our notion of desirable change, but there is no logical necessity that it should. The concept of progress necessarily involves a concept of end. And the concept of to his essay end varies with the mentality and experience of the individual and purpose chapter, the group. The affirmation of to his coy mistress essay analysis evolution “depends on our perception of objective evidences, whereas the affirmation or denial of progress depends on our ideals.” It follows that evolution is a scientific concept and hinduism salvation, progress is an ethical concept. Evolution is a demonstrable reality; out the term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded and is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty.
While social evolution is clearly distinguished from social progress, we must not loose sight of their relationships. Ethical valuations or ideas (Progress) are socially determined and to his coy mistress analysis, hence determine the objective phenomena (Evolution) of society. They have always been powerful in shaping and moving the world. In some manner they are active in every process of current essay social change. “All social change has this double character.” From the above analysis we find, though the above three concepts, social change, social evolution and social progress share many common reference points, they have different intellectual framework. They all articulate same consequential effects. In all the three processes, one cause produces a number of effects, the essay effect and cause get intermixed to produce other new effects, again new connections between cause and effect are established and so on goes the cartoon process. Factors of Social Change : A sociological explanation of to his essay change refers not only to on the of leadership the structure that changes but also the factors that effect such a change. Social change has occurred in all societies and in all periods of time.
We should, therefore, know what the factors are that produce change. Of course there is little consensus among the representatives of theoretical proposition on the sources. Besides, the linear as well as the cyclical theorists paid little attention to the determinations of factors involved in social change. Morris Ginsberg has made a systematic analysis of the factors which have been invoked by different writers to explain social change. Here, our analysis is confined to sociological implantation of the origins and causes of change. Essay! Cause will be defined here as set of related factors which, taken together, are both sufficient and necessary for the production of a certain effect. Attempt has been made to take up each factors of social change by itself and find out the way in which it effects social change.
These factors are treated independently, purely for purpose of understanding and we are not of the view that they can influence social change independent of other factors. Technological factor constitute one important source of purpose dissertation social change. To His Coy Mistress Essay! Technology, an invention, is cartoon network, a great agent of social change. It either initiates or encourages social change. Technology alone holds the key to change. To His Coy Mistress! When the corruption in pakistan scientific knowledge is applied to the problems of life, it becomes technology. In order to satisfy his desires, to fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable, man builds civilisation. The dawn of this new civilization is the single most explosive fact of our lifetimes. It is the central event, the key to the understanding of the years immediately ahead. We have already crossed the to his first wave (agricultural revolution). Dissertation! We are now the children of the next transformation i.e. the third wave.
We go forward to describe the full power and reach of this extraordinary change. Some speak of a “Looming Space Age”, “Information Age”, “Electronic Era”, or “Global ‘ Village”. Brezezinski has told us, we face a “Technetronic Age”. Sociologist Daniel Bell describes the coming of a “Post-Industrial Society”. Soviet futurists speak of the STR-‘The Scientific-Technological Revolution”. Alvin Toffler has written extensively about the arrival of a “Super Industrial Society”. Technology is to his coy mistress, fast growing. Every technological advance makes it possible for us to attain certain results with less effort, at essays, less cost and at less time. Analysis! It also provides new opportunities and establishes new conditions of life. The social effects of technology are far-reaching. In the words of W.F.
Ogburn, “technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in turn adapt. This change is usually in the material environment and the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies our customs and social institutions”. Ogburn and Nimkoff have pointed that a single invention may have innumerable social effects. Essays Cartoon Network! According to them, radio, for example, has influenced our entertainment, education, politics, sports, literature, knowledge, business, occupation and our modes of organisation. They have given a list consisting of 150 effects of radio in U.S.A. The pace of change in the modern era is easily demonstrated by reference to rates of technological development.
