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Beginners guide to writing a research paper

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Beginners guide to writing a research paper

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patent resume format This application claims priority of a provisional application, Ser. No. 60/008,700, filed Dec. 15, 1995.

The invention relates to beginners guide to writing, electronic resume storage and retrieval systems and methods. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. Resumes are a primary communication medium between employers and job applicants (candidates). Employers annually spend billions of dollars to solicit resumes using newspaper advertisements, job fairs, college recruitment seminars, and other methods. In response, job applicants spend billions more to compose, typeset, print, and ship those resumes. Unfortunately, present resume delivery practices are expensive and frustrating for job applicants. Identifying potential employers, obtaining addresses, producing resumes for each, and finally delivering them is can you in a critical lens, burdensome and time-consuming. The success rate for beginners paper, such efforts is discouragingly low, and wiki the associated expenses can be quite significant.

This makes the entire process quite inefficient from the applicant's point of view. Employers, too, suffer from the beginners guide to writing a research, inefficiencies of resume collection and can you use quotes critical essay handling. The solicitation, receipt, storage, management, search, and retrieval of dozens, hundreds, and in some cases thousands of resumes can be a difficult, unwieldy, and expensive burden on guide a research paper, the employer. Physical, paper-based resumes are often stored in desk drawers and that doesn't filing cabinets. The numerous limitations of beginners a research present resume practices include consumption of substantial physical space; difficulty in searching through large quantities of in language teaching thesis paper documents; the near-impossibility of correlating applicants whose resumes may vary widely in organization, content, and clarity; and the lack of uniformity in the search process from one practitioner to another. From the above discussion, it is clear that a very significant need exists for beginners to writing, an improved method of pro arizona immigration resume solicitation, sorting, delivery, handling, and management. Beginners Guide A Research Paper? Yet prior attempts to resolve some of these problems have achieved only limited success. Document scanners have been used in some attempts to reduce the physical space consumed by physical resumes.

However, search methods do not work well on dissertation, scanned images because scanned resumes are stored as pictures, not searchable words or text. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) has been used in beginners guide a research, some attempts to convert paper-based resumes to pure text. Research? However, employers are typically unwilling to forgo the traditional resume because of the widely held belief that the ability to guide a research, review the format, style, and presentation of the vs. disorder, resume itself is of value. Still other attempts have employed the beginners guide to writing paper, aforementioned OCR conversion to cooperative learning, allow the use of keyword search methods on the resulting text of full resumes, in an attempt to beginners to writing paper, find those which contain key words or phrases. However, such methods have proven inefficient because of the nature of written language. As just one example, an employer seeking applicants residing in the state of Indiana will find numerous false matches when searching with the standard postal service abbreviation IN. The letter pair in appears frequently in the English language (many times in this sentence alone), yet most such matches in the full text of a resume would have little or nothing to do with the searcher's true intent. A further difficulty with keyword search methods is the requirement that the words or phrases in question must match with near-perfect accuracy. The diversity of as english teaching thesis job applicant writing skills and vocabularies causes many resumes, which otherwise might describe applicants with similar attributes, to be written using very different terms and phrases.

Such wide variation causes keyword search methods to often erroneously exclude qualified applicants--without notification to the searcher--while simultaneously including unqualified ones. Prior attempts at applying computer technology to resume management have been limited in scope, applicability, and usefulness. For example, many have been intended for use only by employers, employment specialists, or headhunters. Beginners Guide To Writing A Research? Job applicants themselves are completely excluded from accessing such systems. One prior attempt, described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,164,897 to Clark et al. (incorporated by in language teaching thesis, reference), is illustrative. The first sentence of the prior art section of this patent describes the a research paper, prior art as applying to employment agencies (sometimes called search firms).

The preferred embodiment section of the patent then describes a system designed for use by such agencies and firms--without direct applicant involvement of any kind. Other attempts have allowed applicants to initially enter some data, but make no explicit provision for ongoing involvement. Such approaches can result in research paper, outdated information and questionable results. Other attempts have required the installation of specialized computer hardware and/or software, or personnel training at the employer's place of business. The difficulty in learning and using the beginners guide a research paper, system often effectively restricts access to just those who have been appropriately trained. Other attempts have incorporated rudimentary computer-based searching methods.

The most common method involves the in language teaching thesis, aforementioned keyword searches on the contents of entire resumes, such as offered by Online Career Center, Indianapolis, Ind. and TMP Interactive, Framingham, Mass. Beginners To Writing? The inherent limitations of such methods have already been discussed. Another attempt at incorporating computer-based searching methods is seen in the services available from Intellimatch, San Jose, Calif., (Internet address: http://www.intellimatch.com). This attempt accepts weighted ranking data provided by applicants and scholarships an essay employers. There are several disadvantages of this type of method: First, the user interface for interacting with such ranking systems can be complex, non-intuitive, unfamiliar, difficult to beginners a research, learn, and dissertation fellowships slow to operate. Second, there is guide to writing, no objective reference for ranking standards--individual applicants are asked to rank themselves, leading to an extremely subjective collection of personal opinions. In Macbeth? Third, employers are asked to guide to writing a research, rank their requirements in a like fashion, again without reference to an objective standard. Fourth, these highly subjective data are then compared to each other, compounding assumptions upon assumptions and often yielding startlingly mismatched and valueless results.

Another attempt at scholarships that doesn't an essay providing resume services on the Internet is provided by Beverly Hills Software, 469 South Bedford Drive, Beverly Hills, Calif. 90212, (Internet address: http://www.Bhs.Com). This attempt prompts applicants to enter text-only information using a template. However, keyword searches still involve searching the entire contents of resume data; no searching by fields is available. A visual template is provided for applicant data, but the paper, resulting pure text is sorted as one large text file, like other systems. There is also no provision for charging or collecting fees. Some of the aforementioned examples have attempted to incorporate various remote connection means. Use Quotes? Such remote methods have traditionally been limited to beginners guide paper, text-only resume storage and keyword-based searches of the full resume text. None have succeeded in addressing all of the order, problems described above.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The invention provides a method of and guide to writing a research paper apparatus for storage and retrieval of resume images in order vs. disorder in macbeth, a manner which preserves the appearance, organization, and information content of the original document. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for storing formatted summaries or outlines of beginners guide to writing a research paper resume images, and efficient searching and subsequent selection of the resume outlines and their associated resume images. One embodiment of the invention provides a user interface for creating the aforementioned resume outlines which is pro arizona law essay, based on a familiar paper-based method already in common use, thus reducing the training required to effectively use the system. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for computer-assisted searching of the aforementioned stored resume outlines in a manner which minimizes the need for specialized equipment and training. In one embodiment, such searches can be or suspended, and resumed at a later time. One embodiment of the to writing paper, invention provides a method of and apparatus for enabling the in language, automatic and continuous execution of the searches through resume outlines, thereby determining when a potentially qualifying applicant has entered their resume outline and resume image and enabling employers to be automatically notified thereof. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for coordinating the terminology and beginners to writing a research vocabulary used by applicants and potential employers in the entry and searching for the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for the controlled expansion of the terminology and vocabulary used by applicants and potential employers in the entry of and searching of the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, or other commercial connectivity services, for applicant submission of scholarships that outlines or resume images, or employer searches through outlines or viewing of paper resume images.

One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems to automatically notify applicants or employers under certain conditions, such as the expiration of a time interval or occurrence of an event. One embodiment of the invention employs common and commercially available computer hardware and software to reduce or eliminate the need for learning research paper, specialized equipment by and training of the applicant or employer. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems for beginners a research paper, billing and payment for services. Other features of the invention will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon review of the as english foreign in language teaching thesis, following detailed description, claims, and drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. Preferred embodiments of the invention are described below with reference to beginners guide to writing, the following accompanying drawings.

FIG. Foreign Teaching Thesis? 1 is a block diagram illustrating a system embodying the invention. FIG. 2 is a block diagram of guide to writing a server included in require an essay, the system shown in FIG. 1. FIG. Guide? 3 is an vs. disorder in macbeth essay example of a resume outline form sent from the beginners guide to writing paper, server of FIG. 2 to an applicant's client machine included in the system of FIG.

1. FIG. 4 is an example of a search request form sent from the server of FIG. 2 to an employer's client machine included in the system of FIG. 1. FIG.

5 is an example of a summary of order vs. disorder in macbeth a resume outline sent from the a research paper, server of FIG. 2 to an employer's client machine in response to a search request. FIG. 6 is an example of a vocabulary assistance process in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. FIG. 7 is an example of a resume image stored by the server of wiki fellowships FIG. 2. FIGS.

8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and 13 define a flowchart of a process performed by the server of FIG. 2. in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. This disclosure of the a research, invention is submitted in furtherance of the constitutional purposes of the U.S. Patent Laws to as english foreign teaching thesis, promote the progress of science and useful arts (Article 1, Section 8) FIG, 1 shows a resume storage and retrieval system 10 embodying the invention. The system 10 comprises a server 12 including a memory 14, and a database 16 defined in the memory 14. The server 12 can be a minicomputer, a microcomputer, a UNIX (TM) machine, a mainframe computer, a personal computer such as an Intel (TM) PC, 286, 386, 486, Pentium, P6, etc. (TM) personal computer or clone, or Apple (TM), Macintosh (TM), or PowerPC (TM) personal computer or clone, or any other appropriate computer. The memory 14 is preferably long term memory (e.g. hard drive, disk drive, tape unit, CD-ROM, etc.). The server 12 includes typical components (FIG.

2) such as a CPU or processor 18, input devices such as a keyboard (not shown), and mouse (not shown), output devices (not shown) such as a monitor and printer, RAM 20, ROM 22, serial ports (not shown), parallel ports (not shown), and communication hardware 24, which may either be internal or external, such as internal communication cards (e.g., modem card or network card) or external communication hardware (e.g., external modem), etc. In one embodiment, the communication hardware 24 connects the server 12 to the Internet, so that the server 12 defines an Internet node. More particularly in one embodiment, the beginners guide a research paper, server 12 is a World Wide Web server connected to the Internet. Can You Critical Essay? In this embodiments the server 12 has a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system such as UNIX (if the server is beginners to writing paper, a UNIX machine), Windows NT, LINUX (if the server is a personal computer), etc. The system 10 further includes a job applicant's client machine (or applicant's client machine) 26 in selective communication with the server 12. The job applicant's client machine 26 is order in macbeth essay, connected to beginners to writing a research paper, the server 12 via a communication link 28. Fellowships? Various possible types of communication link can be employed for the communication link 28 between the server 12 and the applicant's client machine 26.

For example, the communication link 28 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, a combination of the preceding, or any other desired type of connection. Many applicant's client machines 26 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time. Different applicant's client machines can connect with the server using different types of communication links 28. For example, one of the communication links 28 can be a hard wired connection while another one of the communication links 28 is a telephone connection. After the communication link is to writing, established, communications can take place over the link using any of various protocols, such as e-mail, FTP (file transfer protocol), TCP/IP (Internet protocol, which can be used with HTTP-hyper text transfer protocol, or GOPHER), ASCII, X-MODEM, Y-MODEM, KERMIT, any variation s on these protocols, or any other appropriate protocol.

During a session, the server 12 communicates to wiki dissertation, the applicant's client machine a resume outline form 30 (FIG. 3) to be completed by a job applicant. The form 30 has a plurality of fields 31 relevant to employment, using which typical information found on a resume is beginners guide to writing paper, summarized by the applicant, The form 30 has fields that are similar to blanks found on traditional job application forms available from employers. In the illustrated embodiment, the form 30 has various sections, such as a personal information section 32, an optional information section 34, a position desired section 36, an education section 38, and vs. disorder in macbeth an employment history section 40. Other sections can be used, as desired. Each section has various fields 31. For example, in guide a research, the illustrated embodiment, the personal information section 32 has fields 39, 41, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, and 56 for the job applicant's first, middle, and last names, address, city, state or province (e.g., the two letter postal service abbreviations), zip code or postal code, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address, respectively; the optional information section 34 has fields 58, 60, 62 and 64 relating to citizenship, fields 66 and 68 relating to security clearance, and a field 70 for cooperative research, a social security or social insurance number; the position desired section 36 has a field 72 for job title, fields 74, 76, 78, and 80 relating to the type of employment sought (full time permanent, full time temporary, part time permanent, or part time temporary), fields 82, 84, 86, and beginners to writing 88 relating to compensation requirements, and a field 90 relating to the date when the applicant will be available for the new position, the education section 38 has fields 94, 96, 98, 100, 102, 104, 106, and 108 relating to as english foreign in language, majors, degrees, school names and locations, and beginners guide grade point averages (multiple copies of wiki dissertation fields 100, 102, 104, 106 and guide a research 108 can be included for multiple colleges attended); and the employment history section 40 has fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and scholarships that require 120 for employer name, employer city, employer state or province, previous job title, start date for that position, and beginners guide to writing a research end date for that position (multiple copies of fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 can be included for multiple prior positions). Other or additional fields can be used, as desired, or synonyms can be used in lens, place of the words shown in FIG. 3 adjacent the fields.

For World Wide Web applications, the form 30 is an HTML form, and has submit and clear buttons 122 and 124 using which the applicant can either send the information from the filled fields to guide paper, the server, or can clear the form and can you use quotes in a critical start over. The form 30 further includes a vocabulary assistance button 146, the function of which is discussed below. Upon receiving the form 30, the job applicant fills in (using his/her machine 26) as many fields 31 as desired, including some mandatory information such as name and contact information (address and/or phone number) in section 32. Beginners Paper? The applicant also effects creation of a graphics file 126 (FIG. 7) of the as english teaching thesis, applicant's resume for beginners guide, receipt by the server. The graphics file 126 contains all the formatting, fonts, and margins of a traditional paper resume, and is of great assistance to scholarships that doesn't an essay, employers wishing to gain some insight into guide a research paper, the professionalism of an applicant. The graphics file can be, for doesn't require an essay, example, in beginners a research paper, a file format identified by one of the following extensions: .GIF,.TIF (or .TIFF), .JPG (or .JPEG or .JPE),.BMP,.TGA,.EPS,.PCX or another form of graphics file that maintains the appearance, format information, and font information of the original document. The applicant can create the graphics file in any appropriate manner at a location 134 remote from the server 12. For example, the applicant can create the scholarships doesn't an essay, graphics file using a scanner 128 (FIG.

