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Argumentation schreiben: Beispiele, Tipps und Vorlagen fur den Aufbau. Taxation? Menschen nutzen zur sprachlichen Verstandigung verschiedene Textsorten, die sich in writing seminar ihrem Aufbau, aber auch in taxation assignment ihrer Funktion unterscheiden. Synthesising? Oftmals besteht Verwirrung, da Argumentation und Erorterung haufig synonym verwendet werden. Assignment? Tatsachlich ist Argumentation der Oberbegriff, der Erorterung aber auch die Stellungnahme umfasst, bzw. in for an essay beiden Textsorten konnen naturlich Argumentationen enthalten sein. Assignment? Entscheidend ist sofern ihr Schuler seid die Meinung der Lehrperson, die diese Aufgabe an statements suicide euch herangetragen hat. Grundsatzlich wurde man unter der Argumentation die richtige Aufstellung von Argumenten und Thesen verstehen. Assignment? Die Erorterung ist demgegenuber umfassender, denn sie muss zwingend diese Aufstellung der Argumente in statements on teenage suicide eine vorgeschriebene Form Einleitung, Hauptteil und Schluss einpassen.
Argumentationen und mehr gunstig zu Papier bringen mit Druckerpatronen zum Bestpreis: Das ist ein Argument und diese Arten gibt es Tabellenuberblick. Taxation Assignment? Der Begriff kommt aus dem Lateinischen (argumentum) und meinte ursprunglich Darstellung bzw. Veranschaulichung und im ubertragenen Sinne Beweismittel. Essay? Wird eines oder mehrere Argumente zur Begrundung einer Aussage herangezogen spricht man von Argumentation. Werden diese gepruft und gegeneinander abgewogen, bezeichnet man dies als Erorterung. Assignment? Die folgenden Tabellen sollen euch einen bequemen Uberblick uber die unterschiedlichen Arten von Argumenten ermoglichen. Creative Writing Seminar? Seid ihr daran nicht interessiert, scrollt einfach nach unten. Taxation Assignment? Deduktive Argumente Argumente, die logisch aus Annahmen folgen, sofern die Annahmen wahr sind. Argumentation schreiben: Eine Anleitung.
Beim Schreiben einer Argumentation ist es wichtig, dass ihr sehr strukturiert und sachlich zu Werke geht. Essay For Placement? Meistens werden kontroverse Themen abgehandelt zu denen man meistens eine klare eigene Meinung hat. Es geht aber nicht darum, zu UBERREDEN, sondern darum zu UBERZEUGEN. Ihr konnt also eure eigene Meinung vertreten, allerdings musst ihr sie argumentativ schlussig herleiten also logisch nachvollziehbar machen. Assignment? Bei einer Argumentation genugt es, wenn ihr Thesen und Argumente sammelt und anschlie?end ein kleines Fazit schreibt. Monsters Synthesising? Ein Argument besteht dabei immer aus drei Teilen: Eine Begrundung Ein Beweis Ein Bespiel bzw. eine Erklarung. Assignment? Zunachst kurz eine theoretische Einfuhrung, anschlie?end findet ihr ein Beispiel zu den folgenden Ausfuhrungen. Creative Writing? Sammelt alle Pro und Contra Argumente, die ihr zum Thema finden konnt. Taxation? Stellt eine These bzw. Behauptung auf. Monsters Synthesising? Eventuell auch noch eine Gegenthese.
Sortiert die passenden Argumente welche starken eure These, welche schwachen sie? Sammelt Beispiele und Belege fur die besten Argumente. Taxation Assignment? Beginnt mit dem schwachsten Argument und arbeitet euch zum starksten vor. Creative Seminar Manila? Schreibt ein kleines Fazit, dass die wichtigsten Argumente zusammenfasst und eure These auf den Punkt bringt. Assignment? Wichtig ist, dass es euch gelingt, die Argumente logisch miteinander zu verknupfen, damit der Leser euch folgen kann. Weiterhin benotigt es keine blumigen und ausschweifenden Satze, sondern klare und pragnante Formulierungen. Synthesising? Argumente kennen wir aus der Rhetorik und der Logik. Taxation? Die Rhetorik versucht zu uberreden wie ihr es z.B. Writing Seminar? haufig bei Politikern beobachten konnt, wahrend die Logik sachlich uberzeugt, weil die Thesen wahr sind.
Naturlich kann man beides verbinden, der Schwerpunkt sollte aber bei der Argumentation in taxation assignment den sachlich richtigen Argumenten liegen. Reference For An Essay? Ein Beispiel fur eine Argumentation zum Thema: Schwangerschaftsabbruch Ja oder Nein. These 1 : Schwangerschaftsabbruch sollte bedingungslos erlaubt sein, denn es ist ein unzumutbarer Eingriff in taxation die Autonomie der Frau dies zu verbieten. Snmp Research Papers? Begrundung : Kinder, die von ihrer Mutter gegen deren Willen ausgetragen wurden, werden unter Mangel an taxation assignment Zuwendung und Liebe leiden. Research Papers? Beweis : dies zeigen viele wissenschaftliche Langzeitstudien. Beispiel : Ich habe mir als Kind auch oft gewunscht, man hatte mich abgetrieben. Begrundung : Die Idee, dass der Staat das Recht hat, Geburten zu kontrollieren, ist erst im Rahmen der Hexenverbrennung, also in assignment der fruhen Neuzeit aufgekommen. In der restlichen Menschheitsgeschichte war es ganz alleine eine autonome Entscheidung der Frau, ob sie Kinder wollte oder nicht. Essay? Abtreibung und Verhutung waren noch im Mittelalter sehr ublich gerade in taxation assignment armen Familien. Of Amnesia? Beweis : Dies kann man sehr genau mit vielen Belegen in taxation der wissenschaftlichen Studie Die Vernichtung der weisen Frauen * nachlesen. Test? Beispiel : Noch heute kann man in taxation assignment den sogenannten nicht-zivilisierten Kulturen eine hohe Zahl an thesis statements Verhutungsmoglichkeiten und straffreier Abtreibung und sogar Kindstotung beobachten.
Ein weiteres Indiz, dass der Schutz ungeborenen Lebens ideologisch und kulturell bestimmt wird. Fazit: Diese Argumente zeigen, dass es zwar schon klingt, das ungeborene Leben zu schutzen und Frauen, die abtreiben Mord vorzuwerfen, dennoch ist dies vor allem dem Wunsch nach staatlicher Geburtenkontrolle geschuldet und weniger den moralischen Vorstellungen. Denn die Kinder, die ungewollt auf die Welt kommen, erhalten wenig oder gar keine Hilfe und sind alleine ihrem oftmals schwerem Schicksal ausgesetzt. Von Abtreibung als Mord zu sprechen, setzt die Frauen unter einen erheblichen moralischen Druck, dem viele nicht standhalten. Taxation? Das ware ein KURZES Beispiel, wie der Aufbau sein konnte. Synthesising? In diesem Fall ohne Einbindung der Gegenargumente, die aber nach diesem Muster leicht zu erstellen sind. Taxation? Wir wollten ja nicht eure Hausaufgaben machen! Online-Shopping oder doch lieber ganz klassisch durch die Stadt bummeln, sich die Sachen anschauen und im Geschaft einkaufen? Was ist euer Favorit, wenn ihr euch neue Sachen holt? Teilt uns eure Meinung in reference page paper unserer Umfrage zum Thema mit! Ich freue mich sehr uber Kommentare, ob diese Anleitung hilfreich war, denn dementsprechend wurde ich sie gerne noch verbessern.
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Essay: Invesigating MH17 Forensic DNA analysis. On July 17th 2014 a Malaysian airplane crashed near Hrabove, Ukraine. There were 15 crew members and 283 passengers on taxation assignment, board of synthesising, this deadly crash. During this time the plane was flying over a warzone, the suspicion therefor is that the plane might have been hit by a missile as part of taxation assignment, a terrorist attack. Researchers must investigate the cause of the crash of the MH17 flight. One of the goals of the investigation is to recover and identify the victims on board. Reference Page For An Essay? This report focuses on the identification of the victims through forensic DNA analysis. It describes the steps that needs to be taken before DNA profiling can begin and various DNA analysis techniques.
Lastly there will be a transcript of an interview with a forensic DNA expert. For the identification of humans in mass disasters, DNA analysis is taxation assignment, a gold standard especially when a victim cannot be identified using their physical characteristics (e.g. birthmarks, tattoos, medical implants, clothing and jewelry), forensic anthropology, fingerprints, odontology and radiology. Forensic DNA typing is used for identification if/when sufficient DNA data can be collected from snmp research papers any biological sample and body parts. DNA can sometimes be recovered even when victim`s remains are fragmented and DNA is degraded. DNA analysis is also often used for the re-association of severely fragmented remains with the victims, because this is the assignment only technique that allows it. DNA analysis is a technique that requires more time, effort, and specialized, skilled personnel . In order to make a positive identification, reference samples from possible victims are collected so the DNA samples can be compared to each other. Reference samples can be collected from several different sources.
It can be collected from personal belongings that were frequently used by the victim (e.g. toothbrush, hairbrush, razor, unwashed undergarments). Creative Manila? Banked samples can also be used. Think of banked sperm or archival biopsy tissue that is stored in a medical facility. Other biological samples that can be used is blood stain cards, blood stored for elective surgery, pathology samples, and extracted adult or baby teeth. Another source for taxation assignment a reference sample is via biological relatives of the victim that are collected using buccal swaps . The reference samples can be categorized by page for an essay paper the DNA quality of the DNA that is available on the samples and they are good sources of assignment, DNA, fair source of DNA and research papers poor sources of DNA (see table 1). . Table 1: Categorization of reference samples in good, fair and poor sources of DNA Good sources of DNA Fair sources of DNA Poor sources of DNA. Tooth brushes Lipstick Jewelry. Razors Deodorant sticks Wrist watches. Hair brushes Pillow cases Outer clothing.
Bone marrow samples Used cups/glasses Towels. Blood cards from PKU screening Used underwear Shoes. National bio banks Fingernail clippinds Hair bands. Criminal databases Cigarette buds Baby hair. Serum samples Pipe Dentures. Sperm bank samples Mouth piece/guard Hair rollers. Dried umbilical cords Helmets/caps/hats Trimmers. Pathology speciman Earplugs. Inner clothing items (bra, socks, t-shirts)
Pen with teeth marks. There is several preferred combination of family reference samples. The preferred combinations are; both parents; one parent, spouse, children; children and assignment spouse; one parent and sibling; two or more siblings; known identical twin. From all the monsters synthesising combinations possible for the kinship analysis, the assignment probability for their effectiveness has been calculated. The three lowest combinations are one full sibling (92.1%), sibling and aunt (94.4%) and sibling and two aunts/uncles from same side of the family (97.8%). The three highest combinations are three grandparents (96.7%), four grandparents (99,99%) and lastly three grandparents and siblings (99,994%). The full list is essay of amnesia, shown in table 2. 
Table 2: Probability of identity using various combinations of family references  Family references Probability of assignment, identity (%) One full sibling 92.1. Sibling and aunt (or uncle) 94.4. Sibling and two aunts (or uncles) from same side of the family 97.8. Sibling, aunt, uncle from different sides of the for placement family 99.8. Sibling and half sibling 98. Sibling and two half siblings (same mother) 99.4. Two siblings 99.91. Sibling and taxation parent 99.996. Father and one maternal half sibling 99.95.
Father and two maternal half siblings 99.996. Father and for an maternal aunt 99.993. Three grandparent 96.7. Four grandparents 99.99. Three grandparents and sibling 99.994. Previously identified fragmented remains that were already identified using DNA can also be used to make identification . There are several limitation as to the retrieval of remain and taxation assignment reference samples. One of these limitations can be environmentally harsh condition at incident sites. This can severely limit the quantity of usable DNA from human remains. Also passengers that travel via airplanes, take their personal belongings with them in the luggage. This means that these personal items may also be destroyed during the monsters plane cash and cannot be used to taxation, make a reference sample.
In some cases using DNA from synthesising a close relative can also be difficult. Reasons being that sometimes families travel together and are also victims in the crash. Taxation? Sometimes certain relatives also choose or are unable to give a DNA sample. It is also important to establish that personal items collected was only used by creative writing manila the victim in order to avoid getting a mixed profile or giving a wrong identification. . Parameters of DNA identification. The importance of DNA in the identification process is dependent on the degree in which the human remain is fragmented or degraded. Sometimes multiple methods are used in assignment, order to identify a victim. This doesn’t always include DNA. In an airplane crash only about 25% of victims are identified by only using DNA analysis as a method of identification. The parameters are set by policy makers and it is the job of the laboratory director to determine the nature and extent of the laboratory`s response. .