The technological revolution enabled human kind to shift from hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture and later to develop civilizations. Technological revolutions enabled societies to to his essay analysis industrialize urbanize, specialize, bureaucratize, and take on characteristics that are considered central aspects of modern society. “Modern technology,” remarks the economic historian David Landes, “produces not only more, faster; it turns out objects that could not have been produced under any circumstances by the craft methods of yesterday. Most important, modern technology has created things that could scarcely have been conceived in the pre-industrial era the on the of leadership camera, the motor car, the aeroplane, the essay analysis whole array of introduction electronic devices from the radio to the high speed computer, the nuclear power plant, and so on almost adinfinitum…. The result has been an enormous increase in the output and variety of goods and services, and this alone has changed man’s way of life more than anything since the to his analysis discovery of corruption essay fire…” Every technological revolution has brought about increase in the world population. Development and to his coy mistress essay, advancement of agriculture resulted in the increase of population in the agricultural communities; rise of commerce gave birth to the populous towns, international trade and international contact and the industrial revolution set the human society on the new pedestal. Technological changes have influenced attitudes, beliefs and traditions. The factory system and industrialization, urbanization and the rise of working class, fast transport and in pakistan, communication have demolished old prejudices, dispelled superstitions, weakened casteism, and has given rise to the class based society. Ogborn even goes to the extent of suggesting that the starter in motor car had something to do with the emancipation of women in the America and Western Europe. Development in transport and communication has changed the outlook of the people. Railways in India have played tremendous role in bringing about social mixing of the people.
It has helped people to move out of their local environments and take up jobs in distant corners of the country. Movement of people from East to West and North to South has broken social and regional barriers. There have come into existence new vocations and trades. People have begun to give up their traditional occupations and are taking to coy mistress essay analysis work in the factories and in the offices-commercial as well as Government. This has also made possible the essays vertical mobility. A person can now aspire to essay take up an essay on the definition, occupation with higher status than he could have ever thought of in the pre-technological days.
Technology has brought about Green Revolution with abundance and variety for the rich. The rapid changes of every modern society are inextricably interwoven or connected with and somehow dependent upon the development of new techniques, new inventions, new modes of production and new standards of living. Technology thus is a great bliss. To His Coy Mistress Essay! It has made living worthwhile for the conveniences and comfort it provides, and cartoon network, has created numerous vocations, trades and professions. Coy Mistress Essay Analysis! While, giving individual his rightful place, it has made the collectivity supreme. Technologies are changing and their social consequences are profound. Fundamental changes brought by technology in social structure are discussed as under: 1. Birth of Factory System: The introduction of hinduism machines in the industry has replaced the system of individual production by the factory or mill system. It has led to the creation of huge factories which employ thousands of people and essay analysis, where most of the work is performed automatically.
The birth of gigantic factories led to urbanisation and big cities came into prompts, existence. Many labourers, who were out of employment in rural areas migrated to the sites to work and settled around it. As the cities grew, so did the analysis community of ‘labourers and with it was felt the need for all civic amenities which are essential for purpose chapter, society. Their needs were fulfilled by establishing market centers, schools, colleges, hospitals, and to his, recreation clubs. The area further developed when new business came to it with the formation of large business houses. 3. Development of New Agricultural Techniques: The introduction of machinery into the industry led to the development of new techniques in agriculture. Agricultural production was increased due to the use of new chemical manure. The quality was also improved by the use of wiki dissertation superior seeds.
All these factors resulted in increase of production. In India, the effect of technology is most apparent in to his analysis this direction because India is preeminently an agricultural country. 4. Development of Means of salvation essay Transportation and Communication: With the development of technology, means of transportation and communication progressed at a surprising rate. To His Coy Mistress Essay! These means led to the mutual exchanges between the various cultures. Newspapers, radios, televisions etc. helped to bring news from every corner of the world right into the household. The development of the car, rail, ship and aeroplane made transportation of commodities much easier.
As a result national and international trade made unprecedented progress. 5. Evolution of New Classes: Industrialisation and urbanisation gave birth to the emergence of new classes in on the definition of leadership modern society. Class struggle arises due to division of society into classes having opposite-interests. 6. New Conceptions and Movements: The invention of mechanism has also culminated in the generation of new currents in the prevalent thinking. ‘Trade Union’ movements, ‘Lockouts’, ‘Strikes”, “Hartals’, ‘Processions’, ‘Pen down’ became the stocks-in-trade of those who want to promote class interest. These concepts and movements become regular features of economic activity. The effects of technology on major social institution may be summed up in to his the following manner: Technology has radically changed the family organisation and relation in several ways.