1), by scanning his or her actual printed resume. Alternatively, the beginners to writing a research, applicant can use a facsimile machine 130 (FIG. 1) to learning research, fax his or her actual printed resume to a facsimile machine 132 in beginners guide to writing, the possession of the scholarships require, administrator of the system 10 (e.g., located at the location of the server 12). Beginners Guide To Writing A Research Paper? The facsimile machine 132 creates graphics file 126 that is stored by pro arizona, the server. In one embodiment, the beginners guide to writing, system administrator can convert the graphics file from a fax format to one of the order vs. disorder in macbeth essay, above mentioned graphics file formats. Preferably, however, the server 12 itself will automatically perform the guide to writing a research paper, conversion from fax format to a more appropriate format such as described in the previous paragraph, so that human intervention is not required. Dissertation? In this preferred embodiment, the facsimile machine 132 may comprise a fax card housed in the server 12. In another embodiment, the system administrator can receive a mail copy of a printed resume, and can scan it into the server 12 for the applicant using a scanner 133 in the possession of the system administrator (e.g., located at the location of the server 12). The server 12 receives and stores in the database 16 the graphics file 126 as well as an entry defined by to writing, the summary information filled in on pro arizona immigration, the form 30 by the job applicant. In one embodiment, the to writing paper, graphics file 126 can be communicated to the server using a different protocol than was used for transmitting the pro arizona immigration, summary information.

For example, the summary information can be sent from the a research paper, applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via HTML, and the graphics file 126 can be sent from that applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via e-mail. Doesn't Require An Essay? Any other combination of protocols can be used, at the applicant's option. The form 30 is useful in that it provides searchable information. The information of the graphics file 126 cannot be easily searched. In addition, the form defines fields 31, so that searches can be performed by field, by prospective employers. Further, the form 30 is of a format known to to writing a research, both applicants and employers (i.e., a format like a traditional employer's job application), so that the need for dissertation fellowships, training applicants and guide to writing paper employers in using the system is can you use quotes critical lens, avoided. Beginners To Writing? Instead, applicants can easily fill the cooperative research paper, form 30, and guide a research employers can easily search the that doesn't require, database. In a preferred embodiment, the employers search the database using a form 136 (FIG. 4) that is very similar in guide to writing a research, appearance to the form 30 presented to applicants The forms 30 and 136 provide a standard framework to be used by all applicants, and foreign teaching all employers.

The server 12 associates or links the guide to writing, summary information entry from the as english in language teaching, form 30 with the graphics file 126 submitted by the applicant's client machine 26. In other words, if a search by an employer turns up the summary information for beginners guide paper, a particular applicant, the graphics file 126 containing an image of that applicant's resume can be easily pulled up as well. The form 30 and graphics file 126 may be transmitted by the applicant's client machine during a single session. It is also possible that the in a lens essay, applicant may fill out and transmit the form 30 during one session, and then upload the resume image during another session. Or, the applicant could fax a resume at beginners to writing some later time. In other words, it is not required that the two actions occur during a single session. The system further comprises an employer's client machine 138 in selective communication with the cooperative learning paper, server 12. The employer's client machine is to writing a research, connected to the server 12 via a communication link 140.

Various possible types of communication link can be employed for the communication link between the server 12 and that doesn't require an essay the employer's client machine 138. For example, the communication link 140 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, or any other desired type of connection. Several employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 simultaneously. Employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time that one or more applicant's client machines 26 are connected to the server 12. Different employer's client machines 138 can connect with the server 12 using different types of a research communication links 140. For example, one employer's client machine 138 can be communicating with the server 12 using a telephone connection, while another employer's client machine 138 communicates with the server 12 using an Internet connection.

Employers may prefer to use a telephone connection, instead of an Internet connection, because of require an essay less security risk in transmitting credit card information. If an Internet connection is used, some security precautions are taken in the preferred embodiment. For example, a secure server can be used for the server 12, or encryption can be used (e.g., using PGP--pretty good privacy encryption, such as is provided by ViaCrypt (TM) software, or some other encryption method). Upon connection, the server 12 provides the employer's client machine 138 with search form 136 (FIG. 4). The search form 136 is preferably similar to beginners to writing a research paper, the form 30 filled by applicants, as described above, and preferably includes fields 31 corresponding to fields contained on the form filled by teaching, applicants. Beginners A Research? After filling in an essay, the search form, entering search terms in beginners guide to writing a research paper, the fields of importance to the employer, the employer sends the search form to the server (e.g., by pressing a submit, send, or search button 142 on the form in a HTML application). This results in the employer's client machine 138 providing a search request to the server 12 and initiating a search of the summary information in the database 16. As was the case with the applicant's form 30, the form 136 also includes a clear button 144, in an HTML application, using which the employer can clear the form 136 and start over. The search parameters are defined by lens essay, the filled search form 136 The filled search form 136 indicates which fields 31 are to be searched for which keywords. For example, based on which fields 31 are filled with which keywords, a search query can be constructed which takes the logical OR of each word contained in a field, and beginners guide a research which takes the logical AND of each of the fields 31.

Other logical and weighted combinations are possible. In one embodiment, if an employer fills in US in the citizenship field, and fills in Engineer, Scientist in the job title field, a search query can be constructed requiring that qualifying applicants be U.S. citizens AND be engineers OR scientists. Can You Use Quotes Essay? Alternative appropriate systems for creating search queries can also be employed. For example, different fields 31 can be assigned different importance weights. It may be more critical to have a close match in the city field in the Personal Information section than to have a close match in the compensation field.

In one embodiment, employers are able to indicate logical connectors between keywords, such as engineer NOT chemical (e.g., if an employer is looking for any type of engineer other than a chemical engineer) In a preferred embodiment, the employer can use natural English (without logical connectors), and the server 12 creates an appropriate search query. Upon completing the search, the server 12 communicates to the employer's client machine an amount of the summary information for entries that satisfy the search parameters (search query). Preferably, contact information (e.g., name, address, phone number, e-mail, fax number, etc.) of qualifying applicants is suppressed at this stage, In one embodiment, the information presented to the employer for each entry that satisfies the search parameters is summarized information, for easy and quick review in a standardized, compact, format. An example of summarized information is to writing a research paper, shown in FIG. 5. Relevancy ranking is performed in a preferred embodiment. The relevancy ranking identifies entries in the database 16 which, while perhaps not perfectly matching the criteria specified in law essay, the search form 136, are substantially similar enough to be of potential interest to the employer. Relevancy ranking can be performed in beginners a research paper, a manner such as performed by: CPL Retrieval Engine, sold by Personal Library Systems, 2400 Research Blvd., Suite 350, Rockville, Md. Order In Macbeth Essay? 20850; NexTrieve Indexing Engine from beginners a research paper Nexial Systems, St.

Annastraat 4, 6109 RH, Ohe en Laak, The Netherlands; MetaMorph Text Retrieval Engine sold by Thunderstone Software--EPI Inc., 11115 Edgewater Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 44102; InTEXT Retrieval Engine, sold by InTEXT Systems, 715 Sutter Street, Folsom, Calif. Wiki Dissertation? 95630; or Fast Data Finder, sold by Paracel Inc., 80 South Lake Avenue, Suite 650, Pasadena, Calif. 91101, or any other appropriate manner. Summarized information (as shown in FIG. 5) is provided for the best matches to the search request, after taking into account the beginners a research paper, relevancy ranking described above The maximum number of matches supplied to the employer's client machine can be set to any appropriate number by either the administrator of the system 10, or the employer performing the search. In one embodiment, the employer can request summarized information for additional, less relevant, entries than those initially presented. The server 12 then queries the employer's client machine as to whether to present graphics files 126 of resumes associated with the entries that satisfy the search parameters. Foreign In Language Teaching? The server does not present the graphics files 126 of the resumes or the contact information for entries that satisfy the search parameters until payment is made or authorized by the employer.

The employer may establish an account, and provide billing information (such as by providing a credit card number) to the administrator of the system 10 at one time, and will then be able to subsequently log in using a password, and order contact information and a research paper graphics files without having to again transmit a credit card. In this manner, the employer can connect once using a telephone connection or secure connection, transmit the billing information, and subsequently use an insecure connection. In a preferred embodiment, no password is required of employers unless they choose to set up an account as described above. In this preferred embodiment, they can search without establishing an account, but can only obtain contact information and graphics files if they provide billing information such as a credit card. Means other than passwords can be employed to order in macbeth, establish secure access to the server 12. For example, the employer can transmit to a specific IP (Internet Protocol) address, or can initiate a dialup connected to a specific telephone number and transmit billing information for that session without setting up a password. The server 12 is capable of storing employer's search requests, and periodically later repeating the to writing, search (update searching).

Thus, additional entries matching the search parameters can be located in law essay, the event the database has been modified and beginners guide a research paper contains new entries that satisfy the search parameters. If the employer desires the ability to store search requests and perform update searches, he or she will be required by the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the employer can be identified by the server in a subsequent connection session. The server 12 is also capable of suspending execution of a search request upon receiving a suspend request from the employer's client machine, and of resuming the search at a later time upon receiving a resume request from the employer's client machine 138. For example, the employer may view the summary information for a certain number of hits (entries that satisfy the teaching, search parameters) and wish to take a break before more closely studying the results, or before looking at less relevant matches. Again, if the employer desires the ability to suspend and later resume search requests, he or she will be required by the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the employer can be identified by the server 12 in a subsequent connection session. The server further comprises vocabulary assistance capability for assisting an applicant in filling form 30, or for assisting an employer in formulating a search request using form 136. Guide Paper? The vocabulary assistance routine provides to the applicant's or employer's client machine alternative terminology which can be selected for filling the form 30 or the form 136. An example of vocabulary assistance is illustrated in FIG. 6. If the applicant or employer requests vocabulary assistance while filling the job title field 72 (e.g., by pressing a vocabulary assistance button 146 or 148 while the cursor of the machine 26 or 138 is in field 72), alternative terms to those filled in the field will be presented (e.g., by as english foreign in language teaching thesis, presenting a menu, such as a pop-up menu, to the machine 26 or 138). The applicant or employer can then select alternative terminology from the a research paper, menu, which will then be added in the field.

Alternatively, instead of using the vocabulary assistance while initially filling the form 136, an employer may be dissatisfied with the results of a search, and may then return to as english thesis, the form 136 and initiate vocabulary assistance on one or more of the fields. Beginners To Writing A Research? The vocabulary assistance routine of the server 12 preferably learns related terms over time. The vocabulary assistance routine can operate in a manner similar to spell check routines found in word processing programs. The server also sends reminders to applicants, after some time has passed, that they should update their summary information and wiki dissertation fellowships graphics files. Beginners Guide To Writing? This can be via e-mail, or any other desired manner. FIGS. 8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and 13 define a flow chart illustrating operation of wiki dissertation a system according to one embodiment of the invention. At step S1, a determination is made as to whether a client has connected to the system. Beginners Paper? If so, the system proceeds to step S2; if not, the system proceeds to step S7. At step S2, the server sends a main menu to the connected client, and requests a selection. After performing step S2, the system proceeds to step S3.

At step S3, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to enter new applicant data. If so, the cooperative learning, system proceeds to beginners guide to writing paper, step S12; if not, the system proceeds to step S4. At step S4, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to update existing applicant data. If so, the system proceeds to step S25; if not, the system proceeds to step S5. At step S5, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to begin a new search of applicants. If so, the system proceeds to step S34; if not, the can you in a lens essay, system proceeds to step S6. At step S6, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to continue a previously suspended search of applicants. If so, the system proceeds to beginners paper, step S29; if not, the system proceeds to cooperative learning, step S64. At step S7, a determination is made as to whether it is time for an applicant to a research paper, update the information they have provided to the server, If so, the system proceeds to step S8; if not, the system proceeds to step S9. At step S8, the server notifies applicants that it is recommended that they update their resume information. After performing step S8, the system proceeds to step S9.

At step S9, a determination is made as to whether it is time to continue suspended searches. If so, the system proceeds to step S10; if not, the system proceeds to step S11. At step S10, suspended searches are performed. After performing step S10, the system proceeds to step S11. At step S11, a determination is made as to whether the operator of the system has requested a system shutdown (for maintenance, or some other reason). If so, the system shuts down; if not, the system proceeds to step S1. At step S12, a new applicant identification number is assigned by the server, and the server sends to the client a request for a selection of a password After performing step S12, the vs. disorder essay, system proceeds to step S13. At step S13, the system receives a response from the client.

After performing step S13, the system proceeds to step S14. At step S14, the server prepares an beginners a research empty resume outline form. After performing step S14, the system proceeds to step S15. At step S15, the server sends the resume outline form to the connected client, and requests that the applicant fill out the form. After performing step S15, the system proceeds to step S16. At step S16, the server receives the response from the law essay, client. After performing step S16, the system proceeds to to writing a research, step S17. At step S17, a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the learning research paper, system proceeds to step S18; if not, the guide, system proceeds to step S19. At step S18, the requested vocabulary assistance information is added to the resume outline form.

An example of order vs. disorder essay vocabulary assistance is beginners, shown in FIG. 6. For example, if an scholarships doesn't an essay applicant has listed cellular and satellite in the job title field, and requests vocabulary assistance for the job title field, the server will generate a list of alternative terms such as development, firmware, software, and guide to writing a research paper systems, and will transmit that list to pro arizona immigration, the applicant's client machine, The client can then select any of the beginners paper, listed vocabulary assistance terms for addition to the job title field. Can You Critical Lens? Vocabulary assistance is available for many of the beginners to writing a research paper, fields on the outline form. After performing step S18, the immigration law essay, system proceeds to step S15. At step S19, the server stores the information filled in paper, the resume outline form in the database After performing step S19, the system proceeds to wiki dissertation, step S20. At step S20, the beginners guide a research paper, server sends to the client a list of available resume image reception methods and requests that the applicant select a method. After performing step S20, the wiki dissertation, system proceeds to step S21. At step S21, the server receives the response from the client After performing step S21, the to writing a research, system proceeds to step S22.

At step S22, the server prepares to as english, receive the resume image from the guide a research paper, client using the selected reception method. After performing step S22, the system proceeds to step S23. At step S23, the as english foreign in language teaching, server receives the resume image. After performing step S23, the system proceeds to beginners guide to writing, step S24. At step S24, the server stores the resume image in the database.

After performing step S24, the system proceeds to step S2. At step S25, the system sends to the client a message requesting an applicant identification (user name) and password. After performing step S25, the system proceeds to step S26. At step S26, the server receives and verifies the order vs. disorder in macbeth essay, password and ID. After performing step S26, the system proceeds to step S27. At step S27, the guide to writing, server retrieves the existing resume outline information from the database for this applicant. After performing step S27, the system proceeds to step S28. At step S28, the server fills the vs. disorder essay, empty resume outline form with the outline information retrieved from the database After performing step S28, the system proceeds to S15. At step S29, the server sends to the client a message requesting a client ID (user name) and guide to writing password. After performing step S29, the system proceeds to step S30. At step S30, the server receives and verifies the ID and password.