Defining goal of identification process. Depending on the scope of the identification process, a decision can be made on if every human fragment is synthesising, going to be identified. In an airplane crash for instance, there can be 50 victims and each remains can be fragmented in multiple pieces. If the goal or policy is to identify each victim, one would be done sooner with the identification process. This because DNA analysis would be stopped when all 50 victims have been identified. Some human fragments will therefore never be analyzed and taxation returned to the families.
Whenever the goal or policy is the attempted identification of essay of amnesia, all fragments, obviously this will result in a greater work for taxation assignment the laboratory. The scope of the investigation is determined by how large and devastating a mass disaster incident is to a community, a country or to the world . Minimum fragment size. Depending on the goal or policy of the identification process a minimum fragment size for DNA testing needs to be established. If all fragment pieces would be collected and then tested, many of them would not give out a positive result. This would also cause the identification process to take longer and would also make it very costly. Even though the families are able to manila, receive more human remains of their loved one, but they very well are going to be unprepared on the condition of the fragment and the time it might take to taxation, be able to identify them. Monsters? Knowing all that, decisions will be made regarding the taxation assignment minimum fragment size, the statistical threshold that must be met.
The minimum fragment, which is usually one to ten cm long should be based on three criteria. The first criteria is maximizing the probability that all victims are identified. Research Papers? The second criteria is the taxation assignment recognizing the emotional needs of the victims’ families and snmp research friends and the third criteria is assignment, he providing forensically relevant information. The defining of the essay of amnesia fragment size is important, because this will affect the identification effort. It will determine how fragment sizes needs to be collected at the crash site, how they will be processed and taxation assignment the likelihood of getting a useable DNA profile . A preliminary decision concerning the DNA technology that should be used is essay of amnesia, made by the laboratory. If the recovery effort is assignment, long, the DNA of the fragments will start to monsters synthesising, degrade and assignment can affect your choice of of amnesia, DNA method for taxation assignment analysis. Snmp? The decision to use another DNA method that are not the standard choices can be implemented, depending of the environmental conditions at the crash site and the resulting DNA degradation.
It can also depend on the scope and taxation the duration of the DNA effort that has been set . STR (Short Tandem Repeat) analysis has been proven to be a powerful method for DNA identification in synthesising, mass fatality incidents. There are three known airplane crashes where the victims were identified only by using STR analysis. Remains from after WTC attacks, demonstrated that STR`s work on degraded tissue and bone fragments if DNA extraction is optimized. Although additional methods may be needed if a sample is severely compromised to generate a statistical threshold. Other methods that can be used are mtDNA (Mitochondrial DNA) and taxation assignment SNP (Single nucleotide Polymorphism) . Length of recovery effort. The length of the recovery effort it dependent on the location site and the mass fatality of the crash and of amnesia determines the DNA identification of the victims. When remains are collected from an taxation airplane crash on land, it will usually take up to two weeks for it all to be collected. In a mass fatality identification process will begin as the samples are collected and delivered to the laboratory.
It is more effective and efficient to wait for all the samples to reference essay paper, be collected, but with the pressure from the public and families for a rapid confirmation this is not possible. The collecting of the reference samples also plays a part on the length of the identification process. After a mass fatality personal belongings and biological samples are sent in batches. So the number of batches and the frequency of which they are sent to the laboratory is dependent on efficiency and duration of the reference collection process . After considering all of the above, the taxation laboratory`s must determine its analytical processes. Several key variables has to be assessed in order to determine this. These variables are the number of manila, victims, number of recoverable fragments, percentage of samples to be reworked, numbers of personal items per victim, percentage of assignment, personal items to be reworked, personal items quality control samples and number of kinship analysis.
In order to predict the labor and material resources required for DNA analysis, a DNA analysis workload worksheet can be used (see appendix 1) . In a mass fatality event DNA identification response demands forensic casework skills and high throughput genotyping or databasing from the public and/or private sector. In case of synthesising, STR genotyping, there is a difference in analysis for medical or research purposes. This means that laboratories that can perform high quality clinical or research purposes, can be considered only after careful consideration. Assignment? DNA collection from human remains and personal items all require chain of custody protocols that clinical or research laboratories are not typically using. DNA extraction needs to research, be performed by using forensic casework extraction protocols. Kinship samples on the other hand are more assessable to standardized high-throughput processes used by assignment forensic databasing laboratories and non-forensic genotyping laboratories. In most cases forensic databasing laboratories have the research experience with outsourcing work to private laboratories then forensic casework laboratories. In case that work is outsourced to other laboratories, it is important to ensure that all laboratories involved use the same molecular ladders as size standards for allelic interpretation.
They also all have to use the same DNA analysis protocols that permits standardized evaluation of victims profiles. The way of work in laboratories between forensic and non-forensic laboratories can vary. It is the duty of the laboratory director to fully define certain terms like ‘acceptable positive and assignment negative controls’ and papers ‘standard reaction volume’ . Next to DNA analysis the laboratory might also be responsible for sample accessioning and tracking, making identifications and resolving metadata problems, quality control, interacting with families and media and assignment long-terms sample storage. Failure to address these activities will results in source shortfalls. The laboratory director must also consider the impact of the mass fatality incident response on the laboratory`s primary mission. Backlog and turnaround times will most likely increase for the regular casework. That’s why plans to manage both a mass fatality and regular casework should always be developed in case of an emergency. The duration of recovery effort also has an of amnesia effect on the capacity of the laboratory. A rapid recovery effort that usually takes from one to three months creates a spike in the casework, but because that is a short casework they are able to recover quickly. A longer recovery effort is possible without affecting regular casework, however the identification process will still drain the taxation personal and resources.
Good planning is critical in order to monsters, migrate the disruption . Sample tracking is an important factor in ensuring quality and accuracy throughout the process of DNA identification. Assignment? So this means that chain of custody and origin are very important when handling samples. They are critical aspect to the identification management process and to for placement in colleges, the collection of reference samples for comparison. If samples are not properly coded and tracked this can have a consequence on the identification process.
Even ‘simple’ problems like the inadvertent reference-sample switching by taxation families of the victims, misspellings in names or unlinked names nicknames to last names. Also inconsistent case numbering during sample collection on snmp research, the crash site. All those mentioned above can greatly influence the efficiency and accuracy of identification process . Public forensic institutes usually have a chain of custody in place already and will use this system with only slight changes if the need arises in a mass fatality incident. When documentation is started on a reference sample brought in by a family member of a victim, it might not be unusual to get a mixed DNA profile as a result. So this is also an important note to taxation assignment, make when getting a result on your samples. But before these decision are made is synthesising, how they are going to threat the mass fatality incident. They can be dealt with as a humanitarian effort, civil incident or criminal requirements. Assignment? By establishing what type of treatment you are dealing with, you can decide what your chain-of custody requirements will be.
The implications of treat incidents are shown in figure 1 . Figure 1: An overview of the creative writing seminar possible treat incident and taxation assignment their implications  Laboratories will already have an information management system in place. In a mass fatality they can keep using the system they already have in place in order to maintain a high efficiency for their sample tracking. If chosen to for placement, modify the system the director of the laboratory should consider tracking the assignment mass fatality samples separate from their regular casework samples.
The coding of the samples should begin with another number sequence that is regularly used in the designated laboratory. The laboratory should also consider having a team whose sole purpose is to enter the collected data and check if all samples are correctly coded. Another task that the laboratory director has to of amnesia, establish is the sample naming that differentiates the personal items, kinship samples and the disaster samples from taxation assignment each other. The laboratory will also need to document the number and the type of analysis performed on every sample that is tested. In table 1 there is an overview of the documentation that are generally noted on reference page, test samples . Table 3: Coding that should be present on test samples  Victim samples Personal effects samples Kinship samples. Identity of laboratory that performed extraction and analysis* Victim identification number Victim identification number. Extraction attempt number Identity of laboratory that performed extraction and analysis* Relationship to victim. Type of analysis Extraction attempt number.
Plate number, tube number, well number, etc. Type of analysis. Plate number, tube number, well number, etc. *These are usually noted in assignment, a multi-laboratory response. The recovery and thesis statements on teenage suicide preservation of samples are very important steps for the identification of human remains, especially when they are highly fragmented. It is assignment, very important for samples to be collected as soon as possible. But depending on the crash site and the environment it sometimes take much longer.
Proper preservation is also important so that DNA can stay intact and in reference page, that way get a successful DNA profile . Depending on the state of preservation that is taxation assignment, available, different tissue types should be collected. Reference Page For An Essay? When sample collection cannot be done immediately and takes several weeks after the assignment incident and/or the crash site was in reference essay, challenging environmental conditions, bone and teeth proved to be the most reliable sources for a successful DNA profile. In case of a bone sample, the cortical bone from weight bearing long bones of the legs should be the first choice for DNA extraction. Taxation Assignment? With degraded remains it is however still recommended to also take a swab in addition with the bone sample. The type of sample that should be collected is dependent on the state or condition that the body is in. Figure 1 shows an overview of the post-mortem sample condition that is dependent on the condition of the body . Because it is a possibility that commingling of DNA can be happen, this can often lead to false DNA-based associations. Creative Writing Manila? This is especially true for fragmented remains.
Blood from different fragmented remains that contaminate each other or animal activity, can often be the source of the comingling of DNA. This means that analyst always has to be on the lookout for cross contamination. Taxation Assignment? When collecting samples in the field, workers should never assume that fragments go together or belong to the same victim based on their appearance. It is also advisable to have an anthropologist or a trained forensic pathologist on field in order to make sure that animal remains are not collected along with human tissue. The amount of samples that is going to be collected during a mass fatality may very well be too much for synthesising one laboratory to store. So in that case the taxation laboratory that is going to be handling the thesis on teenage analysis can ask other trustworthy laboratories to store a collection of their samples. Taxation? To keep decomposition to a minimum, samples need to in colleges, be stored in low temperatures of around -20oC. Dried stains also needs to be stored in freezing temperatures, but if this is not possible room temperature in a low humidity temperature will also work. Skeletal remains that are going to be stored also needs to be at taxation room temperature.
Reference samples are precious and essay of amnesia can be limited, so the proper storage for reference samples are also very important . In order to taxation assignment, be able to perform a successful DNA analysis, the essay of amnesia laboratory needs to have sufficient additional processing are. Because of the mass fatality the laboratory is taxation assignment, going to be dealing with a lot of samples and might need to consider using a robotics system. This can minimize human error and contamination. In case of mass disasters contamination and mixtures of samples is unavoidable. For this reason the DNA typing used to make be able to make profiles needs to be well established. The most used DNA typing methods which are STR and mtDNA are the most used for paper identification purposes. Taxation? But depending on the state of the samples, other typing methods can also be used . Before DNA analysis can be performed, the DNA needs to essay of amnesia, be extracted from the reference and taxation assignment victims samples first. It is of amnesia, customary to perform DNA extraction on taxation assignment, the unknown evidentiary samples before the known or reference samples.
With samples from a mass disaster it may not be possible to still extract samples in that order. But DNA extraction from victim’s samples and reference samples should be separated by time and/or space. DNA typing relies on the success of DNA extraction that yields enough quantity, quality and purity. Because of this naturally the most desired extraction methods are the ones that minimizes DNA loss and the ones that overcome, removes or dilutes enzymatic inhibitors . The DNA IQ’ System (Promega Corp, Madison, WI) Current techniques that include organic solvents and ion exchange resins are time consuming, use more than one centrifugation step, uses toxic organic solutions and/or do not remove PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) inhibitors well enough. A system that was used for the extraction of WTC samples proved to be the best. The DNA IQ’ System (Promega Corp, Madison, WI) uses a magnetic resin that the DNA can bind to. It also has a denaturing agent that disrupts many types of cells/tissue.
The DNA will then be purified by eluding it from the resin. DNA typing can then be performed without needing further preparation. See figure 3 for essay a schematic overview of the extraction. Assignment? The system minimizes the loss of DNA and monsters the efficiency of DNA extraction also increases . As is mentioned above organic extraction is taxation, also an extraction method that is widely used in the forensic community for DNA typing. As the name indicates, organic extraction uses organic chemicals in order to extract DNA. This occurs in four steps. Research Papers? In the first step EDTA is added to assignment, the lysis buffer. EDTA is added to prevent the degrading of DNA. Tris which is also present in the buffer makes sure the outer cell membrane become permeable. In the second step the proteins are denaturized and for placement hydrolyzed.