Firstly, small equalitarian nuclear family system based on love, equality, liberty and freedom is replacing the old, authoritarian joint family system. Due to invention of birth, control method, the size of family reduced. Secondly, Industrialisation destroying the domestic system of production has brought women from home to the factories and office. Current Essay Prompts! The employment of women meant their independence from the bondage of man. If brought a change in their attitudes and ideas. It meant a new social life for women. It consequently affected every part of the family life. Thirdly due to technology, marriage has lost its sanctity.
It is now regarded as civil contract rather than a religious sacrament. Romantic marriage, inter-caste marriage and late marriages are the effects of technology. Instances of divorce, desertion, separation and broken families are increasing. Lastly, though technology has elevated the status of women, it has also contributed to to his analysis the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at home. Essay Definition Of Leadership! It has lessened the importance of family in the process of socialisation of to his coy mistress its members. Technology has effected wide range of changes in our religious life. Many religious practices and ceremonies which once marked the essay on the definition of leadership individual and social life, have now been abandoned by essay analysis them. Purpose! With the growth of scientific knowledge and modern education, the faith of the people in to his coy mistress several old religious beliefs and activities have shaken.
The most striking change due to technological advance, is the change in economic organisation. Industry has been taken away from the dissertation household and new types of economic organisation like factories, stores, banks, joint stock companies, stock-exchanges, and corporation have been setup. It has given birth to capitalism with all its attendant evils. Division of labour, specialization of function, differentiation and integration all the products of technology. Though it has brought in higher standard of coy mistress living, still then by creating much more middle classes, it has caused economic depression, unemployment, poverty, industrial disputes and infectious diseases. Effects on State: Technology has affected the State in several ways. The functions of the State has been widened.
A large number of functions of family, such as educative, recreation, health functions have been transferred to the State. The idea of social welfare State is an offshoot of technology. Transportation and communication are leading to a shift of functions from local Government to the Central Government. The modern Government which rule through the network bureaucracy have further impersonalised the human relations. Technological innovations have changed the to his coy mistress analysis whole gamut of social and cultural life. The technological conditions of the modern factory system tend to weaken the rigidity of the caste system and strengthen industrializations. It has changed the basis of social stratification from birth to wealth. Urbanization, a consequence of technological advance, produces greater emotional tension and hinduism salvation essay, mental strain, instability and economic insecurity. There is masking of one’s true feelings. Socially, the essay analysis urbanites are poor in the midst of plenty. Of Leadership! “They feel lonely in the crowd”. On all sides, one is confronted with “human machines which possess motion but not sincerity, life but not emotion, heart but not feelings”.
Technology has grown the sense of individualism. It has substituted the ‘handi work’ with ‘head work’. It is clear from the to his coy mistress essay analysis above explanation that technology has profoundly altered our modes of life and also thought. It is capable of bringing about vast changes in society. But is should not be considered as a sole factor of social change. Man is the master as well as a servant of the wiki machine. He has the ability to alter the to his analysis circumstances which have been the creation of his own inventions or technology. Cultural Factor of Social Change : Among all the essay factors, cultural factor is the most important which works as a major cause of social change. Culture is not something static. It is always in flux.
Culture is not merely responsive to changing techniques, but also it itself is a force directing social change. Culture is the internal life forces of society. It creates itself and develops by itself. To His Coy Mistress Essay Analysis! It is men who plan, strive and act. The social heritage is events prompts, never a script that is followed slavishly by people. A culture gives cues and direction to social behaviour. Technology and material inventions may influence social change but direction and to his coy mistress, degree of this depends upon the cultural situation as a whole. “Culture is the realm of final valuation”. Men interpret the whole world. He is the master as well as the servant of his own inventions or technology. To employ Maclver’s simile, technological means may be represented by wiki dissertation fellowships a ship which can set sail to various ports. The port we sail to remains a cultural choice.
Without the ship we could not sail at all. According to the character of the ship we sail fast of to his ‘slow, take longer or shorter voyages. Our lives are also accommodated to corruption the conditions on ship board and essay, our experiences vary accordingly. But the direction in which we travel is not predestinated by the design of the ship. The port to on the definition which we sail, the direction in which we travel, remains totally of a cultural choice. It should be noted that technology alone cannot bring vast changes in society.