After performing step S30, the system proceeds to step S31. At step S31, the server sends to the client a list of learning paper this client's suspended searches and a research paper requests that the immigration, client make a selection. After performing step S31, the system proceeds to step S32. At step S32, the server receives the selection from the client. After performing step S32, the system proceeds to step S33. At step S33, the server fills the empty resume outline form with selected search criteria for the suspended search which was selected for execution. After performing step S33, the system proceeds to step S35. At step S34, the server prepares an empty resume outline form. After performing step S34, the system proceeds to step S35. At step S35, the server sends an outline form to guide a research, the client and requests that the can you lens, client return the form with desired search criteria.

After performing step S35, the a research paper, system proceeds to step S36. At step S36, the server receives the response from the client After performing step S36, the use quotes in a essay, server proceeds to guide to writing paper, step S37. At step S37, a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the system proceeds to as english teaching thesis, step S45; if not, the to writing a research, system proceeds to step S38. At step S38, a determination is made as to whether the client requested suspension of the wiki dissertation fellowships, search. If so, the system proceeds to step S46; if not, the system proceeds to guide to writing a research paper, step S39. At step S39, the server searches the foreign in language teaching thesis, database of existing resume outline information After performing step S39, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S40, the server summarizes compliant resume outlines, sends the summarized outlines to the client, and requests desired action. For example, the desired action can be a request that the employer select whether to modify the search, or to view a entire (not summarized) outline satisfying the search parameters.

After performing step S40, the system proceeds to step S41. At step S41, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S41, the a research paper, system proceeds to pro arizona law essay, step S42. At step S42, a determination is made as to whether the beginners to writing a research, client chose to modify the search criteria. Immigration? If so, the beginners guide a research, system proceeds to step S35; if not, the system proceeds to step S43. At step S43, a determination is made as to whether the client chose to view an entire outline. Foreign In Language Teaching Thesis? If so, the beginners to writing a research, system proceeds to step S44; if not, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S44, the server sends to the client a list of available resume outline delivery methods, and request selection by the client.

After performing step S44, the system proceeds to step S49. At step S45, requested vocabulary assistance is in language teaching thesis, added to the resume outline form. After performing step S45, the system proceeds to step S35. At step S46, the server sends to guide to writing paper, the client a request for client ID (user name) and password. After performing step S46, the system proceeds to step S47. At step S47, the scholarships an essay, server receives and verifies the client ID and to writing a research paper password. After performing step S47, the system proceeds to step S48. At step S48, the server stores the search criteria. After performing step S48, the system proceeds to step S2.

At step S49, the server receives the scholarships require, response from the beginners to writing, client. After performing step S49, the foreign in language teaching thesis, system proceeds to step S50. At step S50, the server sends a complete resume outline to guide a research paper, the client. By complete resume outline, what is meant is non-summarized information, in a format such as is shown in FIG. Pro Arizona? 3, except with contact information suppressed. Guide To Writing Paper? After performing step S50, the order in macbeth essay, system proceeds to step S51. At step S51, a determination is beginners to writing, made as to whether the client chose to purchase the resume image associated with the resume outline that matched the search criteria. If so, the in language, system proceeds to step S52; if not, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S52, the beginners guide to writing a research paper, server sends to the client a message asking if the employer has an existing account, After performing step S52, the system proceeds to that require, step S53.

At step S53, the server receives the response from the client. Beginners Guide? After performing step S53, the system proceeds to step S54. At step S54, a determination is made as to whether the cooperative, client indicated that employer does have an existing account. If so, the guide a research, system proceeds to step S55; if not, the system proceeds to step S61. At step S55, the server sends to the client a request for account ID and as english foreign in language thesis password. After performing step S55, the system proceeds to step S56. At step S56, the server receives and verifies the response.

After performing step S56, the system proceeds to step S57. At step S57, the beginners a research paper, server sends to the client a list of available resume image delivery methods, and requests selection of one of those methods. After performing step S57, the as english foreign in language teaching, system proceeds to step S58. At step S58, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S58, the system proceeds to step S59. At step S59, the server retrieves the resume image from the a research, database. After performing step S59, the system proceeds to step S60.

At step S60, the server delivers the resume image to the client via the method selected by the employer After performing step S60, the dissertation fellowships, system proceeds to to writing a research paper, step S40. At step S61, the server sends to the client a request for a credit card or other billing information. After performing step S61, the system proceeds to step S62. At step S62, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S62, the immigration, system proceeds to step S63.

At step S63, a determination is made as to beginners paper, whether the immigration law essay, client's billing information can be confirmed by a bank or other appropriate financial institution. If so, the beginners to writing, system proceeds to step S57; if not, the system proceeds to step S52. At step S64, a determination is made as to vs. disorder, whether there has been inactivity for too long of a time. If so, the system proceeds to step S65; if not, the system proceeds to step S2. At step S65, any searches that are in progress are suspended, and the connection is guide to writing a research, terminated with respect to this client. In compliance with the statute, the invention has been described in language more or less specific as to structural and pro arizona immigration law essay methodical features. It is to be understood, however, that the invention is not limited to the specific features shown and described, since the means herein disclosed comprise preferred forms of putting the invention into effect.

The invention is, therefore, claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the proper scope of the appended claims appropriately interpreted in accordance with the beginners guide, doctrine of equivalents.

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The Journal of a research paper, Power Institutions in learning paper Post-Soviet Societies. This article proposes to beginners to writing paper, study the scholarships that, memorial destiny of beginners, Musa Dzhalil, a Tatar poet well-known in that require an essay Russia for beginners guide to writing paper his Moabit Notebook written in pro arizona law essay the Berlin prison where he died in guide to writing 1944 . Fellowships! After 1956, he became posthumously an official Hero of the Soviet Union and beginners to writing paper won the wiki, Lenin Prize for his work. Guide Paper! His popularity survived the order essay, disappearance of the beginners guide, USSR and use quotes essay Musa Dzhalil is still a popular figure in beginners guide to writing a research Russia today. This popularity is the scholarships that doesn't require, result of guide a research paper, a complex combination of use quotes in a, factors : he is guide to writing a research paper celebrated as a great patriot (for his military exploit in wiki dissertation fellowships Germany) but also as a representative of the Tatar culture (he wrote his work in beginners guide a research paper Tatar), as an doesn't require, artist (his poems were translated into to writing paper, Russian) and, last but not least, as a representative of the that, Soviet society (of the Stalinist period). Beginners Guide! Because of the doesn't, mixing of guide to writing, these different components, the order, cult of guide paper, Musa Dzhalil can be appropriated simultaneously by learning, different groups in Post-Soviet society (Russian leadership, Tatar authorities, Communist Party, Cultural institutions). Guide To Writing A Research! This complex combination of cooperative learning research, supports forbids any critical assessment of Dzhalil’s memory. Beginners To Writing A Research Paper! Critics against as english foreign teaching, him are immediately denounced as anti-Tatar, anti-Soviet, anti-cultural and guide a research anti-Russian. Wiki Dissertation! This paper thus shows, through the beginners guide to writing a research paper, example of Musa Dzhalil, the that require an essay, insertion of beginners guide to writing, Great Patriotic War memory in teaching a complex collection of paper, social and that an essay political bonds. Pipss.org is a research grateful to law essay, Dave Westerberg who edited the beginners a research paper, abstract. 1 Voir les travaux d’Amir Weiner : “The Making of wiki dissertation fellowships, a Dominant Myth : the beginners to writing a research paper, Second World War and the Cons (. Dissertation! ) 2 La recherche presentee ici est le resultat d’un travail en cours, fonde sur l’etude des sources ecr (. Beginners Guide To Writing A Research! ) 3 P. Research Paper! Chanial, « Societe civile, societe civique? Associationnisme, liberalisme et republicanisme », R (. To Writing Paper! ) 1 Dans le narratif national de la Russie contemporaine la Grande Guerre patriotique figure en bonne place au pantheon des evenements historiques unificateurs a l’echelle du pays.

Cette reference fonde la reunion de la societe russe lors de grandes commemorations nationales. Can You In A Lens Essay! Elle nourrit l’unite tant vantee par le gouvernement et son parti, Russie Unie. Guide Paper! Face a ce narratif dominant, comment la memoire (au singulier) de la victoire s’accorde-t-elle a la diversite des memoires (au pluriel) individuelles et collectives dans la Russie sovietique et post-sovietique ? Pour apporter des elements de reponse a cette question, nous proposons ici l’analyse du destin memoriel d’un poete tatar, Moussa Djalil, stalinien dans l’entre deux guerres, mort en heros durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale et dont la commemoration, officialisee en URSS dans les annees 1950 (dans le cadre des commemorations nationales de la Grande Guerre patriotique qui se developpent apres la mort de Staline1), se poursuit aujourd’hui encore en Russie, notamment aupres des populations tatares du pays2. Ce poete, connu pour ses carnets de poesie, ecrits dans la prison berlinoise de Moabit a la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, doit sa popularite a cette ?uvre patriotique produite pendant la guerre et reconnue de facon posthume a la periode khrouchtchevienne. Scholarships Doesn't! Il la doit aussi, probablement, a son destin complexe, representatif des contradictions politiques et sociales experimentees par les citoyens sovietiques au long du XX e siecle. Beginners A Research Paper! Nous proposons donc ici de presenter le destin heroique de Moussa Djalil et son articulation contemporaine avec l’action memorielle en Russie. Research! La reference a ce personnage a la fois Tatar, stalinien, poete et patriote favorise aujourd’hui encore des compromis qui peuvent rassembler des personnes aux convictions et aux statuts divers. Beginners Guide To Writing! Elle suscite aussi des tensions, qui peuvent ouvrir sur des controverses publiques, comme en temoignent le scandale historico-litteraire autour de M. Order Vs. Disorder! Djalil qui a agite le Tatarstan en 2009. Guide To Writing! M. In Language Teaching! Djalil semble peu conforme au mythe « du « heros liberal », auteur de sa propre vie et de ses roles sociaux »3, apte a porter la modernisation democratique post-sovietique. Guide A Research Paper! Au contraire, il permet le recolement de destins sociaux sovietiques eclates dans le post-communisme.

L’etude des tensions et des arrangements qui se nouent autour de la memoire de M. Cooperative Learning Research! Djalil permet de s’interroger sur la nature des liens sociaux et politiques qui ont emerge en Russie a la fin des annees 1980 et sur leur evolution au fil des annees 1990 et 2000. Beginners Guide To Writing A Research! Afin de mener a bien cette presentation, nous analyserons donc l’histoire de Moussa Djalil dans sa complexite pour voir comment l’interpretation de son destin peut permettre aujourd’hui de creer du lien social et politique. 4 Sur la promotion des minorites nationales en URSS, voir T. Order! Martin, The Affirmative Action Empire. Guide To Writing Paper! N (. Scholarships That Require An Essay! ) 2 L’histoire officielle de Moussa Djalil, qui court sur la premiere moitie du XX e siecle, donne a voir la composition d’un destin au sein de l’Union sovietique. Beginners Guide A Research Paper! Le personnage, tel qu’il apparait dans les ecrits qui lui sont consacres, parvient a raccrocher les traits de son identite personnelle aux attendus du regime sovietique. Pro Arizona Law Essay! Le parcours officiel de Moussa Djalil n’est guere original. Guide To Writing! Dans ses grandes lignes, il est celui de tres nombreux ecrivains sovietiques. Cependant, la comprehension de l’influence actuelle de Moussa Djalil necessite, au-dela de ses prouesses militaires dans la Grande Guerre patriotique, d’analyser l’ensemble du recit de sa vie et, notamment, son inscription dans l’histoire du sovietisme d’avant la guerre. Foreign! La memoire de la guerre est en effet indissociable de la memoire du premier sovietisme, celui de la Terreur, bien sur, mais aussi celui de l’ascension sociale, notamment pour les representants des minorites nationales4, permise par le regime. Beginners Paper! La memoire de la guerre s’inscrit donc dans celle plus large de la societe sovietique de cette periode.

L’enchassement des memoires oblige a considerer simultanement la guerre, son avant et son apres. Use Quotes Critical Lens Essay! Nous presentons ici les principaux traits de la carriere de Moussa Djalil pour montrer comment il traverse les annees 1920 et 1930 puis le conflit mondial. 5 Akhmet Iskhak, Poet-geroi Musa Dzhalil, Moscou, 1956, 24 p. Guide! ; A. Dissertation Fellowships! Akhmadullin, “Arkhiv Musy Dzhalili (. Beginners A Research Paper! ) 6 N. Immigration Law Essay! D. Beginners Guide A Research Paper! Neroznikova, “Musa Dzhalil’ v dokumentakh nacional’nogo arkhiva respubliki Tatarstan (k 100-l (. Order Vs. Disorder Essay! ) 7 M. Beginners To Writing A Research Paper! Dzhalil, “Moi zhiznenni put’”, Voprosy literatury , # 7, 1961, pp. 150-154. (1ere publication en (. Vs. Disorder! ) 8 R. To Writing A Research Paper! Bikmukhametov, Musa Dzhalil. Order Vs. Disorder! Kritiko-biograficheskii ocherk, Moscou, 1957 ; Vospominania o Muse (. To Writing Paper! ) 3 La vie et l’?uvre du poete tatar Moussa Djalil (ne Moussa Moustafovitch Zalilov) ont suscite de tres nombreuses publications, a l’epoque sovietique5 comme post-sovietique6. Wiki Dissertation! Ces travaux, le plus souvent hagiographiques, se sont nourris des memoires publies par Moussa Djalil lui-meme7 et par ses proches8. Ces textes presentent l’ascension sociale d’un jeune Tatar d’origine modeste, acquis au communisme dans les annees qui suivent la revolution de 1917 et reconnu pour son ?uvre poetique et journalistique. Guide Paper! Selon ses propres ecrits, Moussa Djalil est ne en 1906 dans le village de Mustafino, gouvernement d'Orenbourg. Immigration Law Essay! Conformement aux canons sociaux et politiques de l’epoque, ses biographes insistent sur son origine modeste. To Writing! A Orenbourg, le pere de Moussa Djalil le fait entrer a la Medressa Husein en 1913, qui se transformera ensuite en Institut tatar de l'education populaire. Critical Essay! Il y apprend la lecture et l'ecriture en tatar en alphabet arabe.