The lysing of the cell is carried out by using detergents Proteinase K and dithiothreitol (DTT) which are present in the lysis buffer. They insure that proteins and cell debris are separated into organic phase and the DNA remaining in the aqueous phase. They make sure that the cell membrane lyse, separate histones and taxation denature histone proteins and destroy protein structures . In the third step the proteins and cell debris are removed by adding phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol to the mixture. The phenol present wont mix with water and the proteins and debris will have an affinity with the organic phase. Essay? After centrifuging the assignment mixture will have visible layers.
DNA will be present in the upper layer called the aqueous phase. After transferring this phase to a new tube, in the fourth step DNA can be purified by using alcohol precipitation . Snmp Research? Figure 4 shows a schematic overview of the taxation assignment organic DNA extraction. Another popular extraction method in the forensic community is Chelex. Chelex comes in on teenage suicide, different purities with a purity of 100 being preferred in a forensic capacity. The resin has a styrene divinylbenzene copolymers with paired polyvalent metal ions. Because of this polyvent metal ions can bind to assignment, the resin. In an aqueous alkaline condition the synthesising chelex has increased affinity for taxation heavy metal.
When the mixture is also boiled, this disrupts cell membranes, cell proteins and it denaturizes DNA. After centrifuging the resin and cellular debris is separated. The advantages of Chelex is in colleges, that its time saving, doesn’t cost much and it minimizes contamination potential. Contamination potential is minimized, because unlike organic extraction it has less steps. Other advantages are that it uses no hazardous chemicals and removes some PCR inhibitors. Some disadvantages includes potential degradation for long term storage, the resin remain which can inhibit PCR and won`t work with all samples .
A schematic overview of the chelex extraction is shown in figure 5. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) After extraction is completed the DNA goes through PCR. PCR is an enzymatic process in which a specific DNA fragment is assignment, being replicated over page essay and over again. The process works by the heating and cooling the assignment DNA extracted samples in a precise thermal cycle pattern for ?? 30 cycles . The PCR has three steps that forms one cycle . In each cycle it starts with denaturing the DNA template by heat. In the second step the temperature is cooled so that primers can anneal (bind) to the DNA. In the reference essay last step the taxation assignment temperature is raised again at the optimal temperature for DNA polymerase so it can activate. The DNA polymerase extends the template strands (see figure 6) .
When the cycles are repeated multiple times, you will get an for placement test exponential accumulation of your desired DNA fragment when present. Even with a small amount of isolated DNA, the PCR can generate a large amount of DNA . The primer, which is mentioned above, is the most important PCR component. The primer is a short DNA sequence that positions itself before the DNA fragment that needs to taxation assignment, be copied. This means that the primer serves to identify the DNA fragment that needs to be copied. It is added in high concentration in synthesising, relative to the DNA template in order to drive the PCR reaction. Other components that are added is taxation assignment, naturally your template DNA that is going to page for an essay paper, be copied. Also added to the mix is a four nucleotide building blocks called dNTP`s and DNA polymerase that helps put the building blocks in taxation, the correct order on the template DNA.
The DNA polymerase used is Taq polymerase, which comes from a bacterium called Thermus aquaticus that inhibits hot springs. When setting up multiple samples that use the same primers, a master mix is made. From the essay master mix an equal amount of volume is pipetted in the PCR tube. By making this master mix you are insured homogeneity between samples and the pipetting of small volumes can be avoided . In this version of the assignment PCR more than one DNA fragment will be copied simultaneously. This is achieved by adding more than one primer to statements suicide, the mixture. In order for it to assignment, work properly, the primer pairs added should have similar annealing temperatures. With the adding of extra primer pairs the complexity of primer interactions increases. Excessive regions of complementarity has to creative manila, be avoided in order to prevent primer-dimer formation. Primer-dimers are when added primers bind to each other instead of the template DNA. The possibility of primer-dimer formation increases with every new primer pair that are added .
After DNA extraction, DNA quantification is assignment, essential for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based analysis. This is important because a low concentration is test in colleges, preferable when working with multi-plex PCR. Generally an taxation amount of essay of amnesia, 0,5 to taxation assignment, 2,0 of DNA is optimal when using STR kits. When a higher amount of DNA is used, this makes the interpretation of results harder and more time consuming. Essay? With a low amount of DNA, this can result in loss of alleles. This makes it harder to properly compare profiles with each other . Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) Like it was indicated above, quantification test is performed to assignment, determine amount of DNA that can amplified. A test that can indicate the quality and quantity of extracted DNA or PCR products, is thesis on teenage suicide, beneficial for determining steps that need to be taking for the analysis of the DNA.
The most common approach to perform a qPCR is to use a flourogenic 5? nuclease assay, better known as TaqMan or with the use of an intercalating dye, like the SYBR green, that is specific for double stranded DNA molecules. The TaqMan monitors changes of a fluorescence while the assignment SYBR green detects formation of PCR product . Probes for the TaqMan has two fluorescent dyes that emit at different wavelengths. The probe hybridizes specifically in DNA target region between two PCR primers. The probe has a slightly higher annealing temperature the primers. This way hybridization of the probes can begin when extension of primers begin.
At the 5? end of the probe, a reporter (R) dye is attached, while at the 3? end a quencher (Q) dye is essay, synthesized See figure 7. Taxation Assignment? While the probes are still attached together, fluorescence won’t occur, because of the suppression due to energy transfer of the two. When polymerization starts during the PCR run, any TaqMan probe attached to target sequence will be displaced. Because Taq polymerase has a 5? exonucleae activity. This means that it will chew at the TaqMan probe attached. When the dyes are released from the probe, they will begin to fluorescence. This means that, the more fluorescence that is signaled, the more target sequence is present as complementary to essay, the probe . Real-time PCR analysis. The PCR process is assignment, defined in three phases. The exponential phase, linear amplification and plateau region.
These regions can be made visible in a plot of fluorescence versus the PCR cycle they are on (see figure 8). There is a high degree of precision of the making of new PCR products during exponential amplification. At 100% efficiency, there should be a doubling of PCR products with every PCR cycle. In a plot of cycle numbers versus log scale DNA concentration, will have a result of a linear relationship during the exponential phase of the polymerase chain reaction (see figure 8). The next phase is the linear phase. In this phase concentration of components falls and amplification efficiency slows down. This happens in an arithmetic increase. The final phase is the plateau region. This is monsters, where the production of the PCR products slowly stops. Multiple components that are being used for the amplification have reached the taxation assignment end.
The signal that is being emitted slows down, causing the plateau to level out. Creative Writing Seminar? The exponential phase of the real-time PCR analysis is the optimal place for measuring. This is the phase where the PCR product and the input DNA amount are most likely to be consistent. The instruments use for taxation assignment real-time PCR uses a cycle threshold (CT) its calculations. This value stands for the terms of cycles when the monsters level of fluorescence passes a threshold that is set by the software of the real-time PCR instrument. The less cycles that is used to assignment, get to this threshold, the higher the essay input DNA molecules that was present in PCR reaction. This is why there is a plot of log DNA and CT for every sample in a linear relationship with a negative slope. A rise in taxation, fluorescence can be traced to initial DNA template amount, when it is compared to monsters, samples that has known concentration. Assignment? In figure 8, there are five samples (a, b, c, d, e) that were used in order to essay test in colleges, develop a standard curve. If the samples used have a good consistency and precision, a sample that has an unknown concentration can be calculated from the taxation standard curve . Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis.
STR analysis is the first method of analysis that is used . 99,9% of the DNA in creative seminar, humans are the same. In the 0,1% region of DNA short tandem repeats are present as the taxation assignment region that exhibits a large variation between individual . STR`s are short DNA sequence that keep repeating. For example in the DNA sequence ATTCGCATCATCATCATCATCATCATCGCCA, the sequence ATC is repeated 7 times. Short tandem repeats are present at the same position on chromosomes in the human genome, but the repeat unit varies per individual. With the thesis on teenage suicide help of PCR reaction a STR analysis can be performed.
Primers that can be labeled binds to the DNA at a specific STR loci and multiplied. Assignment? Because of the label that is attached at research papers the primer, the amplified products can be detected at the end of the taxation assignment PCR reaction. By analyzing more than multiple STR`s at once, a DNA profile that is unique enough to identify an individual can be made . Sometimes a DNA sample is too degraded to get a DNA profile using the standard STR markers. In order to still be able to use this degraded DNA to get a profile, primers were repositioned. Snmp Papers? By repositioning the primers closer to the repeat region that needs to be amplified, the amplified product that is resulted is much smaller.
As a result it makes genetic characterization of the sample for more STR`s, other that is used traditionally. This makes STR miniplex invaluable for degraded samples . Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis. By using the SNP`s genetic markers, the PCR amplified product can be much smaller than is taxation assignment, possible in a STR miniplex . SNP is a single nucleotide mutation that occurs in the DNA sequence and is also the most common polymorphism in monsters synthesising, the human genome. These mutations can be a result from DNA replication or chemical damage. A polymorphism is taxation, a variation/mutation in the DNA sequence that has a frequency of more than 1% in the population. Essay In Colleges? SNP occurs once every 1000 base pairs and tends to remain stable in the population . For example in a known DNA sequence of CCTAA, a mutation of the second C to a T occurs (see figure 9). The amplified PCR product that can result from using SNP markers can be reduced by up to 60-80 bp.
This makes severely degraded DNA samples that could not be typed using STR`s still typable. Using a method that was validated during the WTC identification effort, typing on samples that were much compromised was still able to be identified. The method uses a florescent detection system. By labeling the possible alleles with a fluorescent dye, the signal of the dyes could be compared . Mitochondrial DNA analysis. Mitochondria is an organelle that resides outside the taxation assignment cell nucleus.
They contain their own chromosomal DNA. mtDNA are smaller, circular in shape and are inherited maternally. They consist of approximately 16,569 base and have a high copy number in research, a cell. Because mtDNA is passed down maternally, it is a good method to perform when reference samples are taking from maternal relatives. Using mtDNA can be an advantage when dealing with very small or degraded extracted DNA. Because of the high copies number of mtDNA that is available, an identification can still be possible using mtDNA markers, instead of STR markers that are found in assignment, nuclear DNA . There are several differences in the characteristic of the essay of amnesia mtDNA and the nuclear DNA. The first being the size of the genome. Nuclear DNA has about 3,2 billion bp and is 99.75% of assignment, total DNA. While mtDNA has 16,569bp and 0,25% content DNA per cell. For An? While mutation rata for taxation nuclear DNA is low, mtDNA has a 5-10 times higher mutation rate. The sequence of the mitochondrial DNA is a functional one and also highly conserved, it’s because of this that there isn’t a very big variation between individuals.
But there is non-coding D-loop (1000bp long), also known as control loop, that has two hypervariable regions called HV1 and HV2 (see figure 8). The variations observed in this part of the DNA tend to be Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). The length of the mtDNA doesn’t change with the presence of the SNPs and that’s why this are the regions that are used for forensic analysis. Due to the lack of DNA reparation, mtDNA has a large mutation. This causes the reference for an variations between individuals. The variation is taxation, not a lot, with HV1 and HV2 having only a 1-3% difference between individuals who are not related . When analysis is performed, mitochondrial DNA is extracted and then with the help of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), the HV1 and HV2 regions are amplified. Next step is to determine the sequence of the amplified product by using DNA sequencing.
After this samples can be compared to snmp research, each other to get a possible identification . The Y-chromosome is small and found in only male individuals. This chromosome is altered through infrequent happening of taxation assignment, a mutation. Essay? The combination of alleles between father and son is theoretically the same, if mutation does not occur . The advantages of Y-chromosome analysis are that in a mixture profile with female DNA for taxation assignment example in monsters, a sexual assault case, male specific amplification can take place to separate the taxation two. Reference Page For An Essay? Mixtures in fingernail scraping and saliva on skin can also be analyzed. Another advantage is that it facilitates tracing family lineages in the paternal transmission. Limitations that arises are that it’s hard to distinguish between male family members when Y-STR typing is taxation, performed. Duplications and deletions that are present in the DNA sequence, can make analysis more complicated. The Y-chromosome analysis is creative writing seminar manila, performed with the analysis of the STRs or SNPs. Assignment? Y-STRs changes more rapidly and thus has more variables.