In order to be effective “The technology must have favourable cultural support”. When the cultural factor responds to technological change, it also reacts on it so as to influence the direction and character of social change. It may be noted that culture not only influences our relationship and values but also influences the direction and character of technological change. For example, different countries like Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S.A. and India may adopt the same technology, but in so far as their prevalent outlook on life differs, they will apply it in different directions and to coy mistress different ends. The atomic energy can be used for munition of war and for production purposes. Dissertation! The industrial plant can turn out armaments or necessaries of life. Steel and iron can be used for building purposes and for warships. Fire can be used for constructive and destructive purposes. For a better understanding of the coy mistress relationship between culture and technology, let us analyse here the concept of “cultural lag”. The concept of ‘cultural lag’, has become a favourite one with sociologists, it is an expression that has a particular appeal in an age in which inventions discoveries and innovations of many kinds are constantly disturbing and threatening older ways of living. In this context, it will serve also to introduce the principle that cultural conditions are themselves important agencies in the process of social change.
The concept of ‘cultural lag’ was first explicitly formulated by W.F. Ogburn in current his treaties entitled ‘Social Change’. Lag means crippled movement. Hence, ‘cultural lag’ means the phases of culture which fall behind other phases that keep on moving ahead. Ogburn’s idea of ‘cultural lag’ is perhaps one of the most important concept influencing the fact of discussion regarding technology and social change. Ogburn distinguishes between “material” and ‘non-material’ culture. By ‘material culture’ he means things which are ‘tangible’, visible, seen or touched like goods, tools, utensils, furniture, machine. But the coy mistress essay ‘non-material’ culture includes things which cannot be touched or tangible such as family, religion, skill, talent.
Government and education etc. According to hinduism salvation essay Ogburn, when changes occur in ‘material culture’, those in turn stimulate changes in ‘non-material’ culture, particularly in what he terms the ‘adaptive’ culture. According to Ogburn, material culture changes by a process which is to his coy mistress, different in pace from changes in non-material culture. The larger the technological knowledge of a society, the greater the possibility of a new combinations and innovations. Wiki Dissertation Fellowships! Thus, material culture tends to grow exponentially. Because society cannot develop methods of controlling and utilizing new technology before the technology is accepted and used.
There exists a “cultural lag” in creating controls and altering social relationship related to new conditions brought about by new technology. Cultural lag is due to man’s psychological dogmatism. He is wedded to certain ideologies regarding sex, education and religion. On account of his dogmatic beliefs and ideologies, he is not prepared to change his social institutions. The failure to adopt social institutions to coy mistress essay the changes in the material culture leads to cultural lag. But Maclver points out that “unfortunately it is often adopted without adequate analysis and consequently it has not been developed in a clear and effective manner. According to prompts him, the distinction is to his analysis, not a workable one. Nor again should be assumed that, it is always the ‘material’ or that the main problem is one of adapting the ‘non-material’ to the ‘material’ culture. Maclver also observes that the term ‘lag’ is not properly applicable to relations between technological factors and the cultural patterns or between the various components of the cultural pattern itself. He has used different words like, ‘technological lag’, ‘technological restraint’, for the resulting imbalance in the different parts of culture. Kingsley Davis, in wiki dissertation his ‘Human Society’ holds that the aspect of culture cannot be divided into material and coy mistress analysis, non-material and that this distinction in no way helps us to understand the nature of wiki dissertation technology.
Other sociologists, Sutherland, Wood Ward and Maxwell, in their book ‘Introductory Sociology’ point out that Ogburn is guilty of over simplifying the processes of to his coy mistress essay analysis social change. Social change is a complex phenomenon. The rate, speed and direction of social change is dissertation, not the essay same everywhere. So it cannot be explained by simply saying that change first takes place in material culture and thereafter in non-material culture. Ogburn has taken an over simple materialistic view of society. In spite of various shortcomings, Ogburn’s theory of prompts cultural lag has been proved to be beneficial for the understanding of the cultural factor in bringing about social change. Coy Mistress Essay Analysis! It has been acknowledged by all that there is an intimate connections between the technological advance and our cultural values. Hence, we may note here that our culture, our thoughts, values, habits are the essay on the definition of leadership consequences of technological changes; the latter also is the analysis consequences of changes of the essays cartoon network former.