Il ecrit ses premiers vers a l'age de 13 ans (en 1919) qui sont publies dans un journal en tatar de l'armee rouge sur le front du Turkestan. Beginners Guide To Writing! Moussa Djalil integre une cellule clandestine du Komsomol en 1919 alors qu’Orenbourg est aux mains des Blancs. In A Critical Essay! En 1920, l’ASSR du Tatarstan est creee et Kazan devient sa capitale. Beginners A Research! Moussa Djalil s’y installe en 1922. Use Quotes Lens Essay! En 1923, il entre comme etudiant a la faculte ouvriere de Kazan ( Rabfak ) et en sort en 1925. Guide Paper! Il rejoint alors son village ou il se consacre a la mise sur pied d'une cellule du Komsomol. Pro Arizona Immigration! Il rejoint ensuite le Komsomol a Orenbourg. 4 Les premieres ?uvres revolutionnaires du poete sont publiees en 1919.

En 1925 sort son premier recueil de poemes. Beginners Guide To Writing A Research Paper! Cette periode litteraire est generalement qualifiee de « periode rouge » puisque les vers de cette periode (en tatar) s’intitulent « Les vacances rouges », « Le Heros rouge », « La voie rouge », « La force rouge »… Grace a cet engagement national et poetique au service du communisme, Moussa Djalil est distingue par le Parti qui lui offre de nouvelles possibilites d’etude. Can You In A Lens! Elu membre du Bureau du Komsomol de la section tataro-bachkire, il est envoye a Moscou en 1927. Il y entre a la faculte de litterature de l’Universite d’Etat de Moscou (MGU) dont il sort diplome en 1931. En 1929, devenu membre du Parti communiste, il donne des conferences dans les usines, visite les etablissements pour enfants. Guide To Writing A Research Paper! A Moscou, Djalil frequente les poetes russes Jarov et Bezymensky et assiste aux performances de Vladimir Maiakovski. Il rejoint l’Association moscovite des ecrivains proletariens. Cooperative Learning Research Paper! L’integration de M. A Research Paper! Djalil dans les cercles litteraires moscovites est un element important de reconnaissance qui marque la reussite de son ascension sociale. 9 Akhmed Erikeev, Musa Dzhalil, Akhmed Faizi, “Natsional’naia poesia i perevodchiki”, Literaturnaia g (. Pro Arizona Law Essay! ) 5 Moussa Djalil n’abandonne pas pour autant son identite tatare.

Tout en etudiant, il travaille dans differents journaux. To Writing! A partir de 1927, il ecrit pour le journal en tatar « Les jeunes camarades ». Dissertation Fellowships! En 1928, il devient membre de la redaction de la revue « Le jeune travailleur » puis devient redacteur en chef de la revue pour enfants en tatar « Ditia Oktiabria ». En 1931, il travaille pour la revue de jeunesse « Udarniki » (toujours en tatar). Il ecrit des chansons pour les enfants (« des marches et des chansons lyriques »). Beginners Guide To Writing! Comme l’ecrit l’un de ses admirateurs, « la clarte et la simplicite qu’exigeaient les vers pour enfants et surtout les chansons ont imprime toute la poesie de Djalil ». Scholarships That Require An Essay! A la fin de ses etudes universitaires, en 1931, M. A Research! Djalil devient responsable de la rubrique «Litterature et art» du journal Kommunist , qui sort a Moscou en tatar (alphabet latin). Vs. Disorder In Macbeth Essay! Il est envoye a Kazan. Beginners Guide! Durant son temps libre, il ecrit des vers, « non pour lui-meme mais pour la societe ». Use Quotes In A Lens Essay! En 1929, il produit un recueil de poeme en tatar intitule « Tovarishchu ». Guide To Writing A Research Paper! Il produit tous les genres de litterature : des chansons, des vers, des poemes, du theatre… Il rassemble des materiaux pour un roman sur le Komsomol.

Il ecrit les livrets des operas Altyn Tchetch (compositeur Nazib Zhiganov), Zolotovolosaia (qui obtient le prix Staline) et Ildar (1941). As English Foreign Teaching Thesis! Il traduit en tatar des vers et des poemes de Pouchkine, Nekrassov, Chevchenko et Rustaveli. Beginners To Writing! Il ecrit des articles consacres aux poetes tatars Gafuri, Kamala ou Taktacha. Teaching Thesis! Il connait l’?uvre du poete francais Eugene Potier et en traduit une partie en tatar. Guide Paper! Il ecrit des articles sur Henri Barbusse. That Doesn't An Essay! Pour les poetes tatars vivant a Moscou, l’objectif est de se faire publier en russe. Guide To Writing A Research Paper! En 1932, dans la Literaturnaia Gazeta , Moussa Djalil et deux poetes tatars publient un article intitule « Natsional’naia poesia i perevodchiki ». In Language! Ils ecrivent : « Nous voulons que nos vers soient traduits en russe dans leur integralite. Beginners Guide A Research Paper! Nous voulons nous presenter devant les lecteurs russes avec nos succes et nos imperfections »9. Law Essay! La loyaute de Moussa Djalil au regime s’incarne dans cette capacite de compromis entre les langues tatare et russe. 10 Z.Z.

Miftakhov, V.G Khabibullina, Partijnaia vlast’ i bor’ba protiv formalizma i naturalizma v pisa (. Guide To Writing A Research Paper! ) 11 Ol'ga Fedotova, « Dal kliatvu a – zhizn' posviatit' narodu », http://www.archive.gov.tatarstan.ru/m(. Law Essay! ) 12 Sur la place des ecrivains dans le regime sovietique apres la guerre, voir Cecile Vaissie, Les inge (. ) 6 Au milieu des annees 1930, M. Guide! Djalil est un acteur de son temps, celui du stalinisme. Use Quotes In A Essay! Dans le domaine litteraire, il participe aux discussions sur la methode du realisme socialiste. Guide To Writing Paper! En 1937, il prend part au Congres des ecrivains de la republique du Tatarstan qui condamne le formalisme et le naturalisme et critique les ecrivains deviants10. Foreign In Language Teaching Thesis! En 1939, il est elu (avec l’aval du Parti) president de l'Union des ecrivains de l'ASSR du Tatarstan. Guide To Writing A Research! Il est aussi « elu » depute du Conseil des deputes des travailleurs de la ville de Kazan11. That Doesn't Require! Ces responsabilites litteraires et politiques a la fin des annees 1930 temoignent de l’implication de Moussa Djalil dans le fonctionnement du regime stalinien a l’epoque de la Terreur12. 13 Cf. Paper! les travaux d’Amir Weiner deja cite.

En 1946, un memorandum de Staline interdit la publication (. Wiki! ) 7 Dans la guerre, le destin de Moussa Djalil s’enrichit. Ce poete tatar, produit exemplaire du stalinisme, devient un heros patriotique. Guide! Cette evolution est lente et difficile. Alors qu’il meurt execute a Berlin en 1944, sa rehabilitation posthume n’intervient qu’en 1953. Scholarships Doesn't! Cette reconnaissance tardive de l’exploit ( podvig ) de Djalil n’est pas propre a ce heros. En URSS, le culte de la Grande Guerre patriotique et de ses heros n’intervient qu’apres la mort de Staline13. Beginners To Writing A Research Paper! Moussa Djalil ne fait pas exception et son heroisation s’inscrit bien dans le cadre de la politique memorielle de Khrouchtchev et de ses successeurs.

14 O. Can You! Fedotova, “Dal kliatvu ia.”. Beginners Guide A Research Paper! op. That! cit . Beginners Guide To Writing! 15 Ibid . 8 Selon les sources disponibles, des le debut de la guerre, Moussa Djalil se mobilise contre l’envahisseur. Order In Macbeth Essay! En juin 1941, en tant que responsable de l’Union des ecrivains du Tatarstan, ses biographes affirment qu’il organise la publication de textes contre l’ennemi en tatar et en russe ainsi qu’un meeting anti-fasciste dans l’opera de Kazan. Le 12 juillet 1941, Moussa Djalil est mobilise dans l’Armee rouge14. Beginners Guide To Writing A Research! D’abord place dans la reserve, il est envoye sur le front dans les premiers jours de fevrier 1942. En juin 1942, il ecrit a ses proches qu’il est nomme correspondant militaire du journal « Otvaga ». As English Foreign Thesis! D’apres l’archiviste Olga Fedotova, « Dans les archives sont conservees les lettres du front de Moussa Djalil, adressees a ses amis, le president du Presidium du Soviet supreme de la TASSR G. Dinmukhametov, le president de l’Union des ecrivains, T. Beginners Guide To Writing Paper! Imamutdinov, le secretaire de l’Organisation du Parti, G. Scholarships Doesn't Require An Essay! Kashshaf »15. To Writing Paper! Il est interessant ici de voir la liste de ses « amis » qui sont aussi (et peut-etre surtout) des apparatchiks sovietiques. Learning! A partir de juillet 1942, les proches de M. Djalil ne recoivent plus de nouvelles. To Writing! Le 5 decembre 1942, alors que le poete est toujours silencieux, ses amis, au nom de l’Union des ecrivains du Tatarstan, proposent sa candidature pour le prix Staline. Cooperative Learning Research! Cette candidature n’est pas retenue. 16 Sur la legion Idel’-Oural’, voir notamment Rafael Mustafin, « Idel-Ural : vzgliaiz Germanii » (Idel (. Guide A Research! ) 17 Abdulkhan Akhtamzian, Musa Dzhalil’ i ego soratniki … op. Order Vs. Disorder Essay! cit. Beginners To Writing! ; Rafael’ Mustafin, “Izmennik rodiny (. ) 9 A la fin de l’annee 1942, des bruits courent sur la presence du poete aux cotes des forces allemandes. Immigration! Il semble qu’ayant ete fait prisonnier par l’armee ennemie, il ait ete enrole au sein de la legion « Idel’ – Oural », formee par la Wehrmacht en Pologne avec des representants des nationalites de la Volga, pour combattre les forces sovietiques afin de creer une republique independante de la Volga soutenue par les forces nazies16.

Dans cette legion allemande, selon l’historiographie officielle17, Moussa Djalil se livre a un double jeu clandestin. A Research! Sous couvert de collaboration avec les Allemands, avec d’autres camarades, il recoit des instructions du Sovinformburo et les diffuse parmi les prisonniers. Moussa Djalil et les membres de son organisation clandestine preparent une insurrection lorsqu’ils sont decouverts et envoyes dans le camp de concentration de Spandau. Can You In A Critical! Ils tentent d’y organiser une evasion mais sont arretes par la Gestapo en aout 1943 et enfermes dans la prison berlinoise de Moabit. Guide To Writing! Moussa Djalil est condamne a la peine capitale le 12 fevrier 1944 et guillotine avec 11 de ses camarades le 25 aout 1944. 18 Vladimir Alpatov, « Reforma Alfavita : latinitsa ili kirillitsa ? » (la reforme de l'alphabet : lat (. Cooperative Learning! ) 19 Nous ne nous interrogeons pas ici sur la realite des faits rapportes concernant le retour des Cahie (. A Research Paper! ) 10 C’est lors de son emprisonnement en Allemagne que Moussa Djalil compose son cycle de poesie le plus fameux, connu sous le nom de Cahiers de Moabit ( Moabitskaia tetrad ). Cooperative Learning Paper! Les deux cahiers retrouves regroupent environ 93 poemes qui glorifient le devouement a la patrie. Beginners Guide A Research Paper! Les Cahiers de Moabit refletent non seulement la souffrance physique et l'approche de la mort, mais surtout la separation douloureuse avec sa terre natale. Use Quotes Lens Essay! Dans le poeme « Vers la mort », il ecrit ainsi « Je meurs, pour notre peuple, pour la sainte verite, pour la justice… ». Beginners Guide Paper! Les envolees lyriques du poete glorifient l'intrepidite des soldats sovietiques ainsi que leur foi en la victoire sur l'ennemi. In Macbeth! Les Cahiers de Moabit sont rediges en tatar, mais une partie est ecrite en alphabet arabe et une partie en alphabet latin. Beginners Guide! Depuis 1930, le tatar s’ecrivait officiellement en alphabet cyrillique mais, visiblement, Moussa Djalil ne s’etait pas totalement habitue a cette nouvelle graphie18. Apres la guerre, les Cahiers de Moabit ne reviennent en Union sovietique que progressivement.

Le retour des cahiers est en lui-meme une epopee relayee abondamment par les biographes du poete19. That Require An Essay! Ils racontent ainsi qu’en 1946, Nigmat Teregulov, un ancien prisonnier politique, transmet a l’Union des ecrivains du Tatarstan un bloc note comprenant une soixantaine de poemes de Djalil. Guide To Writing A Research Paper! Un an plus tard, un autre cahier est remis au consulat sovietique a Bruxelles par le resistant belge Andre Timmermans. Immigration Law Essay! Il avait ete prisonnier dans la meme cellule que Djalil dans la prison de Moabit. Beginners Guide To Writing! Un troisieme cahier de ce cycle fut perdu apres la guerre. 20 Ministere de la Securite d’Etat de l’URSS. Scholarships That Doesn't! 21 D’apres R. A Research Paper! Mustafin, « Zasekrechennye stranitsy», Literaturnaia Gazeta , # 9, 2006.

Cite par : L. Order In Macbeth! S. Guide To Writing A Research! (. That Doesn't An Essay! ) 11 Dans les premieres annees d’apres-guerre, des doutes sur le devouement de Moussa Djalil a la patrie se diffusent en URSS. To Writing A Research Paper! Les autorites sovietiques pensent d’abord qu’il est reste en Europe de l’Ouest. Cooperative! Le 5 avril 1947, « les ecrivains tatars Moussa Djalil et Abdulla Alish sont inclus par la quatrieme direction du MGB SSSR20 dans la liste des criminels particulierement dangereux, soupconnes de relever de plusieurs articles politiques. Beginners Guide To Writing Paper! Cette liste est envoyee a tous les reseaux d’espionnage, y compris a l’etranger »21. Cooperative Research Paper! Des temoignages d’anciens prisonniers auraient montre le role de Moussa Djalil aux cotes des forces allemandes. Beginners A Research Paper! Ses proches se mobilisent alors pour obtenir sa rehabilitation. Son ami G. Cooperative! Kashshaf, critique litteraire mais aussi responsable du Parti, rassemble des temoignages aupres d’anciens prisonniers de guerre, qui racontent le travail clandestin de M. To Writing Paper! Djalil contre les forces allemandes.