This makes it useful for forensic applications . Last step in analysis of DNA is the separation and detection of the amplified DNA. Page Essay Paper? In order to separate and detect them a capillary electrophoresis is used. A basic capillary electrophoresis apparatus is consists of a narrow glass capillary, two buffer vials, two electrodes connected to high voltage power supply, laser excitation source, fluorescent detector, autosampler for samples and a computer that controls the sample injection and detection. The capillaries are made out of glass, have an internal diameter of 50 ??m and assignment is 50 cm long. The capillary which is thesis suicide, a glass tube is filled with a polymer that serves as a gel in which molecules can migrate. Samples are injected in the capillary when high voltage is applied, which helps to separate the DNA fragments. Fluorescent dye labels that are present in the DNA mixture are analyzed when they pass by a detector that uses a laser beam. The results are then analyzed and stored on a computer . Taxation Assignment? A schematic of the capillary electrophoresis is creative seminar manila, shown in figure 9. DNA separation occurs when DNA fragments separate through the capillary when voltage is applied.
Smaller fragments go through the capillary faster than the bigger fragments. The time is converted to base pair size with the help of internal size standards. Several components can affect the DNA separation. The polymer used, the capillary, the buffer and the voltage used . The two primary polymer are POP-4 and POP-6. The POP stands for performance optimized polymer and is made out of a linear, uncross-linked dimethyl polyacrylamide. The 4 and 6 in the POP, stands for taxation assignment the 4% and 6% concentration of this component. Snmp Papers? The POP-4 is used for the analysis of STR typing and taxation POP-6 for DNA sequencing. Recently a Pop-7 has been introduced that can be used for both the STR typing and essay of amnesia DNA sequencing . The buffer is used to assignment, stabilize and solubilize the DNA. Essay Of Amnesia? It also provide a charge for the electrophoresis current.
Buffer concentration is an important aspect, because when it’s too high this can result in overheating of the capillary and taxation a loss of resolution. Monsters? In order to avoid any problems with the running of the electrophoresis, the buffer should be replaced regularly with a fresh sample . The capillary is central for the separation during the electrophoresis. Assignment? The capillary is essay for placement test in colleges, made of glass or fused silica. The inner walls also have a hydroxyl groups that are negatively charged. Positive ions from the buffer, creates a double layer.
The movement of ions creates an electroosmotic flow, that can be reduced or eliminated when a coating is added to the inside layer of the capillary (see figure 10). Uncoated walls create problems for reproducible DNA separation. Taxation Assignment? Suggested is to research papers, change the capillary after 100-150 runs or whenever a decline of resolution is noted . Sanger method for DNA sequencing is a process where the use of polymerase incorporation is involved. Taxation? The polymerase incorporation uses dideoxyribonucleatide triphosphates (ddNTPs) as chain terminators that is in snmp, turn followed by a separation step that is taxation, capable of manila, single nucleotide resolution. Because there is no hydroxyl group at the end of the 3? ‘end of the nucleotide with a ddNTP the growing chain cannot continue growing. In the mix there are both dNTPs and assignment ddNTPS present, this way some DNA portions are still able to continue growing. Therefor at the end of the reaction there will be a series of strands that only differs one molecule from each other.
See figure 11 for a schematic overview of the DNA sequence. Reference Page For An Paper? Each DNA strand uses one forwards or reverse primer in a separate reaction. Attached to the ddNTPs are fluorescent dyes. ddTTP (thymine) has a red dye attached to it, ddCTP (cytosine) a blue label, ddATP (adenine) a green dye and lastly, ddGTP (guanine) a yellow dye. After the reaction is over, the sample goes through capillary electrophoresis, which separates the strands. In the results of the electrophoresis, the sequence of the DNA strand is assignment, shown . DNA Databases and CODIS. A DNA database is a database which stores DNA data and for placement test is used for analysis. There are different types of taxation assignment, DNA databases.
The National DNA databases are maintained by the government for storing DNA profiles of its population. These DNA profiles are based on PCR and STR analysis. DNA databases serve as valuable tools in aiding investigations. CODIS (COmbined DNA Index System) is thesis statements on teenage, a DNA database that consists of 13 STR loci’s. These are CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51 and D21S11. Also the taxation assignment Amelogenin is used for gender determination   . To make the job easier and avoid confusion with buffers it is better to statements on teenage suicide, use a complete STR kit. These kits come with their own buffer and control DNA. There are a lot of distributors of taxation, complete STR kits. It all depends on the research what kind of kit there is needed. Multiplex STR kits allows the amplification of the 13 CODIS loci .
The most widely known and used kits are from Promega. The product components normally consists of a buffer, primer pair mix (again, it depends on the research what kind of primer that will be used), control DNA. These are for the PCR product. After the PCR, the kits come with an Allelic Ladder mix and an internal standard to be used for essay for placement test in colleges the gel. Chemicals that sometimes should be supplied that do not come with the kit are Nuclease-free water and taq DNA polymerase. The kits come with their own protocol and should be used in that specific order . Here is an example of the PowerPlex 16 HS System, which allows co-amplification of the 13 CODIS loci and Amelogenin for gender determination. All loci are amplified in taxation assignment, a single tube and analyzed in a single injection and synthesising is also compatible with ABI. This system consist of Powerplex HS 5X Master Mix, Powerplex 16 HS 10X Primer Pair Mix, 2800M Control DNA and water (Amplification Grade) in the Pre-amplification components box. In the Post-amplification components box there is a PowerPlex 16 HS Allelic Ladder Mix and Internal Lane Standard.
How the mixes for the PCR amplification should be made is displayed below in figure 10  . Statistical interpretation of DNA profile. When it comes to taxation assignment, getting a match with a DNA profile, it’s important to determine if the DNA profile are from the same individual or if maybe there is another individual with the same profile. It’s practically impossible to get a DNA from on teenage every individual. In order to still determine a match probability, Allele frequencies from different ethnic groups, from validated databases are collected . More than one data point will need to be collected in order to get a reliable estimation of taxation assignment, allele frequency.
There has to be a minimum where the assurance is monsters, there that an allele has been sufficiently sampled for taxation use in statistical test. An allele has to for an paper, be observed for a minimum of five times in order to be qualified for use in a statistical calculations. Taxation Assignment? The frequency for the minimum allele is snmp research, determined using the formula 5/ (2N). N stands for the number of individuals and taxation assignment 2N for chromosomes counted before they pair . In order to calculate the frequency of page for an, a DNA profile, the frequency of every allele analyzed are multiplied. The frequency of the allele can differ dependent on the population database.
The database that is used needs to assignment, be sufficiently large and representative of the population of the individual whose DNA is being examined . In figure 12, DNA profile frequencies are given for snmp research papers the U.S. Caucasian. Taxation? Take for of amnesia example allele 11 of D13S317 shown in figure 12. Assignment? Samples of of amnesia, 604 alleles were taken where it was observed 205 times. This translates to an allele frequency of 0,33940. Assignment? In other words, there is a 34% chance that a random individual will have the same allele. The same goes for essay of amnesia allele 14 of D13S317. This allele was observed 19 times in a population of 604. Taxation Assignment? Frequency is therefore q=0,04801. So an individual with the alleles 11 and 14 for monsters the D13S317, can be calculated using the taxation formula 2pq (p standing for the first allele and q standing for the second allele).
Putting the frequency calculated in the formula creates 2 x 0,33940 x 0,0481= 0,0326. Manila? This frequency indicates that ??3% of the U.S. Caucasian population. The frequency of all the genotypes will then be multiplied to taxation assignment, get the frequency of the seminar DNA profile. In case of the taxation DNA profile in figure 12, this comes to a combined frequency of essay for placement test in colleges, 8,37 x 1014. Assignment? So 1 in 837 trillion . In order to ensure that DNA testing is being performed correctly there are standards that the laboratories has to adhere to. Essay Of Amnesia? These standards has to assurance the quality of the taxation assignment work.
Every laboratory should have a quality assurance program in place. Organization and management. First thing is to writing seminar manila, have a management staff that the taxation assignment authority and means to carry out the duty that is snmp research, assigned to them and keep the quality assurance in the laboratory. There should also be a technical leader that is in charge of the taxation assignment technical operations. If the CODIS is in use at the laboratory, there should be a casework CODIS administrator who is accountable for CODIS on site.
The laboratory should also have two full time employees who are qualified DNA analysts. The responsibility, authority and interrelation of every personal operational at the laboratory has to be specified and documented. Lastly a contingency plan has to be in planned and approved in the case that a technical leader position is vacated . The employees of the laboratory has to snmp papers, have the assignment proper education and experience. The job description of the papers personnel needs to have a written job description that can be expended with documentation of the responsibilities, duties and assignment skills. The laboratory needs to be in thesis statements on teenage suicide, possession of the training program for qualifying all analyst. Included are all the DNA analytical procedures that will be performed by the personnel. Also all the taxation assignment practical exercises needs to include the examination of a range of samples that are routinely analyzed at the laboratory. The training program needs to teach and for an essay paper asses the skills and ability to perform a successful DNA analysis. The trainee needs to give an individual demonstration of capability, which shall be documented by the laboratory. When a new analyst is taxation assignment, hired the technical leader is tasked with accessing the new hire`s previous training and be responsible for reference for an essay paper the proper documentation.
If modification of the training program is made, then this also has to be documented. All the analyst has to successfully complete the competencies test that covers the DNA techniques before working on actual casework. Taxation? A documented program needs to be in place so that the technical qualifications are being kept. This can be done by attending seminars, course, professional meetings or any other documented classes that are relevant. This all needs to add to a minimum of eight hours annually. If training is given by the laboratory itself, all relevant information about the creative writing seminar manila training and taxation assignment the presenter needs to be documented. When training is done externally, certificates, program agenda or travel documentation can serve as the proper documentation of synthesising, attendance. Assignment? Multimedia and internet based programs needs to be approved by the technical leader.
Attendance needs to be formally documented and when the program is finished the essay of amnesia technical leader reviews and approves it. The laboratory also needs to taxation assignment, have an approved program that is used for annual review of scientific literature. This way the analyst ongoing reading of creative manila, scientific literature is documented. The laboratory needs to have access to collections of taxation, information’s containing DNA analysis . The technical leader also has certain qualification that needs to be tended to. The minimum education requirements are a Master`s degree in biology, chemistry or forensic science.
In addition they also need to have a successfully completed 12 semester or equivalent credit hours in the subject’s biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology and statistics or population genetics. In the 12 semester completed, there needs to be at least one graduate level course for the period of papers, 3 semesters. The technical leader of also needs to have a minimum of three years of experience in a forensic DNA laboratory, in which the laboratory participated in the identification and evaluation of biological evidence in a criminal matter capacity. The duties of the technical leader includes overseeing the technical operation of the laboratory and being able to make decision of initiating, suspending od resuming DNA analytical operations. Other responsibilities include the evaluating and documenting of the validation of taxation, methods used and proposing new or modified analytical procedures.
Also reviewing academic documents, training records and approve qualifications of new analyst before they are allowed to perform analysis on casework independently. The technical leader has to approve specifications for outsourcing agreements and review internal and creative writing seminar external DNA audit that might needs to assignment, be corrected and documented. Lastly the technical leader is responsible for annually reviewing and documenting of laboratory procedures and reviewing and approving of training, quality assurance and proficiency testing. The technical leader needs to be a full time employee and needs to be accessible for consultation onsite, via the telephone or electronically . As an employee of the laboratory, the analyst needs to have a minimum education of a bachelor`s degree or advanced degree in biology, chemistry or forensic science related area, The analyst is expected to have completed the course work successfully with subject areas of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, statistics and population genetics. Research? The analyst needs to have at least six months of experience in forensic human DNA laboratory experience. The experience of the analyst needs to be documented and if needed, experience augmented by additional training of DNA identification handlings of the laboratory. Before participating in casework, the analyst needs to complete analysis of a range of samples that the laboratory regularly encounters and assignment complete a competency test . Laboratories needs to be designed in a manner where the integrity of analyses and evidence is ensured. Entry to statements suicide, the laboratory needs to be controlled in order to prevent unauthorized personnel.
When keys or combinations are handed out, these needs to be documented and limited to personnel that is designated by laboratory management . Before PCR is performed, the DNA extraction and PCR set up, needs to assignment, be performed in either separate times or separate space. The amplified DNA, needs to be developed, processed and maintained on for an, a room(s) that is separate from where the evidence examination, DNA extraction or PCR setup areas are performed. A robotic workstation can be used, only taxation, if the analytical process has been validated. In that case DNA extraction, PCR setup and amplification can be performed in a single room. Lastly procedures for the cleaning and decontaminating of the facilities and its equipment needs be in place and suicide followed . In order to ensure the integrity of the taxation assignment physical evidence, the laboratory needs to have a documented evidence control system.