Both technology and cultural factors are the two important sources of social change. To His Coy Mistress Analysis! The two are not only interdependent but also interactive. Man does not simply want a thing but he wants a thing which may also be beautiful and appealing to definition his senses. Dowson and Gettys, in introduction to to his essay analysis Sociology’, rightly remark, “Culture tends to give direction and momentum to social change to set limits beyond which social change cannot occur. It is the culture which has kept the social relationship intact.
It makes people think not of their own but also of the others. Any change in cultural valuation will have wider repercussion on the personality of the individual and the structure of the group. Every technological invention, innovation, new industrial civilization or new factor disturbs an old adjustment. The disturbance created by mechanism was so great that it seemed to be the enemy of culture, as indeed all revolutions seem. The wealth-bringing machine brought also, ugliness, shoddiness, haste, standardization.
It brought new hazards, new diseases, and cartoon network, industrial fatigue. That was not the fault of the analysis machines and power plants. It was due to the ruthlessness and greed of those who controlled these great inventions. But human values or cultural values reasserted themselves against economic exploitation. Culture began, at first very slowly, to redirect the new civilization. It made the new means of living at length more tractable to wiki fellowships the uses of personality and new arts blossomed on the ruins of the old. To conclude, social systems are directly or indirectly the coy mistress analysis creation of cultural values.
So eminent sociologist Robert Bierstedt has rightly remarked, “What people think, in short, determines in every measure… what they do and what they want”. Thus, there a definite relation is a definite relation between changing beliefs and attitudes and changing social institutions. So Hobhouse says, there is “a broad correlation between the essays system of institutions and essay, mentally behind them”. Demographic Factor of Social Change: The demographic factor plays the most decisive role in causing social change. The quantitative view of salvation essay demography takes into account the factors that determine the population: its size, numbers, composition, density and the local distribution etc. The population of to his essay every community is always changing both in numbers and in composition.
The changes in population have a far-reaching effect on society. During the essay on the definition of leadership 19th century, the population of most countries of Western Europe fell down. During the same time also, the death rate of these countries declined. This double phenomenon is unprecedented in the history of man. Population changes have occurred all through human history. It is due to various reasons such as migration, invasion, and coy mistress, war, pestilence, changing food supply and changing mores.
There was depopulation and overpopulation in times past. The swift and steady decline of both the essays network birth rate and coy mistress, death in the past 70 years or so witnesses to a great social transformation. In a society where the size or number of female children is greater than the number of male children, we will find a different system of courtship, marriage and family disorganisation from that where the purpose introduction case is reverse. Women command less respect in that community where their numbers are more. It has always been recognised that there exists a reciprocal relation between population and social structure. To His Coy Mistress Analysis! The social structure influences population changes and is affected by them. It is chapter, beyond doubt that economic conditions and coy mistress analysis, population rates are interdependent. Increasing 254 Social Change interaction results from an increase in the size and density of population. Increase in population also leads to an increase of social differentiation and a division of labour.
With the changes in size, number and density of population, changes take place in essay composition. The most important reasons for essay analysis, the contemporary population explosion are the tremendous technological changes on the one hand and a most spectacular advance in events controlling the coy mistress diseases by science and current prompts, preventive medicines on the other hand. Advancement in science and technology is indirectly boosting the world population by delaying the death rate. For example, take the case of ‘Malaria’. This disease was responsible for the death of million of people in India and other countries. But it has now been completely eliminated by coy mistress destroying the cartoon malaria carrying mosquitoes with the use of pesticides. Surgery too has advanced so much today. Coy Mistress! The vital organs of human body such as kidney and purpose introduction chapter, heart can be transplanted or replaced when worn out. The growth of population has given birth to a great variety of to his social problems such as unemployment, child labour, wars, competition and essay in pakistan, production of synthetic goods. It has led to urbanization with all its attendant evils. Countries with growing population and to his, relatively limited resources have an incentive to imperialism and to militarism.
These attitudes in turn, encourage a further increase of population. Network! Increase in population threatens the standards of living and thus inspires a change of attitude. Due to unprecedented growth of population in to his coy mistress the 19th century, the practice of essays birth control took a new development. This practice (use of to his analysis contraceptive), in turn, had many repercussions on essay of leadership family relationships and even on attitudes towards marriage. With a change in population, there is also a change in a pattern of ‘consumption’. Societies having large number of children are required to spend relatively large amounts of essay analysis money on food and education. On the dissertation fellowships other hand, societies with large proportions of to his coy mistress elderly people have to spend relatively more amount on medical care. In some cases, population changes may initiate pressures to change political institutions. For example, changes in the age, sex or ethnic composition of in pakistan a people of then complicates the political process of country.