G. Essay! Kashshaf s’adresse a S. A Research Paper! Muratov, premier secretaire du comite du parti du Tatarstan (Tatarskij obkom KPSS), lui demandant de s’occuper personnellement du cas de M. Essay! Djalil et de ses camarades. Beginners To Writing A Research Paper! En 1948, il se rend a Moscou et s’adresse au secretaire de l’Union des ecrivains d’URSS A. Pro Arizona Immigration! Fadeev. Beginners Guide To Writing Paper! Selon la version officielle des faits, les poemes des Cahiers de Moabit lui permettent de faire reconnaitre progressivement la cause de Moussa Djalil. 22 L. Doesn't An Essay! S. Beginners To Writing A Research! Badertdinova, “Gazi Kashshaf – Dzhaliloved…”. Use Quotes Critical! op. To Writing Paper! cit. Pro Arizona Immigration! p. Guide To Writing A Research! 6. Order Vs. Disorder In Macbeth! 23 Oukaz du Presidium du Soviet supreme de l'URSS du 2 fevrier 1956. 24 Dans : A. Beginners Guide To Writing A Research Paper! Akhtamzian, Musa Dzhalil’ i ego soratniki… op. Use Quotes In A Critical! cit. p. Beginners! 3. 12 Neuf ans apres la condamnation de Moussa Djalil, des vers tires des Cahiers de Moabit sont publies dans la Literaturnaia Gazeta . Wiki Dissertation Fellowships! « Le 25 avril 1953 est devenu le jour de la deuxieme naissance du poete-heros Moussa Djalil » note l. S. Guide A Research Paper! Badertdinova22. Paper! Les Cahiers de Moabit sont publies en tatar a Kazan en 1953 puis en 1955 par la maison d’edition Molodaia Gvardia sous le titre « Chanson heroique » ( Geroicheskaia pesnia ). To Writing Paper! Ils regroupent 110 poemes. Order Vs. Disorder Essay! Ces carnets valent a leur auteur le prix Lenine a titre posthume en 1956. Beginners Guide Paper! Par un oukase du Presidium du Soviet Supreme de l’URSS du 2 fevrier 1956, Moussa Djalil est decore du titre de Heros de l’Union sovietique pour son courage dans la lutte contre l’occupant allemand fasciste23. Scholarships That Doesn't An Essay! Au terme d’une histoire longue et mouvementee, Moussa Djalil entre ainsi au pantheon des heros du patriotisme sovietique. A Research! Il est le seul poete de l’Union sovietique a etre simultanement decore du titre de Heros de l’URSS pour son courage personnel et du Prix Lenine pour ses Cahiers de Moabit . Wiki! Les poemes des Cahiers de Moabit sont traduits dans plus de cinquante langues, dont 20 langues des peuples de l’URSS.

Ils sont vendus a plus d’un million d’exemplaires. To Writing A Research! Moussa Djalil devient le poete tatar officiellement celebre en URSS (a l’epoque, chaque nationalite ou presque pouvait se vanter d’avoir un grand ecrivain parmi ses representants). Fellowships! Ainsi, « Le nom de notre poete national Moussa Djalil devint connu d’un large cercle de lecteurs apres la mort de Staline » note Il’iaz Muslimov24. 25 Musa Dzhalil : materialy vsesoiuznoi nauchnoi konferencii, posviashchennoi 70-letiu so dnia rozhden (. Beginners Guide To Writing Paper! ) 26 N. Scholarships That An Essay! Khanzafarov, “Muse Dzhaliliu posviashchaetsia”, Voprosy Literatury , # 6, 1976. Beginners Guide A Research! 27 Par exemple, Musa Dzhalil’ i patrioticheskie traditsii v sovetskoi literature. Vs. Disorder Essay! Materialy Vsesoiuzno (. Beginners To Writing Paper! ) 28 Par exemple, R. Can You Critical Lens! Bikmukhametov, Musa Dzhalil’ : Lichnost’. To Writing! Tvorchestvo.

Zhizn’ , Moscou, 1989. 13 Moussa Djalil fait l’objet, a partir des annees 1950, d’une reconnaissance memorielle qui se prolonge tout au long des annees 1960 et 1970. In Macbeth! A Kazan, au milieu de la place du Premier mai, devant la Tour du Sauveur qui marque l'entree du Kremlin, une haute statue du poete tatar et heros de l'Union sovietique est erigee en 1966 pour le 60eme anniversaire de sa naissance. Beginners Guide A Research! Le poete est represente ses jambes prisonnieres de fil barbele, ses mains liees dans le dos, son regard perdu vers le lointain. Cooperative Learning Research Paper! Un film sovietique consacre a ses exploits, intitule « Moabitskaia tetrad’ », est realise par les studios Lenfilm en 1968. Guide To Writing A Research Paper! En 1970, une conference scientifique est organisee a Kazan pour les 70 ans de la naissance du poete 25 . Research Paper! Des chercheurs du Tatarstan mais aussi de Moscou, Oufa, Tachkent, Alma-Ata, Frounze, Minsk … y participent. To Writing! La conference est ouverte par le secretaire du comite du parti du Tatarstan 26 . That! La Djalillologie ( dzhalilovedenie ) est lancee. A Research! Elle perdure jusqu’a la fin de la periode sovietique. Order In Macbeth! A la fin des annees 1980, plusieurs ouvrages consacres a Moussa Djalil sont publies a Kazan 27 et a Moscou 28 . Timbre postal de 1959. 29 M.-C. Beginners Paper! Lavabre, Pour une sociologie de la memoire collective. http://www.cnrs.fr/cw/fr/pres/compress(. As English In Language! ) 30 P. Beginners Guide To Writing! Centlivres, D. In A Critical Essay! Fabre, F. Beginners A Research Paper! Zonabend, La fabrique des heros , Editions de la Maison des Sciences de (. Pro Arizona! ) 14 Le succes memoriel de Moussa Djalil doit aussi a sa dimension tout simplement humaine, qui parle aux gens.

Pour Marie-Claire Lavabre, « Comment, non pas a l’inverse mais dans le meme mouvement, une memoire dite collective parce que portee par des groupes, partis, associations et autres porte-parole autorises, peut-elle agir sur les representations individuelles ? »29. Dans le cas de Moussa Djalil, des les annees 1960, la diffusion de son ?uvre s’accompagne de la publication de certains de ses ecrits intimes ainsi que de temoignages de sa famille et de ses proches. To Writing A Research Paper! On y trouve notamment des extraits de sa correspondance avec sa femme et sa fille restees au Tatarstan pendant la guerre. Order Vs. Disorder Essay! La publication de ces lettres est importante car elle permet de completer l’?uvre officielle du poete en montrant les liens domestiques qui soutenaient M. Guide To Writing Paper! Djalil au quotidien. Order In Macbeth! La gloire de Moussa Djalil tient aussi a ses qualites personnelles. Beginners Guide Paper! Sa fille Chulpan a contribue ainsi a la perpetuation de la memoire domestique de son pere, evoquant, lors de conferences publiques, ses qualites familiales. Scholarships Require! L’ouverture d’un appartement-musee du poete a Kazan en 1983 donne a voir le quotidien banal d’un Sovietique des annees 1930 fait d’objets connus et familiers. Beginners Guide To Writing! La vitalite du culte de Moussa Djalil tient dans sa dimension tres personnalisee et s’accorde peut-etre deja, des la fin de la periode sovietique, avec le recul « des « grands recits » historiques avec les ideologies qui les justifiaient »30. 15 Ainsi, le mythe de Moussa Djalil, tel qu’il se constitue en URSS apres 1953, permet de mettre au jour les differents caracteres qui concourent a la formation d’un heros. In Language! L’exploit militaire, ici contestable au vu des ambiguites qui entourent la legion allemande Idel’-Oural, n’est qu’un element parmi d’autres dans la constitution du heros.

Sa nationalite tatare est aussi importante, tout comme son origine modeste, son devouement au sovietisme et son talent poetique. Le personnage qui se dessine ainsi, s’il est souvent reduit a sa dimension « patriotique », est d’abord un homme sovietique complet qui permet l’identification a son destin, notamment au sein des populations tatares du pays. Les usages postsovietiques du heros sovietique. 16 Apres la chute de l’URSS, l’?uvre et l’histoire de ce poete tatar auraient pu tomber dans l’oubli tant ce destin semble a contre-courant des valeurs portees par le post-sovietisme. Beginners Guide! Sa prose rouge des annees 1930, son engagement au service du stalinisme et sa loyaute nationale a l’egard du regime sovietique semblent peu en phase avec les transformations d’apres la perestroika, faites de critique du realisme sovietique, de denonciation du stalinisme et d’emergence de revendications nationalistes. Moussa Djalil conserve pourtant une popularite significative aupres des cercles politiques officiels russes et tatars. Sa renommee depasse meme probablement celle de l’ecrivain Gabdulla Tukai (1886-1913) pourtant considere comme le pere de la litterature tatare moderne. Scholarships That Doesn't Require An Essay! De nombreux articles et ouvrages consacres a Moussa Djalil ont ete publies depuis une vingtaine d’annees31 par des auteurs deja autorises a la periode sovietique. Beginners Paper! Une permanence memorielle demeure donc malgre le changement de regime. Learning Research Paper! Elle est officiellement justifiee a la fois par l’appartenance nationale du poete a la culture tatare et par son engagement patriotique dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale.

Cependant, le personnage de Moussa Djalil suscite aussi le doute et la controverse. Guide To Writing! Certains cercles intellectuels d’opposition ont tente de polemiquer autour de l’histoire reelle du heros-poete mais se sont heurtes aux gardiens du pantheon officiel. 32 Mot d’accueil du president Poutine aux participants a la soiree dediee a Moussa Djalil a la Maison (. Pro Arizona Immigration Law Essay! ) 33 Musa Dzhalil, « Stoletie so dnia rozhdenia poeta-antifashista » 28 fevrier 2006. http://www.nizgar.(. Beginners Guide A Research! ) 34 « V Peterburge otkryt pamiatnik Muse Dzhaliliu », 19 mai 2011. That Doesn't! http://wffw.info/152390/v-peterburge(. Guide! ) 17 Depuis la disparition de l’URSS, le nom de Moussa Djalil est volontiers evoque par les autorites officielles russes et tatares. Critical Essay! En 2006, pour le centenaire de la naissance du poete, le president Vladimir Poutine declare : « L’?uvre de Moussa Djalil constitue un composant inalienable de la culture plurinationale de la Russie, son heritage litteraire unique. Beginners Guide! Et sa vie elle-meme est un exemple de devouement a un ideal moral superieur, un symbole de patriotisme, de courage et d’heroisme »32. Can You Use Quotes Lens Essay! A la maniere sovietique, il mentionne a la fois l’appartenance nationale de Moussa Djalil, son ?uvre poetique et son patriotisme.

Le president tatar, Mintimer Chaimiev, en offre quant a lui une vision plus sociale et plus nationale : « Il y a cent ans, naissait dans une famille tatare ordinaire ( v obychnoi tatarskoi sem’e ) Moussa Djalil, un homme ayant glorifie le peuple tatar par son ?uvre poetique eclatante et son exploit exceptionnel… Ouvert, radieux, doue, Djalil a genereusement distribue a son entourage la richesse de son ame. Beginners! […] Sa vie, son ?uvre et sa mort sont l’exemple d’une personnalite forte et multiple ( mnogostoronnei ), la fierte de toute la Russie pluri nationale et du peuple tatar »33. Si le president tatar insiste sur la dimension nationale de la commemoration, evoque la figure d’un homme issu du peuple, devoue a son entourage, il souligne aussi le lien que l’?uvre de Moussa Djalil permet de nouer entre la communaute tatare et la Russie toute entiere. Foreign Teaching! C’est dans cette double dimension, a la fois tatare et sovietique (desormais russe) que la memoire de Moussa Djalil est abondamment evoquee. Paper! A Saint-Petersbourg, une statue a Moussa Djalil a ete erigee en 2011 en presence du nouveau president du Tatarstan, Rustam Minnikhanov. Wiki Fellowships! A l’issue de la ceremonie, Valentina Matvenko, gouverneur de Saint-Petersbourg, a indique que l’inauguration de ce monument etait le resultat du developpement des liens culturels et humains entre Saint-Petersbourg et le Tatarstan34. 35 « Naberezhnie Chelni : Miting pamiati Mysy Dzhalilia – poeta-kommunista, Geroia sovetskogo-soiuza » (. Beginners Guide Paper! ) 18 Beneficiant ainsi de l’aval officiel des plus hautes autorites de l’Etat, le culte de Moussa Djalil se developpe continument depuis la disparition de l’URSS. Order Vs. Disorder! Cette memoire fait l’objet des usages les plus divers. La figure de Moussa Djalil se prete ainsi a des appropriations politiques, au sens partisan du terme.

Ainsi, le 26 aout 2009, la cellule du Parti communiste de Naberezhnie Tchelni, au Tatarstan, organise une ceremonie a la memoire du « poete-communiste » selon le terme qu’elle emploie. Beginners A Research Paper! Contrairement aux ceremonies souvent fondees sur la naissance du heros, elle privilegie ici les 65 ans de sa mort. La responsable du Parti qui prend la parole souligne l’engagement precoce du jeune Djalil au service du Komsomol et du Parti, detaille son role dans la propagande destinee aux enfants mais passe sous silence son activite a la fin des annees 193035. As English In Language Teaching Thesis! La figure de Moussa Djalil permet ici de renouer avec le reve communiste des debuts de la revolution. 36 Voir le site de l’ecole tatare de Moscou : http://www.sch1186.uvuo.ru/

19 Cette reconnaissance officielle favorise les initiatives locales de perpetuation de la memoire du heros tatar. Guide Paper! A Moscou, l’ecole ethno-culturelle tatare est baptisee du nom de Moussa Djalil en 2006. Fellowships! En 2008, une grande statue du poete est erigee dans sa cour pour montrer l’exemple aux ecoliers. De plus, comme l’indique le site de l’ecole, « Afin de favoriser l’education patriotique de la jeune generation, l’ecole a cree une organisation de jeunes « Les Djalillovtsy ». Beginners To Writing A Research! Chaque annee, le jour de la naissance du poete Moussa Djalil, ils organisent un tournoi de lutte36. Alors que d’autres poetes tatars, comme Tukai, auraient pu faire l’objet de commemorations officielles, ce sont l’?uvre et la personnalite de Moussa Djalil qui sont privilegiees dans la Russie contemporaine car, entre heritage national et sovietique, elles semblent mieux repondre aux necessites politiques, historiques et culturelles du moment. 20 L’officialisation du heros et de sa memoire rend aujourd’hui difficile sa critique. Scholarships That Doesn't Require! La figure de Moussa Djalil, par ses multiples dimensions, a la fois politique, litteraire, nationale, patriotique…, favorise des projets institutionnels et politiques dont la variete assure la solidite. Beginners To Writing A Research Paper! Enserree dans des appropriations diverses, sa memoire est ainsi solidement perpetuee. Require An Essay! Face a cette toile memorielle, l’expression de toute critique est socialement et politiquement difficile a assumer.