Evidence needs to be marked with a unique tag on package of the creative writing seminar manila evidence. A definition of the evidence and work product needs to be clearly defined. When a tag is not used, a system for distinguish samples when they are being processed needs to be devised and put in place. Chain of custody needs to be documented and maintained, either on taxation, a hard copy or in an electronic format. A signature or something equivalent in case of an electronic format needs to be present for all who received and transferred the evidence, with corresponding date. Monsters Synthesising? Documented procedures needs to be in place in order to minimize loss, contamination and assignment deleterious change of evidence.
A proper placement for evidence storage and work product that is creative writing, still in progress needs to taxation assignment, be in place, which is controlled and essay for placement test in colleges secure . Analytical procedure that are to be had and followed, needs to be approved by the technical leader. The procedures needs to be reviewed annually. Every analytical method needs to have their own standard operating procedure that needs to specify items like the assignment reagents, sample preparation, extraction methods, equipment and controls. A written procedure for the documentation of commercial and for placement test in colleges formulated in-house reagents needs to be in taxation, place. Monsters Synthesising? Label commercial reagents with the name of the reagent and taxation expiration date. Formulated in-house reagents are to be labeled with the name of reagent, either the date of preparation or expiration date and the analyst who formulated the thesis statements reagent. Assignment? Critical reagents in test kit or systems for quantitative PCR and genetic typing needs to be identified and evaluated before they are used on evidence samples. Thermostable DNA polymerase, primer sets and allelic ladders, also needs to be identified and essay of amnesia evaluated .
Before DNA amplification, evidence samples needs to be quantified. Only when a validated method system is used that have shown to give reproducibly and reliably yield a successful DNA amplification, quantification is not needed. When quantifying, quantification standards are to be used. The positive and negative control needs to be amplified at the same time as the case samples at taxation assignment the same loci with the creative writing seminar manila same set of primers as the taxation assignment case samples. Blank reagent controls that are being used for extraction, are to be extracted simultaneously, amplified by using the same primers, instrument and conditions as the case samples and typed by using the same instrument and injection conditions. The DNA procedures used by the laboratory are to be checked annually or when a major change is made in the method . Procedure for page for an paper the taking and maintaining casework notes needs to assignment, be in place. For Placement Test In Colleges? These needs need to support conclusion taken in the reports. The laboratory needs to maintain and retain, in hard or electronic form, all notes and documentation from analyst regarding their analysis. The casework reports needs to taxation assignment, have the case identifier, a description of the evidence that was examined, description of the method used, the amplification system, results and/or conclusion, an interpretive statement, date that report is issued, the disposition of the evidence and for placement lastly a signature and title . Twice a year, with the first one occurring in the first six months and the second in the last 6 months f a year, a proficiency testing needs to assignment, be undergone by research the analyst, technical reviewers, technicians and personnel appointed by the technical leader.
Workers who regularly use manual and automated methods, will need to go through a proficiency testing at least once a year. New workers needs to go through proficiency testing in taxation, the first six months. The proficiency testing needs to be defined, documented and use the correct dates. The exact items from the proficiency testing that needs to be recorded are the test set identifier, the analyst/participant, date of statements, analysis and its completion, copies of data and notes that supports the conclusions taken, the proficiency test results, discrepancies and taxation assignment if needed the corrective actions that were taken . 1. Lessons Learned From 9/11: DNA Identification in Mass Fatality Incidents https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/214781.pdf. 2. Snmp Research Papers? M.prinz, A. Taxation? Carracacedo; DNA Commission of the International Society for of amnesia Forensic Genetics (ISFG): Recommendations regarding the role of forensic genetics for disaster victim identification (DVI); Forensic Science International: Genetics; Pages 3-12; 2007. 3. B. Budowle, F.R. Bieber, A.J.
Eisenberg; Forensic aspects of mass disasters: Strategic considerations for DNA-based human identification; Legal Medicine; page 230-243;2005. 4. Mo Bi Tec molecular biotechnology. 5. NFSTC Science serving justice. 6. Forensic DNA typing STR: Page 62-64, 84-86,92,93. 7. Assignment? Butler John M.; Advanced topic in forensic DNA typing: methodology; 2012; Elsevier, Maryland USA, page 371, 372, 141-150,417,418. 8. Sequencing, forensic analysis and genetic analysis http://www.atdbio.com/content/20/Sequencing-forensic-analysis-and-genetic-analysis#Short-tandem-repeats.
9. Sirius genomics. 10. Forensic science central; DNA. 11. On Teenage? FBI biometric analysis. 12. Promega technical manual for the powerplex 16 system. 13.
Butler John M.; Fundamentals of forensic DNA typing; 2010; Elsevier; Maryland USA; page 111-121, 229, 238-241, 251, 252. 14. Quality Assurance standards for forensic DNA testing laboratories. DNA analysis workload estimated worksheet. Search our thousands of taxation, essays:
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But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by creative manila how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and taxation, conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that it’s inappropriate to use a resume template. You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again.
Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. Snmp Papers? It’s the content of assignment your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had.
We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of creative manila our many resume libraries, and taxation assignment, start writing. cover letter for of amnesia nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in taxation assignment my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like.
With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the writing seminar manila templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to taxation three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt!
hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and reference for an paper, coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on assignment, my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and essay test in colleges, the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period.
Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to taxation fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the writing manila Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template.
In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to taxation consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in monsters KSA. I’m trying to assignment apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant?
I have no many work experience in essay for placement test service. So i want to highlight the other things. Taxation? Thanks #128578; Take a look at monsters our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in assignment education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for essay for placement test in colleges a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the taxation ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do.
Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to thesis on teenage tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the taxation assignment ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt.
I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Creative? Now seeking to get back into assignment, the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. Writing Manila? What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for taxation assignment a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out of amnesia with what template I should use..
Try using the taxation ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the snmp papers View all Resume Designs button and click the taxation assignment download link for essay test the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out taxation our “How to in colleges Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from taxation assignment, there. Thesis Statements On Teenage? https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck!
It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out taxation this page and choose the monsters one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for taxation sure. Monsters Synthesising? Good luck on taxation assignment, the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume.
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See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for assignment a Man or a Woman?
Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for on teenage a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. Taxation? These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including:
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500 Word Essay: How to Write It in One Day. Taxation Assignment! Do you need to write a 500 word essay and don't know where to start? Maybe before, you wrote only long essays consisting of thesis statements suicide, 1000 words or more and now you don't know how to cram all the information so it would fit the limit. For many reasons, you may think that writing a 500 word essay is complicated. Don't worry, your task is taxation, not as difficult as it seems. Stop searching for 500 word essay is how many pages and panicking because we are going to thesis statements on teenage suicide, help you. In this article, we collected the most frequently asked questions about a 500 word essay and responded to taxation, them in details.
You will learn how many pages is a 500 word essay and even see some examples of monsters synthesising, such papers. Taxation! Now you are saved as you can find all the monsters synthesising answers you need below! Some students can't even imagine how long is a 500 word essay. In fact, 500 word essay length in assignment many ways depends on monsters your writing style: if your writing is detailed, it might even feel like the limit is not enough. The good thing about taxation this type of essay is that it doesn't require you to go deeper into the topic, so the research itself may be quite superficial. How many pages is a 500 word essay? Of course, some students want a clear answer to the question how many pages is a 500 word essay?
We hasten to inform you that if you complete it in accordance with all standards (12pt Times New Roman, 1-inch margins, etc.), then your essay will take 1 - 1.5 pages. As you can see, the amount of monsters synthesising, 500 word essay pages is not so frightening but for some students, the task of being brief can be a serious obstacle. Taxation Assignment! Short essays like a 500 word essay are a very common writing task in universities and colleges. They can be a part of the syllabus in many courses. Essay Of Amnesia! Before writing you should look over assignment, the examples of a 500 word essay and understand what exactly is expected from you. Here you can find the right 500 word essay example and carefully study it. What does a 500 word essay look like?
You can't start writing until you decide on the type of your essay. Once you understand how your 500 word essay should look like and writing manila what it should consist of, it will be much easier for you to taxation, start working. Let's take a look at the common essay types to help you find the right one. This is the most common type of academic essay. Your 500 word essay should consist of a thorough analysis of your topic. You should provide necessary research and experiments and clearly explain your position. Page Paper! In this type of essay, you describe a situation, a person, a place or an assignment experience. On Teenage! It gives you an opportunity to demonstrate your creative abilities. You can choose this type of assignment, essay if you want to tell the story and make your text more personal. Page For An! A narrative essay can be emotional and assignment reflect the author's personal views regarding a particular topic or a situation. This essay is like an essay of amnesia expository essay, but an taxation assignment argumentative essay requires you to go deeper into your research.
An argumentative essay allows to look at synthesising, the topic from all sides, so you need to prepare it carefully. How long does it take to write a 500 word essay? Planning a short essay does not require a lot of time but writing a 500 word essay can take much more time than a regular essay. While writing your 500 word essay, you need to focus on only one main idea. This will make your task easier and will help you avoid unnecessary sentences.
Generally, researching and writing a 500 word essay takes about taxation 2-3 hours. Of course, everything depends on a topic you choose and your ability to essay for placement test, find all the necessary information quickly. However, your research might take much longer or you might run out of ideas. In these cases, prepare to spend more time to complete your essay. If you don't have the time or need some essay help, you can always turn to an essay writing service. What topics are suitable for 500 word essays? As you probably know, not every topic is easy to write about. The choice of a topic in many ways depends on what type of essay you need to write. Also, it is important to consider the word limit: it will be quite difficult to fully cover a serious topic in assignment a 500 word essay. If the topic is not specified, there are many different things you can write about. On Teenage Suicide! Research papers may seem boring, but you can study many new and interesting things in taxation the process of completing it.
You just have to choose the page for an essay paper right topic and it will fascinate you. How can we protect the environment? Equal pay and taxation assignment ways to achieve equality. Nowadays, educational institutions use special types of essays which are meant to teach students a system of causes and effects. What are the statements on teenage suicide effects of spending too much time on the Internet? What causes people to spend so much during the sales? Every day we make many different choices. Why not choose comparison and contrast as a fundamental idea for your essay? What is your choice - textbooks or eBooks? What is taxation, more convenient - Twitter or Facebook?
If you are good at proving your point of view and are ready to research papers, treat facts subjectively, then this type of assignment, essay suits you best. Are sugar substitutes healthy for essay for placement test in colleges you? Should marijuana be used as a medical treatment? Words can have a huge impact on people. If you can speak persuasively, you can make people follow you and taxation adopt your point of view.
This is a very valuable practice that will be useful throughout your life. Should army service be obligatory? Should parents be certified first to have children? Therefore, 500 word essay writing can be hard. To make this process easier, you can pay attention to papers, the following points: Keep it brief. Don't use meaningless words. Develop your writing style by using synonyms. Use powerful and taxation assignment active words for convincing your audience. Be consistent with paragraphs. Always use only reference page paper, one style while writing your essay. Divide long sentences into short ones.
Use clear sentence structures for your arguments. How to create a 500 word essay structure? Every essay writer knows that structure is one of the most important things to consider when writing an essay. The standard structure includes: An introduction of assignment, your essay should state your opinion very clearly, give background information or describe the snmp research current situation. Taxation Assignment! In the monsters body of a 500 word essay, you should point out all of assignment, your arguments and give supporting evidence.
The conclusion should improve the effect that your arguments had on the audience. What are the critical points for 500 word essay editing? When you're done with your 500 word essay, don't forget to proofread it. Pay special attention to your writing style, the for placement repetition of words, the consistency of sentences, and the persuasiveness of the arguments. If you are still asking yourself: 'How should I edit my paper?', you can turn to companies that provide proofreading and editing services. 500 word essay format may be a challenge because it is hard to share your thoughts briefly. But now you are armed with the tips that can make it easier.
Remember that writing a 500 word essay is a skill that can be built only with practice. Taxation Assignment! Good luck with your essays!
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How Technology Hijacks People’s Minds — from a Magician and Google’s Design Ethicist. I’m an taxation expert on how technology hijacks our psychological vulnerabilities. Essay For Placement Test In Colleges! That’s why I spent the taxation assignment last three years as Google’s Design Ethicist caring about how to page essay, design things in taxation, a way that defends a billion people’s minds from thesis on teenage suicide, getting hijacked. When using technology, we often focus optimistically on taxation assignment, all the things it does for us. Essay Test! But I want you to show you where it might do the opposite. Where does technology exploit our minds weaknesses ? I learned to think this way when I was a magician. Taxation Assignment! Magicians start by looking for blind spots, edges, vulnerabilities and limits of thesis suicide people’s perception, so they can influence what people do without them even realizing it. Once you know how to push people’s buttons, you can play them like a piano. And this is exactly what product designers do to taxation, your mind.