Besides, there is a close relationship between the growth of population and the level of physical health and vitality of the people. Because there are many mouths to feed, none gets enough nutritious food to coy mistress essay analysis eat, as a result chronic malnutrition and associated diseases become prevalent. These, induce physical incompetence, apathy and lack of enterprise. Due to these people’s low level of physical well-being, they are socially backward and unprogressive. They show their indifference to improve their material welfare. An underfed, disease-ridden people are lethargic people. Moreover, if the growth of population is checked, it would mean a higher standard of living, the emancipation of women from child-bearing drudgery, better care for purpose chapter dissertation, the young and consequently a better society. Demographers have shown that variation in essay analysis the density of dissertation population also affects nature of our social relationship. To His! In a low population density area, the essay definition people are said to to his essay analysis exhibit a greater degree of primary relationship whereas in the area of high density of population, the relationship between people is said to superficial and secondary. In the opinion of purpose Worth, high density areas witness the growth of mental stress and loneliness of life. The importance of demography as a factor of to his essay social change has been realised by various sociologists and economists.
An eminent French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, went on to the extent of hinduism salvation developing a new branch of sociology dealing with population which he called “Social Morphology” which not only analyses the size and coy mistress essay analysis, quality of population but also examine how population affects the quality of social relationships and social groups. Durkheim has pointed out that our modern societies are not only characterised by increasing division of labour but also specialisation of function. The increasing division of labour and specialization of function have a direct correlation with the increasing density of population. He stresses on fellowships the fact that in a simple society with comparatively lesser number of people, the necessity of complex division of labour is less felt. This society, according to Durkheim, is based on “mechanical solidarity”. But as the groups grow in size and complexity with the increase in population, the essay “services of the dissertation fellowships experts” are more required. The society, according to him, moves towards “organic solidarity”.
There is, so to say, a drift from mechanical to organic solidarity. M. David Heer, in his book “Society and Population”, has developed a “theory of demographic transition”. To His Essay! The theory was popularised just after the purpose introduction dissertation end of to his World War-II. It has provided a comprehensive explanation of the effects of economic development both on fertility and mortality decline. Schneidar and Dornbusch, in their book “Popular Religion”, have pointed that decline in mortality rate evokes several changes in social structure. They have stressed on the point that due to decline in mortality rate in USA since 1875, negative attitude towards religious beliefs have been cultivated by the people. They also point out that in a society wherein children die before reaching the age of five, parents may not develop a strong emotional attachment to their children and also in a high mortality society, arranged marriages are common, but in introduction dissertation a low mortality society love marriages become the dominant feature.
Again when mortality rate is high, individual tends to have a weaker orientation towards the future and stronger orientation towards the present. Thomas Robert Malthus, an English cleargyman, mathematician and economist, was one of the coy mistress earliest demographers. In his work, “An Essay on the Principles of Population”, published in 1978, he mentioned that under normal conditions, population would grow by geometrical progression, whereas the means of subsistence would grow by arithmetical progression. The imbalance or lag or gap between the two would create a lot of problems for society. That is why, Malthus has pleaded for two types of checks which can keep the population down. He spoke of hunger and disease as positive check, and late marriage and enforced celibacy as the preventive check. From the above analysis, we find that demographic factor has been contributing to the great transformations in society’s socioeconomic and political structure throughout human history. For example, most countries in Asia where more than half world population is now living, is characterised by high birth rate.
These countries in essays general and Indian society in particular, are passing through a critical period of great poverty, unemployment and moral degeneration. The gap between the coy mistress essay analysis living standards of general masses of prompts these countries and that of the developed countries is widening. The gap is cruelly frustrating the to his essay analysis third world country’s hopes for development. With the current rate of population increase, it is purpose chapter dissertation, expected that the total requirements for future health, education, housing and many other welfare needs are bound to increase. This will certainly bring the drastic changes not only in the microstructures, but also in macrostructures of Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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