Si des tentatives de remise en question de la memoire de Moussa Djalil existent, elles sont immediatement denoncees au nom de toutes les justifications qui font sa renommee. Les contempteurs du heros sont ainsi denonces publiquement comme de mauvais citoyens, des traitres a la patrie, de mediocres ecrivains… voues a l’exclusion de la communaute nationale. Paper! Nous illustrons ici la critique impossible par deux polemiques qui, en 2009, ont montre la difficulte a engager un debat contradictoire autour de la memoire de Moussa Djalil. 37 « V Kazani prokuratura zanialas’ literaturoi ». That Doesn't! 20 fevrier 2010. A Research Paper! http://www.5-tv.ru/news/26703/ (co (. Research! ) 38 Dans le journal tatar publie a Berlin Bertugan , # 6-9, 2008 ; dans le journal Vatanym Tatarstan du (. ) 39 A. Beginners Guide To Writing A Research! Polunin, « Gejdar Dzhemal’ : Problema raspada Rossii – konflikt centra s russkimi regionami », S (. ) 21 En 2009, l’ecrivain tatar Minakhmet Shakhapov, redacteur en chef de la revue « Miras », publie a Kazan un « drame historique » intitule « La mort de Barberousse » (en tatar). Teaching! Dans cette piece, qui se deroule durant la Grande Guerre patriotique, des Tatars passes aux cotes des fascistes preparent la creation d’une republique anti-sovietique sur les bords de la Volga. Paper! La reference a la legion Idel’-Oural est claire.

S’il n’est pas le heros principal de l’intrigue, Moussa Djalil est evoque dans deux passages. Wiki Dissertation! Il y est felicite par Hitler, qui lui offre une voiture et un logement, pour sa loyaute a l’Allemagne37. Guide To Writing A Research Paper! A la publication de cette piece, M. Shakhapov est immediatement accuse de « calomnie » contre le poete-heros Moussa Djalil », pour l’avoir presente comme un partisan du Fuhrer. Order In Macbeth! Ce crime de lese-heros est immediatement associe a une autre affaire. A la meme periode, la leader nationaliste tatare Fauzia Bairamova publie plusieurs articles38 consacres a Garif Sultan, un emigre tatar de 85 ans installe a Munich qui est aussi l’un des fondateurs du service tataro-bachkir de la radio « Svoboda ». Durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Garif Sultan a servi dans la legion musulmane Idel-Oural avec Moussa Djalil. Il est reste en Occident a l’issue de la guerre. A Research! Selon ses termes, M. Cooperative Learning! Djalil est presente comme un traitre peureux, qui ne s’est engage dans la lutte anti-fasciste qu’a la fin de la guerre par peur des represailles des troupes sovietiques qui approchaient39. Guide To Writing! En rapportant ses propos, Fauzia Bairamova les soutient explicitement et met en doute l’heroisme du poete tatar. Can You In A Critical Essay! Elle glorifie a l’inverse le destin de Garif Sultan, qui, depuis l’Occident, a soutenu la cause tatare a travers ses activites journalistiques. 40 « Tatarskie pisateli chistiat riady », Regnum, 29 aout 2009, http://www.lenta-itar-tass.ru/69000/69(. Guide! ) 41 A. Can You In A! Polunin, « Gejdar Dzhemal’ : Problema raspada Rossii… ». Beginners To Writing A Research! art. Order In Macbeth! cit. Guide Paper! http://svpressa.ru/politic/ar(. Wiki Dissertation! ) 42 « Tatarskie pisateli chistiat … », art. A Research Paper! cit.. http://www.lenta-itar-tass.ru/69000/69265.php (consul (. Cooperative Learning Research! ) 43 Rafael’ Mustafin, Izmennik rodiny… art. Beginners To Writing Paper! cit. 22 Les ecrits de M. As English Foreign! Shakhapov et de F. Beginners To Writing Paper! Bairamova sont immediatement denonces par les defenseurs de la memoire de Moussa Djalil.

Tatars, patriotes, ecrivains et proches du poete se mobilisent pour denoncer l’atteinte a sa memoire. Scholarships Doesn't! La fille du poete, Chulpan Zalilova, saisit le president Chaimiev pour defendre l’honneur de son pere. Guide To Writing A Research! Les partisans de Moussa Djalil voient derriere les critiques la main de l’ennemi etranger. Use Quotes Essay! M. Beginners Guide To Writing Paper! Shakhapov, docteur en litterature, s’il est un membre honorable de l’Union des ecrivains du Tatarstan, est aussi membre de l’academie de New-York et laureat du prix international Georges Soros40. Learning Research! Ses liens intellectuels avec l’Occident sont ainsi averes et immediatement soupconnes.

Le regard critique porte sur Moussa Djalil est denonce comme une emanation des forces occidentales. Beginners A Research Paper! L’affaire est encore plus claire dans le cas de Garif Sultan. Foreign Teaching Thesis! Selon l’agence de presse Regnum , « Pourquoi le fondateur de la redaction tataro-bachkire de radio « Svoboda » a-t-il attendu si longtemps pour dessiller les yeux de ses compatriotes ? La reponse est claire. Beginners Paper! La redaction tataro-bachkire, comme toutes les autres redactions de « Svoboda » est financee par le Congres des Etats-Unis ». Wiki! Selon le site Svobodnaia Pressa , « Des experts en ont conclu que l’Amerique alimente le nationalisme tatar, discredite les anciens heros et veut en creer de nouveaux »41. Beginners Guide A Research! Quant a Fauzia Bairamova, qui a relaye les critiques contre Moussa Djalil, elle est accusee de vouloir preparer son immigration dans un pays « civilise »42.

L’historien tatar Rafael’ Mustafin, specialiste officiel de Moussa Djalil, affirme que Garif Sultan est en fait le traitre qui a reellement servi Hitler et denonce les activites clandestines de Moussa Djalil aux autorites allemandes43. 23 La mise en cause de l’Occident dans la critique de Moussa Djalil n’est pas seulement un argument rhetorique destine a reunir la communaute dans la defense de son heros et a assurer sa cohesion historique et politique face a l’etranger, c’est aussi un refus d’engager le debat dans des formes apparentees au debat liberal. Cooperative Research! Les auteurs des critiques sont en effet immediatement exclus de leurs cercles d’appartenance. Beginners Guide To Writing A Research! Des la publication de son texte, l’Union des ecrivains du Tatarstan exclut de ses rangs Minakhmet Shakhapov. Scholarships! Comme l’explique Tufan Minnulin, qui a contribue a cette exclusion : « De mon point de vue, l’Union des ecrivains est une union de personnes qui partagent le meme point de vue (edinomyshlenniki).[…] Quand j’ai lu le drame de Shakhapov […] ou Moussa Djalil est presente comme un ennemi de notre pays, comme un ami de Hitler, j’ai ete terriblement heurte. Guide Paper! Comment peut-on abaisser Moussa Djalil, notre heros, notre saint ? (geroia nashego, nashe sviatoe) ».

44 « « Miras » vo t’me. Cooperative! Chestnoe slovo », Kazan’, 14 septembre 2009. Guide! http://www.chskaz.narod.ru/chs83_(. Pro Arizona! ) 45 « V Kazani prokuratura zanialas’ literaturoi », 20 fevrier 2010. Beginners Guide To Writing A Research Paper! http://www.5-tv.ru/news/26703/ (co (. Dissertation Fellowships! ) 46 « V Kazani vozbuzhdeno ugolovnoe delo za klevety na tatarstkogo poeta Musu Dzhalilia », Tatar-infor (. Guide To Writing A Research! ) 24 Le journal Miras , qui a publie le texte incrimine, est prive de ses subventions publiques. Fellowships! Tous les numeros qui ont fait scandale sont retires de la vente. Beginners! L’electricite est coupee dans la redaction pour defaut de paiement des factures44. Dissertation Fellowships! Une enquete pour denonciation calomnieuse est confiee a la Procurature45. Beginners To Writing Paper! En janvier 2010, une enquete penale est ouverte contre Shakhapov en vertu de l’article 129 du Code penal de la Federation de Russie46. Can You Use Quotes Essay! Quant a Fauzia Bairamova, connue depuis la fin des annees 1980 pour son radical nationalisme tatar, elle a ete condamnee, dans une autre affaire, pour « incitation a la haine raciale » en fevrier 2010. 25 La controverse autour de Moussa Djalil, refermee sitot ouverte, est aussi une facon d’echapper a un debat problematique autour de la Seconde Guerre mondiale et de la position des nationalistes tatars membres de la legion Idel’-Oural. Guide To Writing A Research! Elle illustre la difficulte a mener un debat historique et politique contradictoire en Russie aujourd’hui. Foreign In Language Teaching! Rinat Mukhamadiev, ancien president de l’Union des ecrivains du Tatarstan dans les annees 1990, regrette cette situation : 47 Ai. Kadyrova, « Kak oni mogli okhaivat’ Dzhalilia ! », Vechernaia Kazan’ , 28 aout 2009. Beginners Guide To Writing! http://old.(. Learning Paper! ) « Je n’ai jamais ete un grand admirateur de l’?uvre de Shakhapov, je n’ai pas lu son nouveau drame sur Moussa Djalil.

Neanmoins, je trouve qu’il n’est pas juste de l’exclure de l’Union des ecrivains. Beginners A Research! Si les collegues n’aiment pas son travail, qu’ils le critiquent, qu’ils ecrivent des recensions negatives, qu’ils le discutent. As English Teaching Thesis! Ce serait professionnel et civilise ! Mais l’exclure… Je me souviens qu’a l’epoque sovietique on beginners guide paper, a exclu de l’Union des ecrivains Boris Pasternak, Aleksandr Soljenitsyne, Aleksandr Galitch, Evgenii Popov, Viktor Erofeev … […] Je ne veux pas faire de parallele mais depuis la periode sovietique, personne n’avait ete exclu de l’Union des ecrivains du Tatarstan, voila ce qui est interessant » 47 . 26 L’absence de debat autour de Moussa Djalil est ici rapprochee des pratiques autoritaires sovietiques. Cooperative! L’impossible dialogue, au-dela du cas particulier de ce heros tatar, peut ainsi contribuer a la qualification du regime politique russe actuel. 27 La vivacite du culte de Moussa Djalil dans la Russie contemporaine peut sembler paradoxale aux yeux du chercheur etranger qui l’examine. Guide To Writing Paper! Ce heros est en effet un homme dont l’histoire est propice a la critique. In Macbeth Essay! Moussa Djalil est d’abord un produit du stalinisme, dont les responsabilites obtenues a la fin des annees 1930 suscitent le doute sur la nature de son engagement dans le regime. Beginners Guide Paper! C’est ensuite un poete acquis au realisme socialiste, aujourd’hui condamne des cercles philologiques. As English Foreign Teaching! C’est, de plus, un artisan de l’assimilation tatare a travers sa langue et ses ?uvres, traduites en russe de son vivant et plus encore apres sa mort. Beginners Guide Paper! Enfin, l’exploit qu’il a realise, au sein d’une legion allemande pendant la Grande Guerre patriotique, peut-etre mis en doute. Foreign! Prive du regime qui le portait jusqu’en 1991, le Heros semble aujourd’hui considerablement affaibli.

Pourtant, dans la Russie actuelle, on beginners guide to writing a research, observe, depuis quelques annees, un renouveau memoriel autour de ce personnage. Ce n’est pas seulement son exploit militaire qui est rappele mais aussi son talent litteraire, sa foi communiste, sa fidelite nationale, son devouement paternel. As English Foreign In Language Teaching Thesis! Ces multiples dimensions permettent sa reconnaissance par le plus grand nombre et participent, a ce titre, du consensus social et politique en Russie en general et au Tatarstan en particulier. Beginners Guide To Writing Paper! La critique historienne et objective des faits relates importe peu. In Language Thesis! La memoire de la guerre est d’abord un phenomene social. Beginners Guide To Writing! En depit de leurs zones d’ombres, les heros de la guerre sont intouchables. Order In Macbeth! Ils servent en effet une cause sociale et politique qui les depasse et les protege de tout debat historiographique contradictoire et democratique. 1 Voir les travaux d’Amir Weiner : “The Making of beginners guide a research paper, a Dominant Myth : the cooperative learning, Second World War and the Construction of beginners a research, Political Identities within the Soviet Polity”, The Russian Review , vol. 55, octobre 1996, pp. As English Foreign In Language! 638-660 ; Making Sense of beginners a research paper, War. Order Essay! The Second World War and guide to writing the Fate of the Bolshevik Revolution , Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2001.

2 La recherche presentee ici est le resultat d’un travail en cours, fonde sur l’etude des sources ecrites publiees sur Musa Dzhalil. Learning Research! Il presente donc de premiers elements d’analyse qui pourront faire l’objet de developpements ulterieurs apres acces aux archives. A Research Paper! Une premiere presentation de ce texte a ete faite lors de la journee d’etude « Ecriture de la guerre, domaine russe », organisee a l’Universite Blaise-Pascal de Clermont-Ferrand par Regis Gayraud en 2008. 3 P. Can You Critical Lens! Chanial, « Societe civile, societe civique? Associationnisme, liberalisme et republicanisme », Recherches , 2001 - cairn.info.

4 Sur la promotion des minorites nationales en URSS, voir T. Beginners Paper! Martin, The Affirmative Action Empire. In A Critical Essay! Nations and a research Nationalism in in language thesis the Soviet Union, 1923-1939 , Ithaca–Londres, Cornell University Press, 2001. 5 Akhmet Iskhak, Poet-geroi Musa Dzhalil, Moscou, 1956, 24 p. ; A. Beginners A Research! Akhmadullin, “Arkhiv Musy Dzhalili”, Voprosy literatury , # 1, 1969, pp. Doesn't An Essay! 248-250 ; Gazi Kashshaf, Rafael’ Mostafin, Vospominania o Muse Dzhalile, Tatarskoe knizhnoe izdatel’stvo, 1966, 235 p. ; K.A. Guide! Barskaia, Musa Dzhalil, Leningrad, Prosveshchenie, 1968, 93 p. Wiki Dissertation Fellowships! ; Rafael’ Mustafin, Po sledam oborvannoj pesni, Moscou, 1974 ; R. Beginners To Writing A Research Paper! Mustafin, “Musa Dzhalil : o metode socialisticheskogo realizma”. Use Quotes In A Critical Essay! Voprosy literatury , # 8, 1984, pp. 174-179 ; R. Beginners To Writing! Bikmukhametov, Musa Dzhalil : lichnost’, tvorchestvo, zhizn ’ , Moscou, Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 1989.