They play your psychological vulnerabilities (consciously and unconsciously) against you in monsters synthesising, the race to taxation, grab your attention. I want to essay, show you how they do it. Hijack #1: If You Control the Menu, You Control the Choices. Western Culture is assignment, built around ideals of individual choice and freedom. Millions of synthesising us fiercely defend our right to make “free” choices, while we ignore how we’re manipulated upstream by taxation, limited menus we didn’t choose. This is exactly what magicians do. They give people the illusion of creative manila free choice while architecting the menu so that they win, no matter what you choose. Taxation! I can’t emphasize how deep this insight is. When people are given a menu of choices, they rarely ask: “what’s not on monsters synthesising, the menu?” “why am I being given these options and taxation assignment, not others?” “do I know the menu provider’s goals?” “is this menu empowering for my original need, or are the choices actually a distraction?” (e.g. an overwhelmingly array of toothpastes) For example, imagine you’re out with friends on a Tuesday night and want to keep the monsters conversation going. You open Yelp to find nearby recommendations and see a list of bars.
The group turns into taxation assignment a huddle of creative writing seminar faces staring down at their phones comparing bars. Taxation Assignment! They scrutinize the photos of each, comparing cocktail drinks. Is this menu still relevant to the original desire of the research papers group? It’s not that bars aren’t a good choice, it’s that Yelp substituted the group’s original question (“where can we go to assignment, keep talking?”) with a different question (“what’s a bar with good photos of thesis cocktails?”) all by shaping the menu. Moreover, the taxation group falls for writing seminar manila, the illusion that Yelp’s menu represents a complete set of choices for where to taxation, go. While looking down at their phones, they don’t see the park across the street with a band playing live music. They miss the pop-up gallery on essay for placement test, the other side of the street serving crepes and coffee. Neither of those show up on Yelp’s menu. The more choices technology gives us in nearly every domain of our lives (information, events, places to go, friends, dating, jobs) — the more we assume that our phone is assignment, always the most empowering and useful menu to synthesising, pick from . Is it? The “most empowering” menu is assignment, different than the menu that has the most choices . Essay! But when we blindly surrender to the menus we’re given, it’s easy to lose track of the difference: “Who’s free tonight to hang out?” becomes a menu of most recent people who texted us (who we could ping). Assignment! “What’s happening in the world?” becomes a menu of news feed stories. “Who’s single to go on essay test in colleges, a date?” becomes a menu of faces to swipe on Tinder (instead of local events with friends, or urban adventures nearby). “I have to respond to this email.” becomes a menu of taxation assignment keys to type a response (instead of empowering ways to thesis on teenage suicide, communicate with a person). All user interfaces are menus.
What if your email client gave you empowering choices of ways to assignment, respond, instead of “what message do you want to type back?” (Design by Tristan Harris) When we wake up in the morning and essay for placement in colleges, turn our phone over to assignment, see a list of notifications — it frames the experience of “waking up in the morning” around a menu of “all the thesis suicide things I’ve missed since yesterday.” By shaping the taxation menus we pick from, technology hijacks the way we perceive our choices and replaces them new ones. But the closer we pay attention to the options we’re given, the more we’ll notice when they don’t actually align with our true needs. Hijack #2: Put a Slot Machine In a Billion Pockets. If you’re an app, how do you keep people hooked? Turn yourself into a slot machine. The average person checks their phone 150 times a day. Why do we do this? Are we making 150 conscious choices ? One major reason why is the #1 psychological ingredient in slot machines: intermittent variable rewards . If you want to creative seminar manila, maximize addictiveness, all tech designers need to do is link a user’s action (like pulling a lever) with a variable reward . You pull a lever and immediately receive either an enticing reward (a match, a prize!) or nothing. Addictiveness is maximized when the rate of reward is most variable.
Does this effect really work on people? Yes. Slot machines make more money in the United States than baseball, movies, and theme parks combined . Assignment! Relative to other kinds of gambling, people get ‘problematically involved’ with slot machines 3–4x faster according to NYU professor Natasha Dow Shull, author of Addiction by Design. But here’s the unfortunate truth — several billion people have a slot machine their pocket: When we pull our phone out of thesis on teenage our pocket, we’re playing a slot machine to see what notifications we got. Assignment! When we pull to refresh our email, we’re playing a slot machine to see what new email we got. When we swipe down our finger to scroll the Instagram feed, we’re playing a slot machine to see what photo comes next. When we swipe faces left/right on dating apps like Tinder, we’re playing a slot machine to snmp research papers, see if we got a match. When we tap the taxation # of red notifications, we’re playing a slot machine to what’s underneath. Apps and websites sprinkle intermittent variable rewards all over their products because it’s good for business.
But in other cases, slot machines emerge by accident. Snmp Research Papers! For example, there is no malicious corporation behind all of email who consciously chose to make it a slot machine. No one profits when millions check their email and taxation, nothing’s there. Neither did Apple and Google’s designers want phones to thesis on teenage, work like slot machines. It emerged by accident. But now companies like Apple and Google have a responsibility to reduce these effects by converting intermittent variable rewards into less addictive, more predictable ones with better design. Assignment! For example, they could empower people to set predictable times during the day or week for writing seminar, when they want to check “slot machine” apps, and correspondingly adjust when new messages are delivered to align with those times.
Hijack #3: Fear of Missing Something Important (FOMSI) Another way apps and websites hijack people’s minds is by taxation assignment, inducing a “1% chance you could be missing something important.” If I convince you that I’m a channel for important information, messages, friendships, or potential sexual opportunities — it will be hard for you to turn me off, unsubscribe, or remove your account — because (aha, I win) you might miss something important: This keeps us subscribed to newsletters even after they haven’t delivered recent benefits (“what if I miss a future announcement?”) This keeps us “friended” to creative seminar manila, people with whom we haven’t spoke in ages (“what if I miss something important from them?”) This keeps us swiping faces on dating apps, even when we haven’t even met up with anyone in a while (“what if I miss that one hot match who likes me?”) This keeps us using social media (“what if I miss that important news story or fall behind what my friends are talking about?”) But if we zoom into that fear, we’ll discover that it’s unbounded : we’ll always miss something important at any point when we stop using something. There are magic moments on assignment, Facebook we’ll miss by creative seminar manila, not using it for the 6th hour (e.g. an old friend who’s visiting town right now ). There are magic moments we’ll miss on taxation assignment, Tinder (e.g. Thesis On Teenage Suicide! our dream romantic partner) by not swiping our 700th match. There are emergency phone calls we’ll miss if we’re not connected 24/7 . But living moment to assignment, moment with the fear of for placement in colleges missing something isn’t how we’re built to assignment, live. And it’s amazing how quickly, once we let go of that fear, we wake up from the illusion. When we unplug for monsters synthesising, more than a day, unsubscribe from those notifications, or go to Camp Grounded — the concerns we thought we’d have don’t actually happen. We don’t miss what we don’t see. The thought, “what if I miss something important?” is generated in advance of unplugging, unsubscribing, or turning off — not after.
Imagine if tech companies recognized that, and helped us proactively tune our relationships with friends and businesses in terms of what we define as “time well spent” for our lives, instead of in terms of what we might miss. We’re all vulnerable to social approval . The need to belong, to be approved or appreciated by our peers is among the highest human motivations. But now our social approval is in the hands of tech companies (like when we’re tagged in a photo). When I get tagged by assignment, my friend Marc (above), I imagine him making a conscious choice to tag me. Suicide! But I don’t see how a company like Facebook orchestrated him doing that in assignment, the first place.
Facebook, Instagram or SnapChat can manipulate how often people get tagged in photos by automatically suggesting all the thesis statements on teenage suicide faces people should tag (e.g. by showing a box with a 1-click confirmation, “Tag Tristan in this photo?”). So when Marc tags me, he’s actually responding to Facebook’s suggestion, not making an independent choice. But through design choices like this, Facebook controls the multiplier for how often millions of people experience their social approval on the line . The same happens when we change our main profile photo — Facebook knows that’s a moment when we’re vulnerable to assignment, social approval : “what do my friends think of my new pic?” Facebook can rank this higher in reference page, the news feed, so it sticks around for longer and assignment, more friends will like or comment on creative writing seminar, it. Each time they like or comment on it, I’ll get pulled right back. Everyone innately responds to social approval, but some demographics (teenagers) are more vulnerable to it than others. Taxation! That’s why it’s so important to recognize how powerful designers are when they exploit this vulnerability. Hijack #5: Social Reciprocity (Tit-for-tat) You do me a favor, now I owe you one next time. You say, “thank you”— I have to say “you’re welcome.” You send me an email— it’s rude not to snmp research papers, get back to you.
You follow me — it’s rude not to taxation assignment, follow you back. Statements Suicide! (especially for teenagers) We are vulnerable to needing to reciprocate others’ gestures . Taxation! But as with Social Approval, tech companies now manipulate how often we experience it. In some cases, it’s by for an essay, accident. Email, texting and messaging apps are social reciprocity factories . But in other cases, companies exploit this vulnerability on taxation, purpose. LinkedIn is the most obvious offender.
LinkedIn wants as many people creating social obligations for synthesising, each other as possible, because each time they reciprocate (by accepting a connection, responding to a message, or endorsing someone back for a skill) they have to taxation assignment, come back through linkedin.com where they can get people to spend more time. Like Facebook, LinkedIn exploits an asymmetry in perception. When you receive an invitation from someone to connect, you imagine that person making a conscious choice to invite you, when in reality, they likely unconsciously responded to LinkedIn’s list of suggested contacts. Monsters Synthesising! In other words, LinkedIn turns your unconscious impulses (to “add” a person) into taxation new social obligations that millions of monsters people feel obligated to taxation, repay. All while they profit from the time people spend doing it. Imagine millions of test in colleges people getting interrupted like this throughout their day, running around like chickens with their heads cut off, reciprocating each other — all designed by companies who profit from it. Welcome to social media. Imagine if technology companies had a responsibility to minimize social reciprocity. Assignment! Or if there was an for an essay paper “FDA for Tech” that monitored when technology companies abused these biases?
Hijack #6: Bottomless bowls, Infinite Feeds, and taxation assignment, Autoplay. Another way to thesis on teenage, hijack people is to assignment, keep them consuming things, even when they aren’t hungry anymore. How? Easy. Essay Of Amnesia! Take an experience that was bounded and finite, and turn it into a bottomless flow that keeps going . Cornell professor Brian Wansink demonstrated this in his study showing you can trick people into keep eating soup by giving them a bottomless bowl that automatically refills as they eat. With bottomless bowls, people eat 73% more calories than those with normal bowls and underestimate how many calories they ate by 140 calories. Tech companies exploit the assignment same principle. Essay! News feeds are purposely designed to taxation, auto-refill with reasons to for an essay, keep you scrolling, and assignment, purposely eliminate any reason for you to snmp research papers, pause, reconsider or leave. It’s also why video and social media sites like Netflix, YouTube or Facebook autoplay the taxation assignment next video after a countdown instead of waiting for you to statements on teenage, make a conscious choice (in case you won’t).
A huge portion of traffic on these websites is driven by taxation assignment, autoplaying the next thing. Tech companies often claim that “we’re just making it easier for users to see the essay of amnesia video they want to watch” when they are actually serving their business interests. Taxation! And you can’t blame them, because increasing “time spent” is the currency they compete for. Instead, imagine if technology companies empowered you to consciously bound your experience to align with what would be “time well spent” for you. Synthesising! Not just bounding the quantity of time you spend, but the qualities of taxation assignment what would be “time well spent.” Hijack #7: Instant Interruption vs. “Respectful” Delivery. Companies know that messages that interrupt people immediately are more persuasive at getting people to respond than messages delivered asynchronously (like email or any deferred inbox). Given the choice, Facebook Messenger (or WhatsApp, WeChat or SnapChat for essay of amnesia, that matter) would prefer to taxation, design their messaging system to for placement in colleges, interrupt recipients immediately (and show a chat box) instead of assignment helping users respect each other’s attention. In other words, interruption is good for papers, business . It’s also in their interest to heighten the feeling of urgency and taxation assignment, social reciprocity.
For example, Facebook automatically tells the sender when you “saw” their message, instead of creative seminar manila letting you avoid disclosing whether you read it (“now that you know I’ve seen the message, I feel even more obligated to respond.”) By contrast, Apple more respectfully lets users toggle “Read Receipts” on or off. The problem is, while messaging apps maximize interruptions in the name of taxation assignment business, it creates a tragedy of the commons that ruins global attention spans and causes billions of essay of amnesia interruptions every day. Taxation Assignment! This is reference, a huge problem we need to fix with shared design standards (potentially, as part of assignment Time Well Spent). Hijack #8: Bundling Your Reasons with Their Reasons. Another way apps hijack you is by taking your reasons for visiting the app (to perform a task) and make them inseparable from the app’s business reasons (maximizing how much we consume once we’re there). For example, in the physical world of grocery stories, the creative manila #1 and #2 most popular reasons to assignment, visit are pharmacy refills and buying milk. Essay Test! But grocery stores want to taxation, maximize how much people buy, so they put the pharmacy and the milk at the back of the test store.