6 N. D. Immigration Law Essay! Neroznikova, “Musa Dzhalil’ v dokumentakh nacional’nogo arkhiva respubliki Tatarstan (k 100-letiu poeta)”, Otechestvennie arkhivy , # 1, 2006 ; E.V. Panov, “On kliatvu vypolnil”, Voenno-istoricheski zhurnal’ , # 5, 2006. Beginners Paper! pp. Doesn't An Essay! 74-75 ; Abdulkhan Akhtamzian, Musa Dzhalil i ego soratniki v soprotivlenii fashizmu, Ideapress, Kazan, 2006. Guide To Writing A Research! 156 p. Cooperative Research Paper! etc. 7 M. Beginners Guide To Writing! Dzhalil, “Moi zhiznenni put’”, Voprosy literatury , # 7, 1961, pp. Use Quotes Critical Essay! 150-154. Guide A Research Paper! (1ere publication en 1939) 8 R. Cooperative Research! Bikmukhametov, Musa Dzhalil. Kritiko-biograficheskii ocherk, Moscou, 1957 ; Vospominania o Muse Dzhalile. Kazan, 1966 ; H. Guide A Research Paper! Dzhalilova, O moem brate , Kazan, 1969 ; Rafael’ Mustafin, Musa Dzhalil.

Zhizn’ i tvorchestvo – dovoennii period, Kazan, 1986. 9 Akhmed Erikeev, Musa Dzhalil, Akhmed Faizi, “Natsional’naia poesia i perevodchiki”, Literaturnaia gazeta , # 48, 29 octobre 1932, p. Pro Arizona Immigration Law Essay! 2. To Writing Paper! Cite par Vil Ganiev, « M. Order Vs. Disorder In Macbeth Essay! Dzhalil : zapetchatlion na kamniakh Moskvy », In : Musa Dzhalil’ v Moskve, Moscou, Insan, 2006, p. Paper! 16. 10 Z.Z. Miftakhov, V.G Khabibullina, Partijnaia vlast’ i bor’ba protiv formalizma i naturalizma v pisatel’skoj srede Tatarstana, Vestnik TGGPU , # 1, 2007. 12 Sur la place des ecrivains dans le regime sovietique apres la guerre, voir Cecile Vaissie, Les ingenieurs des ames en chef.

Litterature et politique en URSS (1944-1986) , Paris : Belin, 2008. 13 Cf. les travaux d’Amir Weiner deja cite. As English In Language Thesis! En 1946, un memorandum de Staline interdit la publication des memoires de guerre. Guide To Writing! C’est seulement a partir de 1964 que le jour de la victoire est ferie. 16 Sur la legion Idel’-Oural’, voir notamment Rafael Mustafin, « Idel-Ural : vzgliaiz Germanii » (Idel-Oural : un regard de l’Allemagne).

Ekho Vekov , mai 1995. 17 Abdulkhan Akhtamzian, Musa Dzhalil’ i ego soratniki … op. Cooperative Research! cit. Beginners Guide To Writing! ; Rafael’ Mustafin, “Izmennik rodiny ili radetel’ nacii”, Tatarstan , juin 2009. 18 Vladimir Alpatov, « Reforma Alfavita : latinitsa ili kirillitsa ? » (la reforme de l'alphabet : latin ou cyrillique ?) http://www.ca-c.org/journal/rus-02-2002/15.alpprimru.shtml. 19 Nous ne nous interrogeons pas ici sur la realite des faits rapportes concernant le retour des Cahiers de Moabit en URSS. Learning Paper! Nous presentons simplement le recit qui en est officiellement donne a l’epoque sovietique et aujourd’hui encore. Guide A Research! Il ne s’agit pas pour nous d’etablir la veracite des faits mais de voir comment la memoire de ces faits contribue a la popularite du poete et a sa perpetuation dans la Russie contemporaine. 20 Ministere de la Securite d’Etat de l’URSS. 21 D’apres R. Can You Use Quotes In A Critical! Mustafin, « Zasekrechennye stranitsy», Literaturnaia Gazeta , # 9, 2006.

Cite par : L. Beginners Paper! S. Badertdinova, « Gazi Kashshaf – Dzhaliloved », Vestnik Cheliabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta , # 13, 2010, p. Lens Essay! 6. 22 L. Beginners To Writing Paper! S. Immigration! Badertdinova, “Gazi Kashshaf – Dzhaliloved…”. Beginners Guide To Writing Paper! op. Vs. Disorder In Macbeth! cit. p. Beginners Guide To Writing! 6. 23 Oukaz du Presidium du Soviet supreme de l'URSS du 2 fevrier 1956. 24 Dans : A. Scholarships That Require An Essay! Akhtamzian, Musa Dzhalil’ i ego soratniki… op. Beginners Guide To Writing Paper! cit. Cooperative Research! p. To Writing Paper! 3. 25 Musa Dzhalil : materialy vsesoiuznoi nauchnoi konferencii, posviashchennoi 70-letiu so dnia rozhdenia poeta-geroia / AN SSSR , Kazanskii filial, Kazan, AN SSSR, 1978, 196 p. 26 N. That Require An Essay! Khanzafarov, “Muse Dzhaliliu posviashchaetsia”, Voprosy Literatury , # 6, 1976. 27 Par exemple, Musa Dzhalil’ i patrioticheskie traditsii v sovetskoi literature. Beginners A Research Paper! Materialy Vsesoiuznoi nauchnoi konferentsii, posviashchennii 80-letiu poeta-geroia , Kazan, 1989. 28 Par exemple, R. Can You Use Quotes Critical Essay! Bikmukhametov, Musa Dzhalil’ : Lichnost’. Paper! Tvorchestvo. Vs. Disorder In Macbeth! Zhizn’ , Moscou, 1989.

30 P. Centlivres, D. Fabre, F. Guide Paper! Zonabend, La fabrique des heros , Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, 1998. p. That Doesn't! 1. 31 Cf. Paper! notes 5 et 6. 32 Mot d’accueil du president Poutine aux participants a la soiree dediee a Moussa Djalil a la Maison centrale des litterateurs le 29 mars 2006. Cooperative! Cite par : L. To Writing! S. In A Critical! Badertdinova, « Gazi Kashshaf – Dzhaliloved »… art. cit. p. Beginners A Research Paper! 8. 33 Musa Dzhalil, « Stoletie so dnia rozhdenia poeta-antifashista » 28 fevrier 2006. Immigration Law Essay! http://www.nizgar.ru/publications/28-02-06.htm (consulte le 6 juin 2011). 35 « Naberezhnie Chelni : Miting pamiati Mysy Dzhalilia – poeta-kommunista, Geroia sovetskogo-soiuza », 26 aout 2009, http://kprf.ru/rus_soc/70200.html (consulte le 6 juin 2011). 36 Voir le site de l’ecole tatare de Moscou : http://www.sch1186.uvuo.ru/ 37 « V Kazani prokuratura zanialas’ literaturoi ». A Research! 20 fevrier 2010. Pro Arizona Immigration Law Essay! http://www.5-tv.ru/news/26703/ (consulte le 7 juin 2011).

38 Dans le journal tatar publie a Berlin Bertugan , # 6-9, 2008 ; dans le journal Vatanym Tatarstan du 21 novembre 2008, dans la journal « Medeni zhomga », # 2-6, 2009. Guide A Research Paper! D’apres les informations rapportees par R. Mustafin. Cooperative Learning! « Izmennik rodiny ili radetel’ natsii », Tatarstan , juin 2009. 39 A. To Writing A Research Paper! Polunin, « Gejdar Dzhemal’ : Problema raspada Rossii – konflikt centra s russkimi regionami », Svobodnaia Pressa, 29 aout 2009. In A Lens! http://svpressa.ru/politic/article/13407/ (consulte le 6 juin 2011). 40 « Tatarskie pisateli chistiat riady », Regnum, 29 aout 2009, http://www.lenta-itar-tass.ru/69000/69265.php (consulte le 6 juin 2011) 41 A. Guide! Polunin, « Gejdar Dzhemal’ : Problema raspada Rossii… ». Order! art. cit. Beginners To Writing! http://svpressa.ru/politic/article/13407/ (consulte le 6 juin 2011). 43 Rafael’ Mustafin, Izmennik rodiny… art. Pro Arizona Immigration! cit. 44 « « Miras » vo t’me. To Writing Paper! Chestnoe slovo », Kazan’, 14 septembre 2009. Wiki! http://www.chskaz.narod.ru/chs83_2.html (le 7 juin 2011). 45 « V Kazani prokuratura zanialas’ literaturoi », 20 fevrier 2010. To Writing! http://www.5-tv.ru/news/26703/ (consulte le 7 juin 2011).

46 « V Kazani vozbuzhdeno ugolovnoe delo za klevety na tatarstkogo poeta Musu Dzhalilia », Tatar-inform, 15 janvier 2010. Order In Macbeth Essay! http://tatarlar.lv/?p=1296. 47 Ai. Beginners Guide To Writing! Kadyrova, « Kak oni mogli okhaivat’ Dzhalilia ! », Vechernaia Kazan’ , 28 aout 2009. Can You Critical Lens! http://old.evening-kazan.ru/article.asp?from=searchid=32877 (consulte le 7 juin 2011). Francoise Dauce , « Les compositions memorielles autour de la Guerre patriotique. Beginners Guide! L’exemple du souvenir de Moussa Djalil, Tatar, stalinien, poete et patriote », The Journal of Power Institutions in pro arizona immigration Post-Soviet Societies [En ligne], Issue 12 | 2011, mis en ligne le 06 janvier 2012, consulte le 02 octobre 2017.

URL : http://pipss.revues.org/3864. Blaise-Pascal University, CHEC, CERCEC (EHESS/CNRS) Women in beginners to writing a research paper Arms: from the scholarships require, Russian Empire to Post-Soviet States Issue 16 | 2014. Military Journalism in beginners Soviet and cooperative research Post-Soviet Russia Issue 14/15 | 2013. War Trauma in beginners guide Post-Soviet Russia Military Reform in cooperative paper Russia and beginners to writing a research paper the CIS Issue 13 | 2012. Police Brutality Police Reform in use quotes in a critical Russia and beginners the CIS Issue 12 | 2011. Contemporary Uses of the use quotes in a critical lens, Second World War in beginners to writing paper Russia and immigration law essay the Former Soviet Republics Issue 11 | 2010. “Security and beginners a research paper Defense Reform in foreign teaching Central Asia” Issue 10 | 2009.

The Integration of beginners guide a research, Non-Russian Servicemen in the Imperial, Soviet and foreign in language teaching Russian Army Issue 9 | 2009. NGOs and Power Ministries in beginners Russia Issue 8 | 2008. Military Justice in can you in a critical Russia Issue 6/7 | 2007. The Social and beginners a research Political Role of pro arizona, War Veterans Issue 4/5 | 2006. Military and Security Structures in/and the Regions Women in/and the Military Issue 3 | 2005. The Military and beginners a research Society in order Post-Soviet Russia Issue 2 | 2005. Reflections on beginners guide a research paper, Policing in require an essay Post-Communist Europe Issue 1 | 2004. Dedovshchina : From Military to Society.

ISSN electronique 1769-7069. Informations Title: The Journal of beginners to writing paper, power institutions in post-soviet societies Pipss.org Briefly: Revue de science sociale consacree a l'etat des forces armees et aux structures de forces dans les societes post-sovietiques.

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Don't Help Your Kids With Their Homework. And other insights from a ground- breaking study of how parents impact children’s academic achievement. When Working From Home Doesn’t Work. Writing Advice From a (Newly Minted) Nobel Winner. Photographing the beginners guide paper Microscopic: Winners of Nikon Small World 2017. One of the central tenets of raising kids in vs. disorder in macbeth essay America is that parents should be actively involved in their children’s education: meeting with teachers, volunteering at a research, school, helping with homework, and doing a hundred other things that few working parents have time for. These obligations are so baked into American values that few parents stop to ask whether they’re worth the critical lens effort. Until this January, few researchers did, either. In the largest-ever study of guide to writing a research, how parental involvement affects academic achievement, Keith Robinson, a sociology professor at the University of Texas at in macbeth essay, Austin, and Angel L. Harris, a sociology professor at a research, Duke, mostly found that it doesn’t.

The researchers combed through nearly three decades’ worth of longitudinal surveys of American parents and tracked 63 different measures of parental participation in kids’ academic lives, from helping them with homework, to scholarships that doesn't require an essay, talking with them about to writing a research paper college plans, to volunteering at their schools. In an attempt to show whether the kids of scholarships that doesn't require, more-involved parents improved over time, the researchers indexed these measures to children’s academic performance, including test scores in reading and math. What they found surprised them. Most measurable forms of parental involvement seem to yield few academic dividends for kids, or even to beginners guide a research paper, backfire—regardless of a parent’s race, class, or level of education. In Photos: It's OK to Fake Bake-Sale Cookies | Emily Anne Epstein. Do you review your daughter’s homework every night? Robinson and Harris’s data, published in The Broken Compass: Parental Involvement With Children’s Education , show that this won’t help her score higher on standardized tests. Once kids enter middle school, parental help with homework can actually bring test scores down, an cooperative learning paper effect Robinson says could be caused by beginners guide to writing paper the fact that many parents may have forgotten, or never truly understood, the material their children learn in school. Similarly, students whose parents frequently meet with teachers and order in macbeth essay principals don’t seem to improve faster than academically comparable peers whose parents are less present at school.

Other essentially useless parenting interventions: observing a kid’s class; helping a teenager choose high-school courses; and, especially, disciplinary measures such as punishing kids for getting bad grades or instituting strict rules about when and to writing a research how homework gets done. This kind of meddling could leave children more anxious than enthusiastic about school, Robinson speculates. In A Critical Essay. “Ask them ‘Do you want to see me volunteering more? Going to guide to writing paper, school social functions? Is it helpful if I help you with homework?’ ” he told me. “We think about informing parents and schools what they need to do, but too often we leave the child out of the conversation.” One of the reasons parental involvement in schools has become dogma is that the critical lens government actively incentivizes it. Since the late 1960s, the federal government has spent hundreds of millions of dollars on programs that seek to engage parents—especially low-income parents—with their children’s schools. In 2001, No Child Left Behind required schools to guide a research, establish parent committees and communicate with parents in fellowships their native languages. The theory was that more active and invested mothers and beginners a research paper fathers could help close the immigration law essay test-score gap between middle-class and poor students. Yet until the new study, nobody had used the available data to test the assumption that close relationships between parents and schools improve student achievement.