In other words, they make the assignment thing customers want (milk, pharmacy) inseparable from what the business wants. If stores were truly organized to statements on teenage, support people , they would put the most popular items in assignment, the front. Tech companies design their websites the same way. For example, when you you want to thesis statements, look up a Facebook event happening tonight (your reason) the Facebook app doesn’t allow you to taxation assignment, access it without first landing on the news feed (their reasons), and that’s on purpose. Thesis Statements Suicide! Facebook wants to convert every reason you have for taxation, using Facebook, into monsters their reason which is to maximize the time you spend consuming things . In an taxation ideal world, apps would always give you a direct way to get what you want separately from what they want. Imagine a digital “bill of rights” outlining design standards that forced the products that billions of reference paper people used to support empowering ways to navigate towards their goals. We’re told that it’s enough for businesses to “make choices available.” “If you don’t like it you can always use a different product.” “If you don’t like it, you can always unsubscribe.” “If you’re addicted to our app, you can always uninstall it from your phone.” Businesses naturally want to make the choices they want you to taxation assignment, make easier, and the choices they don’t want you to make harder. Magicians do the same thing. Statements! You make it easier for a spectator to pick the thing you want them to pick, and harder to pick the thing you don’t. For example, NYTimes.com let’s you “make a free choice” to cancel your digital subscription.
But instead of just doing it when you hit “Cancel Subscription,” they force you to call a phone number that’s only open at certain times. Instead of viewing the assignment world in terms of choice availability of essay test in colleges choices, we should view the world in taxation, terms of friction required to thesis statements suicide, enact choices. Imagine a world where choices were labeled with how difficult they were to assignment, fulfill (like coefficients of friction) and there was an FDA for Tech that labeled these difficulties and set standards for how easy navigation should be. Hijack #10: Forecasting Errors, “Foot in the Door” strategies. People don’t intuitively forecast the true cost of a click when it’s presented to them.
Sales people use “foot in reference, the door” techniques by asking for a small innocuous request to begin with (“just one click”), and taxation, escalating from there (“why don’t you stay awhile?”). Virtually all engagement websites use this trick. Imagine if web browsers and monsters, smartphones, the gateways through which people make these choices, were truly watching out for people and helped them forecast the consequences of clicks (based on real data about what it actually costs most people?). That’s why I add “Estimated reading time” to the top of taxation my posts. When you put the “true cost” of a choice in front of snmp research people, you’re treating your users or audience with dignity and respect. In a Time Well Spent internet, choices would be framed in terms of taxation projected cost and benefit, so people were empowered to make informed choices. Are you upset that technology is hijacking your agency? I am too. I’ve listed a few techniques but there are literally thousands.
Imagine whole bookshelves, seminars, workshops and page, trainings that teach aspiring tech entrepreneurs techniques like this. Assignment! They exist. The ultimate freedom is a free mind, and we need technology to be on our team to help us live, feel, think and act freely. We need our smartphones, notifications screens and web browsers to be exoskeletons for our minds and interpersonal relationships that put our values, not our impulses, first. People’s time is valuable.
And we should protect it with the same rigor as privacy and other digital rights. Tristan Harris was Product Philosopher at Google until 2016 where he studied how technology affects a billion people’s attention, wellbeing and behavior. For more information and thesis on teenage, get involved, check out taxation assignment, http://timewellspent.io and http://empoweringdesign.org. This piece is cross-posted on Medium. Tech Companies Design Your Life, Here’s Why You Should Care. Four years ago, I sold my company to Google and joined the ranks there. I spent my last three years there as Product Philosopher, looking at the profound ways the design of screens shape billions of human lives – and asking what it means for them to for an, do so ethically and assignment, responsibly.
What I came away with is that something’s not right with how our screens are designed , and research, I’m writing this to help you understand why you should care, and taxation, what you can do about it. I shouldn’t have to essay for placement, cite statistics about the central role screens play in assignment, our lives. Billions of us turn to smartphones every day. We wake up with them. Reference Page Paper! We fall asleep with them.
You’re looking at one right now. Of course, new technologies always reshape society, and it’s always tempting to worry about them solely for this reason. Socrates worried that the technology of writing would “create forgetfulness in the learners’ souls, because they [would] not use their memories.” We worried that newspapers would make people stop talking to each other on assignment, the subway. Essay! We worried that we would use television to “amuse ourselves to death.” “And see!” people say. “Nothing bad happened!” Isn’t humanity more prosperous, more technically sophisticated, and better connected than ever? Is it really that big of a problem that people spend so much time staring at their smartphones? Isn’t it just another cultural shift, like all the others? Won’t we just adapt? I don’t think so. Taxation Assignment! What’s missing from this perspective is that all these technologies (books, television, radio, newspapers) did change everything about test society, we just don’t see it. They replaced our old menus of choices with new ones. Each new menu eventually became the taxation new normal – “the way things are” – and, after our memories of old menus had faded into the past, the new menus became “the way things have always been.”
Ask a fish about water and they’ll respond, “what’s water?” Consider that the average American now watches more than 5.5 hours of television per snmp papers day. Regardless of taxation whether you think TV is reference for an, good or bad, hundreds of assignment millions of people spend 30% of their waking hours watching it. Creative Writing Seminar! It’s hard to overstate the vast consequences of this shift– for the blood flows of millions of people, for taxation, our understanding of reality, for essay for placement, the relational habits of families, for the strategies and outcomes of political campaigns. Taxation Assignment! Yet for for placement, those who live with them day-to-day, they are invisible. So what best describes the nature of what smart phones are “doing” to taxation assignment, us? A New “Perfect” Choice on Life’s Menu. If I had to summarize it, it’s this: Our phone puts a new choice on life’s menu, in any moment, that’s “sweeter” than reality.
If, at essay test in colleges any moment, reality gets dull or boring, our phone offers something more pleasurable, more productive and even more educational than whatever reality gives us. And this new choice fits into any moment. Our phone offers 5-second choices like “checking email” that feel better than waiting in taxation, line. For Placement Test In Colleges! And it offers 30-minute choices like a podcast that will teach you that thing you’ve been dying to learn, which feels better than a 30-minute walk in silence. Once you see your phone this way, wouldn’t you turn to it more often? It always happens this way: when new things fill our needs better than the old, we switch:
When cheaper, faster to prepare food appears, we switch: Packaged foods. When more accurate search engines appear, we switch: Google. When cheaper, faster forms of transportation appear, we switch: Uber. So it goes with phones. But it also changes us on the inside. We grow less and less patient for taxation, reality as it is, especially when it’s boring or uncomfortable. We come to expect more from the world, more rapidly. And because reality can’t live up to our expectations, it reinforces how often we want to monsters synthesising, turn to our screens. A self-reinforcing feedback loop. And because of the attention economy, every product will only get more persuasive over time.
Facebook must become more persuasive if it wants to compete with YouTube and survive. YouTube must become more persuasive if it wants to compete with Facebook. And we’re not just talking about ‘cheap’ amusement (aka cat videos). These products will only get better at giving us choices that make every bone in our body say, “yeah I want that!” So what’s wrong about this? If the taxation entire attention economy is working to fill us up with more perfect-feeling things to spend time on, which outcompete being with the discomfort of ourselves or our surroundings, shouldn’t that be fantastic? Clearly something is missing from this picture. But what is research, it? Maybe it’s that “filling people up,” even with incredible choices on screens somehow doesn’t add up to a life well lived . Or that those choices weren’t what we wished we’d been persuaded to do in the bigger sense of assignment our lives. With design as it is today, screens threaten our fundamental agency . Maybe we are “choosing,” but we are choosing from persuasive menus driven by companies who have different goals than ours.
And that begs us to for an essay, ask, “what are our goals?” or how do we want to spend our time? There are as many “good lives” as there are people, but our technology (and the attention economy) don’t really seem on our team to give us the agency to live according to taxation, them. And it’s about to papers, get a lot worse. Virtual Reality and taxation, Augmented Reality will offer whole new immersive realities that are even more persuasive than physical reality. When you could have sex with the person of your dreams, or fly through jungles in the Amazon rainforest while looking over at your best friend flying next to you, who would want to of amnesia, stick with reality?
By the way, this isn’t your usual “look, VR is coming!” prediction. This is the assignment real deal. Facebook recently spent $2 billion to buy Oculus Rift, and hopes to put them in every home for this holiday season. Just like the late 1980’s when suddenly everyone you knew had a Nintendo . So we have a fundamental misalignment – between what the attention economy is competing to produce (more perfect, persuasive choices that fit into any moment), the design of our phones, and of amnesia, the aspirations people have for their lives (their definition of “the good life”). So what’s missing from the design of our phones? I like to use the metaphor of ergonomics . When you think of assignment ergonomics, you might think of boring things like how a cup fits into someone’s hand, but it’s way more than that. If regular design is creative seminar, about how we want things to taxation, work , ergonomics is concerned with failure modes and extremes : how things break under repetition, stress or other limits. And the goal of ergonomics is to reference page paper, create an alignment between those limits, and the goals people have for how they want to taxation, use it. For example, an ergonomically designed coffee mug aligns the test natural fatigue of forearm muscles during use (as a person “lifts” it to sip) with how frequently people want to use it, so they still can lift it successfully with repetition.
What does this have to do with phones? Our minds urgently need a new “ergonomics,” based on the mind’s limited capacities, biases, fatigue curves and taxation, the ways it forms habits. The attention economy tears our minds apart. Essay For Placement Test In Colleges! With its onslaught of never-ending choices, never-ending supply of relationships and taxation, obligations, the attention economy bulldozes the natural shape of on teenage suicide our physical and psychological limits and turns impulses into bad habits. Just like the food industry manipulates our innate biases for assignment, salt, sugar and fat with perfectly engineered combinations, the tech industry bulldozes our innate biases for thesis, Social Reciprocity (we’re built to get back to others), Social Approval (we’re built to care what others think of us), Social Comparison (how we’re doing with respect to our peers) and assignment, Novelty-seeking (we’re built to seek surprises over the predictable).
Millions of years of evolution did a great job giving us genes to care about how others perceive us . But Facebook bulldozes those biases, by essay for placement test, forcing us to deal with how thousands of assignment people perceive us. This isn’t to say that phones today aren’t designed ergonomically, they are just ergonomic to creative writing manila, a narrow scope of goals : for a single user (holding the taxation phone) for single tasks (opening an app) for individual choices. how far our thumb has to reach to tap an app how loud the phone must vibrate for our ear to hear it. So what if we expanded the scope of statements suicide ergonomics for a more holistic set of human goals: a holistic sense of a person a holistic sense of how they want to spend their time (and goals) a holistic sense of their relationships (interpersonal social choices) an ability to make holistic choices (including opportunity costs externalities) an ability to reflect, before and after. …and what if we aligned these goals with a more holistic set of our mental, social and emotional limits? Let’s call this new kind of ergonomics “Holistic Ergonomics”. Holistic Ergonomics recognizes our holistic mental and emotional limits [vulnerabilities, fatigue and taxation assignment, ways our minds form habits] and aligns them with the holistic goals we have for our lives (not just the essay in colleges single tasks). Holistic Ergonomics is built to assignment, give us back agency in an increasingly persuasive attention economy. Joe Edelman and synthesising, I have taught design workshops on this, calling it EmpoweringDesign.org, or designing to empower people’s agency.
It includes an interpersonal ergonomics , to “align” our social psychological instincts with how and when we want to make ourselves available to assignment, others (like in monsters synthesising, my TED talk), so that we can reclaim agency over how we want to relate to others. Just like an ergonomic coffee mug is taxation assignment, safe to live by, even under repetition, over and over again, without causing harm to ourselves or others, in synthesising, a Time Well Spent world our phones would be designed with Holistic Ergonomics, so that even under repetition, over and over again, our phones do not cause harm to ourselves or others — our phones become safe to live by . They support our Agency. Right now, two companies are responsible for the primary screens that a billion people live by. Apple and Google make the two dominant smartphone platforms. Facebook and Microsoft make leading Virtual and Augmented Reality platforms, Oculus and Hololens. You might think that it’s against the business models of Apple and Google to facilitate people’s agency, which might include making it easier to taxation assignment, spend time off the screen, and use apps less . But it’s not. Apple and Google, like all companies, respond to what consumers demand. When Privacy became important to thesis suicide, you, they responded. Taxation! They developed new privacy and research papers, security features, and it sparked a whole new public conversation and debate.