While Robinson and Harris largely disproved that assumption, they did find a handful of beginners to writing paper, habits that make a difference, such as reading aloud to young kids (fewer than half of use quotes essay, whom are read to beginners guide to writing paper, daily) and talking with teenagers about pro arizona law essay college plans. But these interventions don’t take place at school or in the presence of teachers, where policy makers exert the most influence—they take place at home. What’s more, although conventional wisdom holds that poor children do badly in school because their parents don’t care about education, the opposite is true. Beginners. Across race, class, and immigration education level, the vast majority of American parents report that they speak with their kids about the importance of beginners a research, good grades and hope that they will attend college. Asian American kids may perform inordinately well on order vs. disorder in macbeth essay tests, for example, but their parents are not much more involved at school than Hispanic parents are—not surprising, given that both groups experience language barriers.

So why are some parents more effective at helping their children translate these shared values into achievement? Robinson and Harris posit that greater financial and educational resources allow some parents to embed their children in to writing paper neighborhoods and doesn't require an essay social settings in which they meet many college-educated adults with interesting careers. Upper-middle-class kids aren’t just told a good education will help them succeed in life. They are surrounded by family and friends who work as doctors, lawyers, and engineers and who reminisce about their college years around the beginners a research dinner table. Asian parents are an cooperative interesting exception; even when they are poor and unable to provide these types of social settings, they seem to be able to communicate the value and appeal of education in to writing a research a similarly effective manner. As part of can you use quotes, his research, Robinson conducted informal focus groups with his undergraduate statistics students at the University of Texas, asking them about guide how their parents contributed to their achievements. He found that most had few or no memories of their parents pushing or prodding them or getting involved at pro arizona immigration, school in formal ways. Instead, students described mothers and fathers who set high expectations and then stepped back. “These kids made it!,” Robinson told me. “You’d expect they’d have the type of beginners guide to writing a research paper, parental involvement we’re promoting at the national level. But they hardly had any of that.

It really blew me away.” Robinson and Harris’s findings add to research paper, what we know from beginners guide to writing a research paper, previous research by the sociologist Annette Lareau, who observed conversations in homes between parents and kids during the 1990s. Lareau found that in poor and working-class households, children were urged to stay quiet and show deference to law essay, adult authority figures such as teachers. In middle-class households, kids learned to beginners guide to writing a research, ask critical questions and to learning research, advocate for themselves—behaviors that served them well in the classroom. Robinson and Harris chose not to address a few potentially powerful types of parental involvement, from hiring tutors or therapists for kids who are struggling, to opening college savings accounts. And there’s the fact that, regardless of beginners a research, socioeconomic status, some parents go to great lengths to seek out effective schools for their children, while others accept the status quo at the school around the corner.

Although Robinson and Harris didn’t look at school choice, they did find that one of the few ways parents can improve their kids’ academic performance—by as much as eight points on a reading or math test—is by getting them placed in the classroom of can you lens essay, a teacher with a good reputation. This is one example for which race did seem to beginners to writing a research paper, matter: white parents are at least twice as likely as black and Latino parents to request a specific teacher. Given that the best teachers have been shown to raise students’ lifetime earnings and to decrease the likelihood of teen pregnancy, this is wiki fellowships, no small intervention. All in all, these findings should relieve anxious parents struggling to make time to volunteer at the PTA bake sale. Beginners Guide A Research Paper. But valuing parental involvement via test scores alone misses one of the ways in which parents most impact schools. Pesky parents are often effective, especially in public schools, at securing better textbooks, new playgrounds, and all the can you critical “extras” that make an educational community come to life, like art, music, theater, and after-school clubs. This kind of parental engagement may not directly affect test scores, but it can make school a more positive place for all kids, regardless of what their parents do or don’t do at home. Getting involved in your children’s schools is not just a way to give them a leg up—it could also be good citizenship. Mass Shootings in the United States: 'This Is Who We Are' In the beginners to writing paper wake of Las Vegas, only one thing is certain, according to James Fallows: it will happen again. When Working From Home Doesn’t Work.

IBM pioneered telecommuting. Can You In A Critical Essay. Now it wants people back in the office. I n 1979, IBM was putting its stamp on beginners guide to writing the American landscape. For 20 years, it had been hiring the greats of modernism to critical essay, erect buildings where scientists and salespeople could work shoulder-to-shoulder commanding the burgeoning computer industry. But that year, one of its new facilities—the Santa Teresa Laboratory, in Silicon Valley—tried an experiment. To ease a logjam at the office mainframe, it installed boxy, green-screened terminals in the homes of five employees, allowing them to work from home. The idea of telecommuting was still a novelty. But this little solution seemed effective. By 1983, about 2,000 IBMers were working remotely. The corporation eventually realized that it could save millions by selling its signature buildings and institutionalizing distance work; the number of remote workers ballooned.

In 2009, an beginners to writing a research paper IBM report boasted that “40 percent of in macbeth essay, IBM’s some 386,000 employees in 173 countries have no office at all.” More than 58 million square feet of office space had been unloaded, at a gain of nearly $2 billion. Beginners To Writing A Research Paper. IBM, moreover, wanted to help other corporations reap the same officeless efficiencies through its consulting services. Essay. Leading by beginners example was good marketing. Tim Piazza fought for his life for order in macbeth, 12 hours before his Beta Theta Pi brothers called 911. By then, it was too late. At about 3 p.m. on guide to writing a research Friday, February 3, Tim Piazza, a sophomore at Penn State University, arrived at immigration law essay, Hershey Medical Center by helicopter. Eighteen hours earlier, he had been in the kind of raging good health that only teenagers enjoy. He was a handsome, redheaded kid with a shy smile, a hometown girlfriend, and a family who loved him very much.

Now he had a lacerated spleen, an abdomen full of blood, and multiple traumatic brain injuries. He had fallen down a flight of stairs during a hazing event at to writing a research, his fraternity, Beta Theta Pi, but the members had waited nearly 12 hours before calling 911, relenting only when their pledge “looked fucking dead.” Tim underwent surgery shortly after arriving at Hershey, but it was too late. He died early the next morning. A small group of programmers wants to change how we code—before catastrophe strikes. T here were six hours during the paper night of paper, April 10, 2014, when the entire population of Washington State had no 911 service. Wiki Dissertation Fellowships. People who called for beginners guide to writing, help got a busy signal.

One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to break into her house. When he finally crawled into her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. The man fled. The 911 outage, at immigration, the time the largest ever reported, was traced to software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Operated by a systems provider named Intrado, the server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to 911 dispatchers around the country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for how high the counter could go. They picked a number in beginners paper the millions.

Writing Advice From a (Newly Minted) Nobel Winner. Kazuo Ishiguro wrote the bulk of The Remains of the Day in four weeks. All it took was extreme dedication—and a willingness to be terrible. It’s tempting to talk of writing—the art of use quotes in a essay, it, the craft of beginners guide paper, it, the lifestyle of it—as a kind of dissertation, romance. Writers of serious literature (according to, at least, many writers of serious literature) do not simply type stark words onto blank pages; instead, they stare into an abyss and a research paper reach into their souls and find, if they are fortunate, the swirling fires of Prometheus. Cooperative Learning Research Paper. “We write to taste life twice, in the moment and in retrospect,” Anais Nin said, which is beautiful and true and also objectively incorrect: Writing is delicious work, but it is for the most part simply work. It’s often lonely. It’s rarely romantic. (I am not a writer of beginners a research, serious literature, but I am a writer, and I am writing this while sipping stale coffee from a mug that’s in bad need of a wash.) Writing is a craft in learning paper the way that carpentry is a craft: There’s art to it, sure, and a certain inspiration required of it, definitely, but for the most part you’re just sawing and sanding and getting dust in your eyes. Photographing the Microscopic: Winners of Nikon Small World 2017. Nikon just announced the winners of the 2017 Small World Photomicrography Competition, and they’ve shared some of the winning and beginners a research honored images with us here.

Nikon just announced the winners of the 2017 Small World Photomicrography Competition, and they’ve shared some of the winning and honored images with us here. Order In Macbeth Essay. The contest invites photographers and scientists to submit images of to writing, all things visible under a microscope. More than 2,000 entries were received from 88 countries in 2017, the 43rd year of the competition. Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? More comfortable online than out partying, post-Millennials are safer, physically, than adolescents have ever been. But they’re on the brink of a mental-health crisis. O ne day last summer, around noon, I called Athena, a 13-year-old who lives in that doesn't an essay Houston, Texas.

She answered her phone—she’s had an guide paper iPhone since she was 11—sounding as if she’d just woken up. We chatted about her favorite songs and foreign in language teaching TV shows, and I asked her what she likes to guide to writing a research, do with her friends. Wiki. “We go to the mall,” she said. “Do your parents drop you off?,” I asked, recalling my own middle-school days, in the 1980s, when I’d enjoy a few parent-free hours shopping with my friends. “No—I go with my family,” she replied. “We’ll go with my mom and beginners guide to writing a research paper brothers and that an essay walk a little behind them. I just have to tell my mom where we’re going. I have to check in every hour or every 30 minutes.” Those mall trips are infrequent—about once a month. More often, Athena and her friends spend time together on their phones, unchaperoned. Unlike the teens of my generation, who might have spent an evening tying up the family landline with gossip, they talk on Snapchat, the smartphone app that allows users to send pictures and videos that quickly disappear. Beginners Guide A Research Paper. They make sure to keep up their Snapstreaks, which show how many days in scholarships doesn't an essay a row they have Snapchatted with each other. Sometimes they save screenshots of particularly ridiculous pictures of guide a research paper, friends. “It’s good blackmail,” Athena said. Order In Macbeth. (Because she’s a minor, I’m not using her real name.) She told me she’d spent most of the summer hanging out alone in guide paper her room with her phone.

That’s just the way her generation is, she said. “We didn’t have a choice to know any life without iPads or iPhones. Order. I think we like our phones more than we like actual people.” The president’s call for beginners to writing, a Senate investigation into news outlets for publishing unflattering stories about him is an attack on freedom of the press. Frustrated with a set of damning reports about his relationship with Secretary of State Rex Tillerson—including the nugget that Tillerson called him a “moron” (perhaps with an R-rated modifier)—the president offered a new suggestion on vs. disorder in macbeth Twitter Thursday morning: Why not explore government censorship of the press? Why Isn't the Senate Intel Committee looking into the Fake News Networks in beginners to writing a research OUR country to see why so much of vs. disorder, our news is just made up-FAKE! Trump had been relatively quiet on Twitter for a few days, following the beginners to writing a research massacre in wiki fellowships Las Vegas and his trip to hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico, but the Tillerson stories on Wednesday set off a new tirade of to writing, tweets against the press. Most of in a lens essay, them are the standard “Fake news!” variety—never mind that there have been stories of beginners to writing a research, Trump-Tillerson tension for months, and order in macbeth essay that multiple outlets have confirmed the “moron” anecdote—but the president is calling for something different here. Guide To Writing A Research. He is suggesting that the Senate bring its investigative powers to bear on news reports that are, from in a, all indications save Tillerson’s non-denial denial, entirely accurate.

What Harvey Weinstein's Apology Reveals. On Thursday, The New York Times published an beginners guide to writing a research paper article reporting “decades of sexual harassment accusations” against the mogul. Weinstein responded—with a statement that perfectly captures this chaotic moment in American culture. The apologies, taken together, read like poetry—or, perhaps, an order vs. disorder in macbeth essay excruciatingly bad game of Mad Libs. Guide. This was a wake-up call. Cooperative Learning. I’m so sorry. It’s not okay. I have more work to do. I’ll do better.

Please help me do better. Guide Paper. I’m sorry. I’m very sorry. I’m so very sorry. Teaching. I really do respect women. The latest person to add his own verses to this collective document of the way we live now—the latest man to apologize for sexual misconduct revealed and regretted—is Harvey Weinstein. Hollywood’s extremely powerful king (and queen)maker, The New York Times reported on Thursday, has been repeatedly accused of beginners a research, sexual harassment and unwanted physical contact by women who have worked with him at both Miramax and the Weinstein Company. “An investigation by The New York Times ,” Jodi Kantor and Megan Twohey write, “found previously undisclosed allegations against Mr.

Weinstein stretching over nearly three decades, documented through interviews with current and require an essay former employees and film industry workers, as well as legal records, emails, and internal documents from the businesses he has run.” The foundation of Donald Trump’s presidency is the negation of Barack Obama’s legacy. It is insufficient to paper, state the obvious of Donald Trump: that he is scholarships that require an essay, a white man who would not be president were it not for this fact. With one immediate exception, Trump’s predecessors made their way to high office through the passive power of beginners guide to writing a research paper, whiteness—that bloody heirloom which cannot ensure mastery of all events but can conjure a tailwind for most of them. Land theft and human plunder cleared the grounds for Trump’s forefathers and barred others from it. Once upon the field, these men became soldiers, statesmen, and as english teaching thesis scholars; held court in Paris; presided at Princeton; advanced into the Wilderness and then into the White House. Their individual triumphs made this exclusive party seem above America’s founding sins, and it was forgotten that the former was in fact bound to the latter, that all their victories had transpired on beginners guide to writing paper cleared grounds. No such elegant detachment can be attributed to Donald Trump—a president who, more than any other, has made the awful inheritance explicit.

A newly unearthed hominid revives some difficult questions for Christians. Earlier this month, scientists working in South Africa made an exciting announcement: They had discovered a new species of in language, human ancestor. The species, which they named Homo naledi, may be among the first of the paper genus Homo, what the foreign in language thesis project’s lead scientist, paleoanthropologist Lee Berger, described as a “bridge” between more primitive species and humans. National Geographic called it “one of the greatest fossil discoveries of the past half century.” One of the most exciting aspects of the naledi discovery was that the skeletons appear to have been deposited in a burial chamber, suggesting the species engaged in rituals and even symbolic thought. Paper. That raises a whole host of scientific and anthropological questions: When did Homo naledi live, for example, and why did it die out?

What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of cooperative learning, Beef? What can an beginners a research paper individual do about climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch. Depression, anxiety, overeating, addiction, and all other mental disorders share a common mechanism. Research shows that using curse words can persuade everyone from voters to your co-workers.

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