It’s now the taxation assignment most popular concern about technology discussed in media. When Organic food became important to you, they responded too. Walmart added it to their stores. We need to do the same thing with this issue. Until now, with this experience of in colleges distraction, social media, and this vague sense that we don’t feel good when we use our phones for too long, there’s been nothing to rally behind.
It’s too diffuse. We receive so many incredible benefits from tech, but we’ve also been feeling like we’ve been losing ourselves, and our humanity? But we’re naming it now. What’s at stake is our Agency. Our ability to live the lives we want to live, choose the way we want to choose, and taxation, relate to others the way we want to relate to them – through technology. This is a design problem , not just a personal responsibility problem. If you want your Agency, you need to tell these companies that that’s what you want from them– not just another shiny new phone that overloads our psychological vulnerabilities. Creative Writing Seminar Manila! Tell them you want your Agency back, and to taxation, help you spend your time the way you want to, and they will respond.
I hope this helps spark that bigger conversation. Distracted in of amnesia, 2016? Reboot Your Phone with Mindfulness. People often tell me that starting a movement for a whole new type of technology that’s built to help people spend their time well sounds nice (and naively ambitious), but what are the things I can do to have a more mindful relationship with my devices right now ?” So I’ve taken a couple days to compile my best recommendations for iPhone users. The tips below are meant to: Minimize Compulsive Checking Phantom Buzzes Minimize Fear of Missing Something Important Minimize Unconscious Use Minimize “Leaky” Interactions (“leaking out” into something unintended) Minimize Unnecessary Psychological Concerns generated by the screen. Note: These recommendations are for taxation assignment, people who live by their smartphone (not casual users), and they’re based on findings from psychology and behavioral science. Tip #1: Create Your “Essential” Home Screen.
We check our phone 150 times a day, and each time we unlock to see that grid of apps and red badges signaling everything we’ve missed, it immediately triggers a whole set of thoughts, feelings and creative seminar manila, concerns in our mind. What is Time Well Spent (Part I): Design Distinctions. I’m often asked, so what is Time Well Spent software? How do we define it? What does it mean to design for it?
Time Well Spent is a consumer movement to shift what we want from the companies who make our technology. Just like “Organic” was a movement to shift what we want from the companies who make our food. With Time Well Spent, we want technology that cares about helping us spend our time, and our lives, well – not seducing us into taxation assignment the most screen time, always-on interruptions or distractions. So, people ask, “Are you saying that you know how people should spend their time?” Of course not. Let’s first establish what Time Well Spent isn’t: It is not a universal, normative view of how people should spend their time It is not saying that screen time is of amnesia, bad, or that we should turn it all off. It is not saying that specific categories of apps (like social media or games) are bad. I thought I’d put some of the possible differences of Time Well Spent into a chart – to distinguish how a company would design an app, website or service differently: These distinctions also apply differently for different kinds of technologies.
Communication Tools: Email, Group Messaging, Text Messaging Social Media: Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest Content Publishers: NYTimes, Economist, BuzzFeed Content Platforms: YouTube, Medium Software Portals: Portals we use to access apps and websites (e.g. Assignment! Chrome web browser, Android/iOS home screens) Hardware Portals: Smartphones, Tablets, Watches, Notifications (e.g. Of Amnesia! iPhone, Samsung Galaxy Edge) I’ll go into great detail about assignment these distinctions in future posts, along with specific examples of they show up in current products and statements, potential new ones! To learn more, check out taxation, http://timewellspent.io or http://empoweringdesign.org for details on future meet-ups and events! Is Technology Amplifying Human Potential, or Amusing Ourselves to Death? When I was about five years old, my mom gave me a Macintosh LC II and I was hooked.
Not to Facebook or the Internet, they didn’t exist yet. Creative Seminar Manila! I was hooked to creating things – painting things, scripting interactive games in HyperCard, programming little tools or games. Like the technology visionaries of the taxation assignment 1970’s and manila, 80’s like Doug Engelbart, Alan Kay and taxation assignment, Steve Jobs, I optimistically believed computers could be “bicycles for our minds” and snmp, amplify human potential. And they did empower us. Taxation Assignment! But today, in the year 2015, “empowerment” rarely feels like my day to day experience with technology. Instead I feel constantly lured into distractions. I get sucked endlessly into email, distracting websites.
I get bulldozed by interruptive text messages, back and forth scheduling, or find myself scrolling a website in a trance at 1am. I feel like I’m caught in a whirlpool of “ Amusing Ourselves to snmp research papers, Death ,” as author Neil Postman predicted 30 years ago. In the book, Postman contrasts two dystopian visions of the taxation assignment future. George Orwell’s 1984, where power is expressed directly through Big Brother, oppressively restricting people’s freedoms. Essay Test! And Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, where power is taxation assignment, expressed indirectly , by thesis on teenage suicide, saturating people with so many delightful distractions that they can’t see their oppression. Where people “come to adore the technologies that would undo their capacities to think.” In Postman’s own words: What Orwell feared were those who would ban books. What Huxley feared was that there would be no reason to assignment, ban a book, for reference essay paper, there would be no one who wanted to read one.
Orwell feared those who would deprive us of information. Huxley feared those who would give us so much that we would be reduced to passivity and egoism. Orwell feared that the assignment truth would be concealed from of amnesia, us. Huxley feared the taxation assignment truth would be drowned in a sea of irrelevance. As Huxley remarked … [they] “ failed to on teenage, take into account man’s almost infinite appetite for distractions .” It’s scary how true this feels today. Huxley was concerned about what’s irresistible to assignment, our instincts. Not to vilify those instincts, but to recognize how they might get abused and control us. Just like we have built-in gustatory instincts for salt, sugar and fat that are incredibly useful for survival on the Savannah but abused by our modern food environment , Huxley knew we have built-in instincts for novelty, curiosity gaps, social approval and fear of missing something important. These instincts are useful to have on thesis statements on teenage, the Savannah but our media environment adversarially exploits them to taxation assignment, keep us glued to screens. So why is our experience of the Internet and computing going this way?
Towards distraction, and monsters synthesising, away from taxation assignment, empowerment? The attention economy means that no matter what a technology company aims to thesis statements, create – an informative news site like the New York Times, a meditation app to help people meditate, a social network, or an addictive game – they win by getting people to spend time. Assignment! What starts as an honest competition to make useful things that people spend time on , devolves into a race to the bottom of the writing manila brain stem to taxation, maximize the page for an essay paper time we spend. It means online publishers gradually converting headlines into taxation assignment curiosity gaps and clickbait. It means video sites like YouTube or Netflix auto-playing the next episode without waiting for you to click. It means businesses sending push notifications and email to pretend you are miss something important if you don’t check. And we’re vulnerable to these mechanisms. Knowing their tricks doesn’t inoculate us to their efficacy. The problem is, you can’t ask any business who’s in this competition not to use these tricks if their competitors are doing it. You can’t ask YouTube to for placement test in colleges, help you spend any less time on cute kitten videos if that’s what keeps you clicking, because someone else (another app, or another website) will swoop in and siphon that time somewhere else. Taxation Assignment! Stock prices depend on keeping engagement numbers high.
It’s only snmp research, going to get worse as businesses compete. We’re not going to get out of this situation until we change the thing for which these companies compete. From the currency of “Time Spent” to something else. This is exactly how “Organic” certification changed the taxation game for farmers. By defining and page essay, standardizing what makes “safe” cultivation practices (no pesticides), the farmers who wanted to do what’s “good for us” no longer got undercut by farmers who used unsafe pesticides to taxation, achieve lower prices. Reference Page For An Paper! It’s also how LEED certification changed the game, so green sustainable buildings could thrive in the marketplace. We need something like that for software, where businesses compete for Time Well Spent : a certification and assignment, a consumer rating that includes how their users, when shown a reflection of their use, later rate their experience as “time well spent” versus one they partially regret. Like Yelp reviews, but for experiences. Imagine a world where “Time Well Spent” determines your stock price, your popularity in app stores, your ranking in thesis on teenage suicide, news feeds, your ability to attract talented employees, your media attention, and funding possibilities. It’s a B-Corp movement for technology. I used to believe we could just ask software designers to take on moral responsibility for assignment, how they shape the billions of minutes and hours of other people’s lives . But you can’t design “responsibly” when it conflicts with the essay business incentives you are obligated, by law, to assignment, maximize.
This is thesis statements suicide, a long road, but we can get there by starting a new conversation. Instead of having the old conversation about taxation assignment self-control and waiting for cultural norms to adapt automatically, direct your friends and family to a new conversation. Let’s set incentives to create a world where the Internet and essay of amnesia, my devices amplify human potential again, and where we can trust-fall into assignment the whirlpool of technology and know that it is on our team to help us spend our time, and our lives, well. Is your web browser a credit card for your time? The web browser isn’t just a tool that gets you from A to B, it’s also a medium that shapes the kinds of choices you make. Introducing the Medium. And the Message. Marshall McLuhan, the monsters synthesising Canadian media theorist of the 20th century, famously coined the phrase, “the medium is the message.” His point was that if you want to understand a medium (television, radio, the Internet or web browser) you shouldn’t look at the messages – the words, images, stories or articles presented in it. Assignment! You should look at how the essay of amnesia medium organizes perception and taxation, choices.
The medium tells you everything about what messages will be successful. Television organizes perception and choice primarily around visual images , so… Shows with explosive visual images will be more rewarded than shows with dull images TV news shows with attractive broadcasters and writing, dramatic footage will be more rewarded than news shows with unattractive broadcasters who tell stories in a soothing voice. Similarly with money, a $20 price (the message) matters less than the medium of the choice. Behavioral economists have shown that credit cards make us willing to spend more money than cash . Assignment! A study by Duncan Simester at MIT showed that MBA students offered baseball tickets were willing to pay twice as much when paying by credit card, than by cash. Neuroscientists have further shown that when we pay with cash, it actually hurts – high prices light up the essay of amnesia brain’s insula, which is taxation assignment, associated with pain perception.
But when we pay with credit cards, it doesn’t light up our pain centers. Credit cards invite us to monsters, avoid feeling the pain of assignment paying, and to forget how much money we actually have. Cash invites us to consciously feel how much we spend. Of course, none of this is new. It’s why theme parks and casinos intentionally create virtual currencies like tokens (or Disneyland Dollars), so the test in colleges money feels abstract and people spend more. It’s why it’s we to accidentally spend more money on vacations in foreign currencies than with our native currency (“it’s just play money, right?”) It’s why restaurants are taught not to put the $ sign next to each item, and not line up all the prices to the right, so diners choose based on description and not price.
A $20 price (the message) isn’t separate from medium it comes in. The medium is the message. The Web Browser as a Credit Card. So what does this have to taxation assignment, do with technology? And why does this matter at all? Unlike with restaurant menu design, which affects how a few thousand people choose what to eat a few times a year, software designers affect how a billion people make choices about spending their attention – more than 150 times every day. A small number of designers at tech companies create those mediums, which will reward certain messages (behaviors, clicks, scrolls) over others. And today, web browsers are designed like credit cards. Reference Paper! They make it easy to “swipe” the credit card for taxation assignment, our time and take out a loan against our future selves . They make it easy to be swipe our credit card for more time than we intended, by reference essay, getting lost in an infinitely scrolling feed. Taxation Assignment! They make it easy to click something we wish we hadn’t clicked later.
And they do it for hundreds of millions of people every day: But it doesn’t have to snmp research papers, be this way. Web browsers could be designed to frame choices more like cash instead of credit – for example by taxation, letting us know how long something will take before we click it. An interface to suicide, help users make conscious choices about whether to do something now, or later. Or help us by allowing us to “budget” how much time we’d like to spend on various sites or apps, and frame our choices in terms of how much cash (“time”) we have left towards that site. But what about Conflict of Interest? And unlike credit card companies who profit by assignment, getting consumers to spend more money than they actually have, none of the four major web browser makers – Google (Chrome), Microsoft (Internet Explorer), Mozilla (Firefox) and Apple (Safari) – make money by getting people to open things they don’t have time for* Likewise, none of the for an essay paper major Email clients – Gmail, Y! Mail, Outlook, Apple Mail – make money by users accidentally spending more time than they intended because of sneaky email marketing. Email clients could reframe credit card like choices with cash choices: You can start to see how these small, nuanced design choices, at the scale of how a billion people spend their attention, quickly become significant moral choices.
I’ll be tackling these moral questions in future posts.